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L^'F MFO'CAl LIBRARY" 
STANFORD UNiVFRSITY 
MEOJCAL CENTER 
STANFORD, CALiF. 94305 



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THE 



ANATOMY OF MELANCHOLY, 

WHAT IT 18, 



ALL THE KINDS, CAUSES, 8YMFTOM8, PROGNOSTICS, AND SEVERAL CURES OF IT. 

IN THEEE PARTITIONS. 



WITH THUS SRTIEAL 



SECTIONS, MEMBERS, AND SUBSECTIONS, PHILOSOPHICALLY, MEDICALLY, 
HISTORICALLY OPENED AND CUT DP. 



BY DEMOCRITUS JUNIOR. 



A SATIRICAL PREFACE, CONDUCING TO THE FOLLOWING DISCOURSE, 



SCflfiti) (Eoilion. 

CORRECTED, AMD ENRICHED BY TRANSLATION* OP THE NUMEROUS CLASSICAL EXTRACTS. 

BY DEMOCRITUS MINOR. 

TO WHICH 18 PREFIXED AN ACCOUNT OF THE AUTHOR. 



Obm Mil i— * i y T" nMt ■Ul> ddot 

H» lint Jain* natractioa with dclifbt. 
Pig* wttk plcanre, antm all th* to6ml 



PHILADELPHIA: 

J. W. MOORE, 195 CHESTNUT STREET 

1307. 



Printed \j T. K It P. G CoUin* 



M' 



BONOSATlSSDfO DOMINO, 

mOH HINTS TIRTUTE SUA, QDAX GENERIS SPLENDOR*, 

ILLVSTRISSIMO, 

6E0R6I0 BERKLEIO, 

MQJrn DE BALNEO, BAKONI DE BERKLEY, M00BKE7, SBOEATK, 

D. DE BRDSE, 

DOIONO SXTO MULTIS NOMIN1BU5 OBSERVANDO, 

HANC SHAM 

MEI ANCHOLI.E ANATOMEN, 

JAM SEXTO RETISAH, D.D. 

DEMOCRITUS JUNIOR. 



5392Q 



ADVERTISEMENT 

TO THE LAST LONDON EDITION. 



The work now restored to public notice has had an extraordinary fate. At 
time of its original publication it obtained a great celebrity, which continued more 
than half a century. During that period few books were more read, or more de- 
servedly applauded. It was ih* delight of the learned, the solace of the indolent, 
and the refuge of the uninformed. It passed through at least eight editions, by which 
the bookseller, as Wood records, got an estate ; and, notwithstanding the objection 
sometimes opposed against it, of a quaint style, and too great an accumidalion of 
authorities, the fascination of its wit, fancy, and sterling sense, have borne down all 
censures, and extorted praise from the first writers in the English language. The 
grave Johjvson has praised it in the wannest terms, and the ludicrous Sterne has 
interwoven many parts of it into his own popular performance. Milton did not dis- 
dain to build two of his finest poems on it; and a host of inferior writers have em 
bellished their works with beauties not their own, culled from a performance which 
they had not the justice even to mention. Change of times, ana the frivolity of 
fashion, suspended, in some degree, that fame which had lasted near a century; and 
the succeeding generation affected indiflerence towards an author, who at length was 
only looked into by the plunderers of literature, the poachers in obscure volume*. 
The plagiarism? of Tristram Shandy, so successfully brought to light by Dr. Eer- 
rur, at length drew the attention of the public towards a writer, who, though then 
little known, might, without impeachment of modesty, lay claim to every mark of 
respect; and inquiry proved, beyond a doubt, that the rails of justice had been little 
attended to by others, as well as the facetious Yorick. Wood observed, more than 
a century ago, that several authors had unmercifully stolen matter from Bartow 
without any acknowledgment. The lime, however, at length arrived, when the 
merits of the Anatomy of Melancholy were to receive their due praise. The book 
was again sought for and read, and again it became an applauded performance. Its 
excellencies once more stood confessed, in the increased price which every copy 
offered for sale produced ; and the increased demand pointed out the necessity of a 
new edition. This is now presented to the public in a manner not disirraeeful to 
the memory of the author; and the publisher relies with confidence, that so valuable 
a repository of amusement and information will continue to hold the rank to which 
it has been restored, firmly supported by its own merit, and safe from the influence 
and blight of any future caprices of fashion. To open its valuable mysteries to 
those who have not had the advantage of a classical education, translations of the 
countless quotations from ancient writers which occur in the work, are now for the 
first time given, and obsolete orthography is in all instances modernized. 



(O 



ACCOUNT OF THE AUTHOR. 



Roitrt Bvkton was the son of Ralph Burton, of an ancient and genteel 

fastDy at Lindley, in Leicestershire, and was born there on the 8th of February 

15T6-* He received the first rudiments of learning at the free school of Sutton 

Celdfidd, in Warwickshire,* from whence he was, at the age of seventeen, in the 

bag vacation, 1593, sent to Brazen Nose College, in the condition of a com- 

wooer, where he made considerable progress in logic and philosophy. In 1599 

he was elected student of Christ Church, and, for form's sake, was put under the 

tultjon or Dr. John Bancroft, afterwards Bishop of Oxford. In 1614 he was 

a dastfted to the reading of the Sentences, and on the 29th of November, Hi Hi, 

had the vicarage of St. Thomas, in the west suburb of Oxford, conferred on him 

ay the dean and canons of Christ Church, which, with the rectory of Segrave, in 

LnccBtershire, given to him in the year lflTJfi, by George, Lord Berkeley, he kept, 

*>am the words of the Oxford antiquary, with much ado to his dying day. He 

■*>■» to bare been first beneficed at Walsby, in Lincolnshire, through the raunv- 

fteeaee of his noble patroness, Frances, Countess Dowager of Exeter, but resigned 

the tame, as he tells us, for some special reasons. At Ins vicarage he is remarked 

Vi hire always given the sacrament in wafers. Wood's character of him is, that 

"ie was an exact mathematician, a curious calculator of nativities, a general read 

■holer, a thorough-paced philologist, and one that understood the surveying of 

baa* well. As he was by many accounted a severe student, a devourer of authors, 

l ■daneboJy and humorous person; so by others, who knew him well, a person 

■" freat booeaty, plain dealing and charity. I have heard some of the ancients of 

(Vat Church often say, that his company was very merry, facete, and juvenile; 



' waa Wil1i«ro Burton, the Ixiceaterahir* antiquary, born 34th Auiuat. 1*75. cdnealed at 

alltwt wmwih, nr grntleman commoner, of Rrar.rn Norn College, I.VH ; M tli- Intii-r 

Sab Hay, ISO, B A. KM J«nr. 1594; an<l afterward! • barmter and reporter in lite Court of Common 

- Bui tin aatural gwniut,- a»ya Wood. " leading him tn ths almliea of heraldry. gntieaJogtr*. and noli- 

ta> laaaa* nealWnt in thorn oImhi" and intricate matton; and look upon him at a gentleman, mi 

. V? ail thai anew him. to ha the beat of hh» lime for ihnac Uiidie*. ai may appear by hia ' llr-acriptioo 

Hn waaJt constitution not permitting turn lo follow buaineaa, he retired into the r..,intry, 

■ The Deaeriniion of Leice*tenhir»," waa published io <h|io, IftM- lie died at Falde. 

in Urn civil war, 6th April, 16U, and waa buried in ilia pariah church bolon^mz, trretcto, 

f» *m—»i Wb wilt Mf. ffuneatom; but a naaaage in ttna i»OTk [awe 1M.3M,\ neuUMti 
awaa Q, -i,* t-vi^tij b* msjr bsre beta at both er/wcia. 

a2 




▼i . Account of the Author. 

and no man in his time did surpass bim for his ready and dexterous interlarding 
his common discourses among them with verses from the poets, or sentences from 
classic authors; which being then all the fashion in the University, made bis 
company the more acceptable." He appears to have been a universal reader of 
all kinds of books, and availed himself of his multifarious studies in a very extra- 
ordinary manner. From the information of Hearne, we learn that John Rouse, 
the Bodleian librarian, furnished him with choice books for the prosecution of his 
work. The subject of his labour and amusement, seems to have been adopted 
from the infirmities of his own habit afsi constitution. Mr. Granger says, " He 
composed this book with a view of relieving his own melancholy, but increased it 
to such a degree, that nothing could make him laugh, but going to the bridge-foot 
and hearing the ribaldry of the bargemen, which rarely failed to throw him into a 
violent fit of laughter. Before he was overcome with this horrid disorder, he, in 
the intervals of his vapours, was esteemed one of the most facetious companions in 
the University." , 

His residence was chiefly at Oxford ; where, in his chamber in Christ Church 
College, he departed this life, at or very near the time which he had some years 
before foretold, from the calculation of his own nativity, and which, says Wood, 
" being exact, several of the students did not forbear to whisper among themselves, 
that rather than there should be a mistake in the calculation, he sent up his soul 
to heaven through a slip about his neck." Whether this suggestion is founded in 
truth, we have no other evidence than an obscure hint in the epitaph hereafter 
inserted, which was written by the author himself, a short time before his death. 
His body, with due solemnity, was buried near that of Dr. Robert Weston, in the 
north aisle which joins next to the choir of the cathedral of Christ Church, on the 
27th of January 1639-40. Over his grave was soon after erected a comely monu- 
ment, on the upper pillar of the said aisle, with his bust, painted to the life. On 
the right hand is the following calculation of his nativity : 




Account of lite Author. 
the boat, this inscription of his own composition : — 

Paucit notus, paucioribus ignotua, 

flic jacet Dtmoeritxu junior 

Cui vitam dedit et mortem 
Melancholia 
Ob. 8 Id. Jan. A. C. sucmn. 

-Azure on a bend O. between three dogs' heads O. a crescent G. 
A few months before his death, he made his will, of which the following is a 



tCTU> rmoat th« Rxqistrt or ths Prkkobatitx Coubt or CijrrxBBuar. 

Dei Amen. August 15th One thousand six hundred thirty nine because there bo so 

to which our life is subject besides quarrelling and contention which happen to 

•iter our Death by reason of unsettled Estates I Robert Durton Student of Chri- 

Ottm. though my means be but small have thought good by this my last Will and Test 

aaau Is daspoas of that liltle which I have and being at this present I thank God in perfect heal 

of 5oda> and Mind and if thia Testament be not so formal according to the nice and strict ter 

•f !.«w ami other Circumstances peradventure required of which I am ignorant I desire howsoever 

at* ny Will may be accepted and stand good according to my true Intent and meaning First I 

Animam Deo Corpus Terra whensoever it shall please God to call mo I give ray Land 

which my good Father Ralphe Burton of Lindly in the County of Leicester Esquire 

by Deed of Gift and that which I have annexed to that Farm by purchase since, now 

ha a;d far thirty eight poand* per Ann. to mine Elder Brother William Burton of Lindly Esquire 

tenag his life and alter him to his Heirs I make my said Brother William likewise mine Executor 

as wall aa paying such Annuities and Legacies oat of my Lands and Goods as are hereafter 

saaasaed I give to my nephew Caasibilan Burton twenty pounds Annuity per Ann. out of my 

.:hsra daring his life to be paid at two equall payments at our Lady Day in Lent and 

Marawsltnata or if he be not paid within fourteen Days after the said Feasts to distrain on any part 

at the Ground or on any of my Lands of Inheritance Item I give to my Sister Katberine Jackson 

sunns brr life eight pounds per Ann. Annuity to be paid at the two Feasts equally aa above said 

or dba to distrain on the Ground if abe be not paid after fourteen days at Lindly as the other tome 

boat of the said Land Item I give to my Servant John Upton the Annuity of Forty Shillings out 

d my said Farms during his life (if till then my Servant) to be paid on Michaelmas day in Lind- 

aw each year or abe after fourteen daya to distrain Now for my goods I thus dispose them Vital 1 

P t» m (Jin pounds to Christ Church in Oxford where I have so long lived to buy five pounds 

Lead* per Ann. to be Yearly bestowed on Books for the Library Item I give an hundredth pound 

to taa University Library of Oxford to be bestowed to purchase five pound Land per Ann. to l>o 

eatd oat Yearly on Books as Mrs. Brooks formerly gave an hundred pounds to buy Land to the 

bhh purpose and the Rent to the same use I give to my Brother George Burton twenty pounds 

sad ary watch I give to my Brother Ralph Burton five pounds Item I give to the Parish of 8ea. 

ftavt in Leicestershire where I am now Rector ten pounds to be given to a certain Feoffees to lbs 

1 good of the said Parish Oxon* Item I give to my Niece Eugenia Burton One hundredth 

Item I give to my Nephew Richard Burton now Prisoner in London an hundredth pound 

him Item I give to the Poor of Higham Forty Shillings where my Land is to the poor 

at Hsailuu whan) I was once a Grammar Scholar three pound to my Cousin Purfey of Wadlake 

fWadkyj my Cousin Purfey of Calcott my Cousin Hales of Coventry my Nephew Bradsliaw of 

Oram twrnty shillings a piece for a small remembrance to Mr. Whitehall Rector of Cherkby myn 

ssnj Chamber Fellow twenty shillinjje I desire my Brother George and my Cosen Purt'ey of Cs 

•an lo be the Overseers of thia part of my Will I give moreover five pounds to make a small 

Bnwant i her where she is buried in London to tny Brother Jackson forty shilling- 1 to 

ay Servant John Upton forty shillings besides his former Annuity if he be my Servant till I die 

* b. be all then my Sarvanrf— ROBERT BURTON— Charles Russell Witness— John Pepper 




• So la tJte Xe/tritr. 



JBoin lbeR«n»lcT. 



zcount of (he Author. 

An Appendix .a this ray Will if I die in Oxford or whilst I am of Christ Chu eb srW 
wiik good Mr. Faynes August ibe Fifteenth 1639. 

I give to Mr. Doctor Fell Dean of Christ Church Forty Shillings to the Eight Canon twenty 
Shilling a piece as a small remembrance to the poor of St. Thomas Parish Twenty Sbilings la 
Brasenose Library five pounds to Mr. Hawse of Oriell Colledpe twenty Shillings to Mr. Hey wood 
xx*. to Dr. Metcalfe xx*. to Mr. Sberley xxs. If I have any Books the University Library bath 
not, let them take them If I have any Dooks our own Library bath not, let them take them I give 
to Mrs. Fell all my English Books of Husbandry one excepted to 

her Daughter Mrs. Kalherine Fell my Six Pieces of Silver Plate and six Silver spoons to Mrs. Ilea 
my Gerards Herball To Mrs. Morris my Country Farme Translated out of French 4. and all my 
English Pbysick Books to Mr. Whistler tho Recorder of Oxford I give twenty shillings to oil my 
fellow Students Mrs of Arts a Book in fol. or two a piece aa Master Morris Treasurer or Mr. Dean 
shall appoint whom I request to be the Overseer of this Appendix and give him for his pains Atlas 
Geografer and Ortelius Theatrum Mond' I give to John Fell the Dean's Son Student my Mathe- 
matical Instruments except my two Crosse Staves which I give to my Lord of Dunnol if he be 
then of the House To Thomas Ilea Doctor lies his Son Student Suluntch on Paurrhelia and 
Lucian's Works in 4 Tomea If any bonks be left let my Executors dispose of them with all such 
Books as are written with my own hands and half my Melancholy Copy for Crips hath the other 
half To Mr. Jones Chaplin and Chanter rnv Surveying Books and Instruments To the Servants 
of the House Forty Shillings ROB. BURTON— Charles Russell Witness— John Pepper Witness 
—This Will was shewed to me by the Testator and acknowledged by him some few days before 
his death to be his last Will Ita Tcstor John Morria S Th D. Prebendari' Eccl Cb'ri' Oxon 
Feb. 3, 1639. 

Probatum fiiit Tealamentum suprascriplnm, Ac 11° 1640 Jura men to Willmi Burton Fris' 
et Executoris cui cfcc de bene et fideliter adminislrand. &c. coram Mag'ria .Nathsnaele 
Stephens Rectore Eccl. de Drayton, et Edwardo Farmer, Clericis, vigors corumis- 
aionis, dec. 

Tlic only work our author executed was that now reprinted, which probably 
was the principal employment of his life. Dr, Ferriar Bays, it was originally 
published in the year 1617 ; but this is evidently a mistake;* the first edition was 
that printed in 4to, 1021, a copy of which is at present in the collection of Join 
Nichols, Esq., the indefatigable illustrator of the History of Lticesttrshire ; to 
whom, and to Isaac Reed, Esq., of Staple Inn, this account is greatly indebted 
for its accuracy. The other impressions of it were in 1024, 1028, 1633, 1638, 
1851-9, 1060, and L676, which last, in the titlepage, is called the eighth edition. 

Tlie copy from which the present is re-printed, is that of 1651-2: at the con- 
clusion of which is the following address: 

"TO THE READER, 

m BE pleased to know (Courteous Reader) that aince the last Impression of this Book, the 
ingenuous Author of it is deceased, leaving a Copy or it exactly corrected, with several consider- 
able Additions by his own band ; this Copy he committed to my care and custody, with directions 
to have those Additions inserted in the next Edition ; which in order to hia command, and the 
Publicke Good, ia faithfully performed in this last Impression." 

H. C. (i. t. HEN. CRIP PS.) 



* Originating, perhaps, in a note, p. 448, 6ib edit (p. 455 at Ibe present), in which a hook is quoted at having 
been " printed at Paris 1094. Mm years after Burton's first editmn." As, however, the editions after thai of 
1021, are regularly marked in succession to the eighth, printed in lC7f>, there seems very little reason lo douhi 
that, in the note above alluded to, cither IGS4 has been a mjpprinl fin US*, or jev«ii years far thru years. The 
aurnerous typographical errata in other parts of toe work strougly aid this latter supposition. 






Account of the Author. ix 

IV fallowing testimonies of various authors will serre to show the estimation 
• which this work has been held : — 

•Taw Avatoxy or Miuicuu, wherein the author hath piled up variety of much exceller 
■raaf- K-»rr» any book of philology in our land hath, in ao abort a time, paaaed ao many 
■ iaiaai-— Putter'* Worthies, lol. 10. 

■ Tie a hnok ao full of variety of reading, that gentlemen who have loat their time, and are put 
t» a ysjah tor mention, naay furniab themselves with matter for common or acholaatical diacourae 
seat •nuvf-"— Ur'aoafa Alkmm OxonUnsis, vet i. p. G28. 3d eJiL 

• at yen oarrer nw Beamy tiros Mscsncholt, printed 167fi, I pray look into it, and read 
tat surah p«g« of hia Preface, > Democritua to the Reader.' 'i'here ia aomething there which 
asachae tft* point we are upon j but I mention the author to you, aa the plcnsantest, the moat 
aaawed, eriJ the nyal full of sterling sense. The wita of Queen Anne'a reign, and the beginning 
af tsaarav tbs Pint, were not a little beholden to him." — Archbishop Herring's Ltttert, l'imo. 
iTTt.av. lit. 



w»t«>mt nr Mxr.txciiotT, he (Dr. Johnson) aaid, W8B the only book that ever 
teak Mm out of bed two boura eooner than he wished to rise.' — Boswelfs Life of Johnson, vol, i. 

; 1*0. Hiu. t.lit. 

•BcwTon's Axatont or Mklavcbolt is a valuable book," said Dr. Johnson. " It ia, 
aaaa, svwInaaUd with quotation- But there ia great spirit and great power in what Burton says 
•ken ha writea from hie own mind." — Ibid, vol. ii. p. 3-5. 

•It will be no detraction from the powers of Milton's original genius and invention, to remark, 
(hat h* seems to have borrowed the subject of L'AUrgro and // I'rnserosn, together with some 
thought*, expressions, and rhymes, more especially the idea of a contrast between these 
from a forgotten poem prefixed to the first edition of Bi-rtos's Asato^t or 
itled, 'The Author's Abstract of Melancholy ; or, A Dialogue between Pleasure 
and Pain.' Hare pain is melancholy. It was written, as I conjecture, about the year 161)0. I 
vol make no apology for abstracting and citing as much of this poem aa will be sufficient to 
ar o se , la a discerning reader, how far it had taken possession of Milton'a mind. The measure 
»rJ. appear to be the same ; and that our author was at least an attentive reader of Burton's book, 
any be already concluded from the traces of resemblance which I have incidentally rjotioad hi 
passant through the L'AUrgro and // Fensrroso." — After extracting the lines, Mr. War ton adds, 
• as u» taw very elaborate work to which these visionary verses are no unsuitable introduction, the 
variety of learning, hia quotations from scarce and curious books, his pedantry sparkling 
wit and shapeless elegance, miscellaneous matter, intermixture of agreeable tales and 
its, and. perhaps, above all, the singularities of hia feelings, clothed in an uncommon 
i of style, have contributed to render it, even to modern readers, a valuable repository of 
formation." — H'ariW* Milton, 2d edit. p. 94. 




ran or M*i-A*rnoLT is a book which has been universally read ard admired. 
<r the navWt part, what the author himself styles it, 'a cento;' but it is a very 
Hia quotations, which abound in every page, are pertinent ; but if ha had made 
u-» of hi- ;/!>■:. Hon and less of Ins commonplace-book, hi* work would perhaps have been 
valuable than it is. He is generally free from the affected language and ridiculous metaphors 
of the books of hia lime." — Grangers Biographical History. 



i vvcholt, a book once the favourite of the learned and the 
•in* a source of surreptitious teaming, though written on a regular plan, consists chiefly 
tl ijumnihi the author has honestly termed it a cento. He collects, under every divu : »n, the 
tannon* of a multiiuds of writers, without regard lo chronological order, and baa too often the 
sjsaaawy to decline the interposition of his own sentiments. Indeed the bulk of his materials 
aasjtrally overwhelms him- In the course of bis folio be has contrived to treat a great variety 
al seem m; loosely connected with the general subject ; and, like Bayle, when he 
starts a aavm rts, he docs not scruple to let the digression outrun the principal 

ewasbon. Thus, from the doctrines nf religion to military discipline, from inland navigation W» 
aW awrality o/ dancing-schools, every thing is discussed and determined." — Ferrior < lilutlrulvou* 
•/ Mtrms, p. 58. 
1 



t* ... Account of the Author. 

< Tiw archness which Bvbtov displays occasionally, and hi* indulgent* of playful digressions 
from the most aerioas discussions, often give hia style an air of familiar conversation, notwith- 
atandinf the laboriooa collections which supply his text He was capable of writing excellent 
poetry, bat he seem* to have cultivated this talent too little. The English Tenia prefixed to hia 
book, which possess beautiful imagery, and great sweetness of versification, have been frequently 
published. His Latin elegiac verses addressed to hia book, shew a very agreeable torn for 
raillery."— Ibid, p. 58. 

« When the force of the subject opens hia own vein of prose, we discover valuable sense and 
brilliant expression. Such is hia account of the first feelings of melancholy persons, written, 
probably, from his own experience.'' [8ee p. 154, of the present edition.] — Ibid, p. 60. 

« During a pedantic age, like that in which Br/Bxoir'e production appeared, it must have been 
emmently serviceable to writers of many descriptions. Hence the unlearned might furnish them- 
selves with appropriate scrape of Greek and Latin, whilst men of letters would find their enquiries 
shortened, by knowing where they might look for what both ancients and moderns had advanced 
on the subject of human passions. I confess my inability to point out any other English author 
who haa so largely dealt in apt and original quotation." — Manuscript note of the late George 
Steeveni, Esq., in hit copy of Tai Axutoxt or Melahcholt. 



DEMOCRITUS JUNIOR AD LIBRUM SUUM. 



V ktx libur. qualis, non auaim diecrc, fcelix, 

Tc mai krlicem feceril Alma dies. 
Vaoe tunca quocunquo lubet, quascunqna per 



d Gctimm Domini fac imitere tui. 
1 alaadaa inter Cbarites, mystamque valuta 

M— mm qutmvts. si tibi kctoc crit. 
Kara enlaav arbem, subeasre palatia regum, 

Bafauae*, placid.", te sine dente genu. 
Kobilu, aui si quia 10 forte inapexerit faeros, 

Da te nvongoram, perlegat usque lubot. 
E« quod Nobilita*, est quod desideret heroa, 

•■:** bac foraan cbana placcre potest. 
ft cans route* as Cato, tetricusque Senator, 

Q«ac etiam bbrum btti ridero velit, 
St* aaaypetraius, turn to revcrenter haboto ; 

8e* sella*; muscas non capiunt Aquibxt. 
vaeat hia tempus fugitivum impendere 

i eupio ; par mihi lector ertt. 
I gravis aura diverterit ist uc, 
i domin.1, aut te Comitissa legal : 

. placcat quod foreiton illis, 
lag mtt Ins noli te modo, pando tamen. 
Ai u virgo too* digrabi; urtas 

Taog tie . sive acbedis bjtrcat ilia tuis : 
De raodo te facile m, et quondam fulia esse mc- 




Com ecuant oralis quae magi* apta suis. 
K fcwroM anctlla tuoa aut alina puella 
Virara cat hides, annuo, pande lubena. 

.am nunc ipse nieua* (nam diligit istaa) 
la nnwena eaaet conapiciendus herua. 
Igomxu ootusve mihi de gente togata 
Siva af«l in ludis. pulpita sive colct, 
:<o, at nugas evolverit i.itas, 
jaadora niendaa viderit inspieiena, 
Da vcmem Autbori, dices ; nam plurima vellet 

Eipenfi, qua; jam dispbcuisso sciot, 
5iv« Mcfcanchulicua quiaquam. Mil blandus 
An. 
Aalkut out Civia. aeu bene comptua Equea 

age et tuto tc crcde Irgenti, 
Maita istic foraan non male nata I 

tujriai, caveat, quodque omplexabintr, 
lata 

-'.»l» prorocre multa potest. 
At ai tiuia Mcdicus coram te sistct, amice 
Fac evtaamapeetc, et tc sine labe genu; 




Inveniet namque ipse meia quoqtte plutttua 
script is, 

Non leve aubaiditun qua aibi forsan erum. 
Si quia Causidicua cbortas impingat in istaa, 

N il mihi vobiscum, peasima turbu I 
Sit niai vir bonus, ct juris aine fraud* pcrtlus. 

Turn legat, et Corson docttor indt 
Si quis cordatus, facilis, leclorquo beniguus 

Hue oculoa vertat, quae vclit ipse . 
Cundidus ignoscet, inctuas ml, paudi: libi.. 

Offcnsus mendia DOa * I 
Laudnbit nonnulla. Venn si Rhetor incpttt*, 

Limata et tersa, ct qui ben cocta petit, 
Claude citua librum; nulla hie nisi ferrta . 

Offendent atomachum que minus apta suum 
At ai quia non exiuiius de plebe pot 

Annuc ; namqu 
Nossumus i numcro, nullus mi 

Grandtloquus Vates quilibct esse neqaj 
Si Criticus Lector, tumidus Censorqi 

Zoilus et Mounts, ai rabiosa cohora : 
Ringe, freme, et noli turn pandcre, turbu m»- 
ligniu 

Si occurrat sannis invidiosa auia : 
Fac fugios ; ai nulla tibi sit copia cundi, 

Contcmncs, tacitu scomni8'.> qw qbV ■ 
Frondeat, allatret, vacnas gonniiibus auras 

Impleat, haud cures ; In? pkeui 
Vcrum age si forson divertat pwiot hoap*aj 

Cuique sales, ludi, disphcearitqu> 
Objiciatque tibi aordei, lascivaque: dices, 

Lasciva est Domino et Musa jocosa tuo, 
Nee laaciva tamen, si pensile! omnc ; aed veto ; 

Sit lasciva licet pogino, vita proba est. 
Barbaras, indoctitsque rudis spectator in islam 

Si messctn intrudat, fuste fugabia cum, 
Fungum pelle procul (jubeo) nam quid milu 
fungo 1 

Convcniunt stomacbo non minus isla suo. 
Sed nee pelle tamen ; lsto omnea accipe vultu, 

Quos, quas, vel quale*, inde vel unde viroa. 
Gratus cnt fukajnqiu venit, gratissimuB buspea 

Quisquis erit, mcilis difficiluque mihi. 
Nam si culparit, quoedain culpasse juvabit, 

Culpando faciei me meliora sequi. 
Sed si laudarit, neque laudibua efl'erar ullia. 

Sit satis hisce malis oppoauiaae bonum. 
Hbbc sunt quae noatro placuit mandarc libello, 

Et quas dimiltena dicere jussit Hems. 



• lire conike dicta aye ne mil* capias, 




DEM0CR1TUS JUNIOR TO HIS BOOK 



rARArUEASTIC METRICAL TRANSLATION 







3o forth my book into the open day ; 

Happy, if made so by its garish eye. 
D'er earth's wide surface take thy vagrant way, 

To imitate thy master's genius try. 
The Graces three, the Muses nine salute. 

Should those who love them try to con thy lore. 

The country, city sock, grand thrones to boot, 

i gentlo courtesy humbly bow before. 

■ nobles gallant, soldiers frank end brave 

i hy acquaintance, hail their first advance : 

From twitch of care thy pleasant vein may save, 

May laughter cause or wisdom give perchance. 
Some surly Cato, Senator austere, 

Haply may wish to peep into thy book: 
Seem very nothing— tremble and revere : 

No forceful eagles, butterflies e'er look. 
They love not thee: of them then little seek, 

And wish for readers t riders like thyself. 
Of ludeful matron watchful catch the beck, 

Or gorgeous countess full of pride and pelf. 
They may soy "pish !" and frown, and yet read 
on: 

Cry odd, and silly, coarse, and yet amusing. 
Show lil dainly damsels seek thy page to con, 

Spread thy best stores : to them be ne'er re- 

, luir ma, master loves thee dear as life ; 
Id he were here to gaze on thy sweet look. 
Should known or unknown student, freed from 
strife 
Of logic and the schools, explore my book : 
Cry mercy critic, and thy book withhold i 

Be sonic few errors pnrdnn'd though observ'd : 
An humble author 10 implore makes bold. 
■ nee, even undescrv'd, 
Should melancholy wight or pensive lover, 

Courtier, snug cit, or carpet knight so trim 
Our blossoms cull, ho'll find himself in clover, 
* Gain sense from precept, laughter from our 

whim. 
Should learned leech with solemn air unfold 

Thy loaves, beware, be civil, and be wise: 
Thy volant* many precepts sage may hold. 

His well fraught head may find no trifling prize. 
Should crafty lawyer trespass on our ground, 
'N nvount ! disturbing tribe nway ! 
a {white crow) an honest one be found ; 
He'll belter, wiser go for what wo say. 
Should some ripe scholar, gentle and benign, 
With candour, care, and judgment thee peruse: 





Thy faultB to kind oblivion he'll consign; 

Nor to thy merit will his praise refuse. 
Thou may'st be searched for polish'd words and 
verse 

By flippant spouter, emptiest of praters : 
Tell him to seek them in some mawkish verse : 

My periods ail ore rough as nutmeg graters. 
The doggerel poet, wishing thee to read. 

Reject not j let him glean thy jests and stories. 
His brother 1, of lowly gambling breed : 

Apollo grants to few Parnassian glories. 
Menaced by critic with sour furrowed brow, 

Momua or Troilus or Scotch reviewer: 
Ruffle your heckle, grin and growl and vow: 

111-nnlurcd foes you thus will find the fewer. \ 
When foul-mouth'd senseless railers cry thee 
down, 

Reply not : fly, and show the rogues thy stern : , 
They are not worthy even of a frown: 

Good taste or breeding they can never learn ; 
Or let i hem clamour, turn a callous ear. 

As though in dread of some harsh donkey's/ 
bnty. 
If chid by cenaor, friendly though severe, 

To such explain and turn thee not away. 
Thy vein, says he perchance, is all too free ; 

Thy smutty language suits not lenmed pen : 
Reply, Good Sir, throughout, the context see ; 

Thought chastens thought ; so prithee judge 
again. 
Besides, although my master's pen may wander 

Through devious paths, by which it ought not 
stray, 
His life is pure, beyond the breath of slander: 

So pardon grant ; 'tis merely but his way. 
Some rugged ruffian makes a hideous rout — 

Brandish thy cudgel, threaten him lo baste ; 
The filthy fungus far from thee cast out ; 

Such noxious banquets never suit my taste. 
Yet, calm and cautious moderate thy ire. 

Bo ever courteous should the case allow— 
Sweet malt is ever made by gentle firo : 

Warm to thy friends, give all a civil bow. 
Even censure sometimes teaches to improve, 

Slight frosts have often cured too rank a crop. 
So, candid blame my spleen shall never move, 

For skilful gord'ners wayward branches lop. 
Go then, my book, and bear my words in mind 
Guides safe at once, and pleasant them you'll 
find. 



THE ARGUMENT OF THE FRONTISPIECE. 


Tex distinct Squares here seen apart. 


An joined in one by Cutter's art. 


i. 
Old Dttnocritua under a tree. 


n. 
Beneath them kneeling on his knee, 


Sits on a atone with book on knee ; 


A superstitious man you see : 


AV«wi him hang there many features, 


He fasts, proys, on hi* Idol ftxt. 


Of C*u, Dogs and such like creatures, 


Tormented hope and fear betwixt: 


li he makes anatomy, 


For Hull perhaps he takes more pain. 


TW Mat of black eholer to tec. 


Than thou dost Heaven itself to gain 


Omt hie head appears the sky, 


Alas poor bhuI, I pity ll 


And Saturn Lord of melancholy. 


What stars incline thee so to be T 


ii. 
To i\m Irft a landscape of Jealousy, 


VII. 

But see the madman rage downright 


Fnsaaxa itself onto thine • 


With furious looks, a ghastly sight. 


A Kingfisher, a Swan, an Hern, 
Twe fighting-cock*, yoa may discern, 


Naked in chains bound doth he lie, 


And roars amain he knows not why ! 


Two ranting Bulb each other hie. 


Observe him ; for as in a glass, 


To aaaanlt concerning vencry. 


Thine angry portraiture it was. 


Symbols are these ; I any no more, 


His picture keeps still in thy presence; 


Cuacenc the reet by that's afore. 


'Twill him and thee, there's no difference. 




VIII, IX. 


The neat of solitariness. 


Borage and Helkitor fill two scenes, 


A portrait. .1 express, 


.Sovereign plants to purge the veins 


By •taping dog, cat : Buck and Doe, 


Of melancholy, and cheer the heart. 


■ the desert go: 


Of those black fumea which make it smart ; 


Beta, Owls the shady bowers over. 


To clear the brain of misty fogs, 


•rlancholy darkness hover. 


Which dull our senses, ami .Soul clogs. 


Mark wailt U't be not aa 't should be. 


The best medicine that e'er God made 


Blase the bad Cutter, and not me. 


For this malady, if well ossay'd. 


IT. 

imn i tii' re doth stand 


z. 
Now last of all to fill a place, 


laasaerafo with folded 


Presented is the Author's face ; 


Down hangs hia 1 ind polite, 


And in that habit which he wears. 


Scene duty sure be doth indite. 


His image to the world appears. 


Hi* Imr and books about him lie, 


His mind no art con well express, 


As symptoms of his vaniiy. 


That by his writings you may guess. 


If this do not enough i 


It was not pride, nor yet vain glory, 


To paaa him, take thyself by th' nose. 


(Though others do it commonly) 




Made him do this: if you must know. 


r. 


The Prinicr would needs huve it so. 


fftraeesaWeiaraj leans on his arm, 


Then do not frown or scoff at it, 


■in much harm. 


Deride not, or deirnct a whit. 


God knows, 


For surely as thou dost by him, 


Much '-am b» hath and many woes. 


He will do the same again. 


and glasses lie, 


Then look upon't, behold and see, 


bit. 


As thou lik'fct it, 60 it likes thee. 


Tl. 


And I for it will stand in view, 


Ten aaa them portray'd in the sky. 


Thine to command, Reader, adieu. 





(xir) 




• 

THE AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT OF MELANCHOLY, Au**ft. 




Whex I go musing all alone 


Methinks I court, methinks I kin, 




Thinking of divers things fore-known. 


Methinks I now embrace my mistress. 




When I build castles in the air, 
Void of sorrow and void of fear, 
Pleasing myself with phantasms sweet, 


O blessed days, sweet content, 


In Paradise my time is spent. 




Such thoughts may still my fancy move, 




Methinks the lime runs very fleet. 


So may I ever be in love. 




All my joys to this are folly. 


All my joys to this are folly, 




Naught so sweet as melancholy. 


NanghJ to mtm4 bj paeJanehely, 




Win a I Ho waking all alone, 


When 1 recount love's many frights, 




Recounting what I have ill done, 


My sighs and tears, my waking nights, 




My thoughts on me then tyrannise, 


My jealous fits ; mine hard fate 




Fear and sorrow me surprise, 


I now repent, but 'tis too late. 




Win iher I tarry still or go, 


No torment is so bad as love, 




M< ■ thinks the time moves very slow. 


So bitter to my soul can prove. 




All my griefs to this are jolly, 


All my griefs to this are jolly. 




N might so mad as melancholy. 


Naught 60 harsh as melancholy. 




When to myself I act and smile. 


Friends and companions get you gone, 




With pleasing thoughts the time beguile, 


'Tis my desire to be alone ; 




By a brook side or wood so green, 


Ne'er well but when my thoughts and 1 




Unheard, unsought for, or unseen, 


Do domineer in privacy. 




A thousand pleasures do me bless, 


No Gem, no treasure like to this, 




And crown my soul with happiness. 


'Tis my delight, my crown, my bliss. 




AH my joys besides are folly, 


All my joys to this are folly, 




None so sweet as mctnncholy. 


Naught so sweet as melancholy. 




When I lie, sit, or walk alone, 


'Tis my sole plague to be alone, 




I sigh, I grieve, making great mone, 


I am a beast, a monster grown, 




In a dark grove, or irksome den, 


I will no light nor company, 




With discontents and Furies then, 


] find it now my misery. 




A thousand miseries at once 


The scene is turn'd, my joys are gone, 




Mine heavy heart and soul ensonco, 


Fear, discontent, and sorrows come. 




All my griefs to this are jolly, 


All my griefs to this are jolly, 




None so sour as melancholy. 


Naught so fierce as melancholy. 




l\Ii thinks I hear, methinks I see, 


I'll not change life with any king, 




1 music, wondrous melody, 


I ravisht am : can the world bring 




is, palaces, and cities fine; 


More joy, than still to laugh and smile, 




Bn now, then there ; the world is mine, 


In pleasant toys time to beguile f 




Rare beauties, gallant ladies shine, 


Do not, do not trouble me, 




Whatc'cr is lovely or divine. 


So sweet content I feel and see. 




All other joys to this are folly, 


All my joys to this arc folly, 




None so sweet as melancholy. 


None so divine as melancholy. 




unka I hoar, methinks 1 see 


I'll change my state with any wretch, 




Ghosts, goblins, fiends ; my phantasy 


Thou const from gaol or dunghill fetch* 




Presents a thousand ugly shapes, 


My pain's past cure, another hell, 




Headless bears, black men, unci apes, 


I may not in this torment dwell! 




Doleful outcries, and fearful sights, 


Now desperate I hate my life, 




My p.id and dismal soul affrights. 


Lend me a htilter or a knife ; 




my griefs to ihis are jolty, 


All my griefs to this ore jolly. 




None so damn'd as melancholy. 


Naught so damn'd as melancholy. 





p LVl'LE reader, I presume thou wilt he very inquisitive to know what antic or 
VX personate actor this is, that so insolently intrudes upon ilu- common th*BtVt« to 
dtc world's view, arrogating another man's name; whence he is, why 1 1 « - doth it, and 
what he hath to say; although, as 'he said, Primum si noluro, rum responded 
tomcttirus eitf I am a free man born, and m;iy eboOM whether I will tell; who can 
compel mr? If I be urged, 1 will as readily reply as that Egyptian in "Tin 
• rcnoui fellow w. a know what be had in his basket, Quum wl&tt lit ilufflW, 

end iaquiris in rem absconditamf It was therefore covered, because he should not 
know what was in it. Seek not after that which is hid; if the contents please thee, 

the Man in the Moon, or whom thou wilt 10 I 
mid not willingly be known. Yet in some sort to give thee satisfac- 
more than 1 need, I will show a reason, both of this usurped i 
ct. And first of the name of Democritus ; lest any man, by reason of 
e deceived, expecting a pasquil, a satire, some ridiculous treatise (as I 
ould have done), some prodigious tenet, or paradox of the earth's motion, 
vacuo, tr. forluita alomorum collisione, in an > 
W*#1e,fO caused by an accidental collision of motes in the sun. all which Dcinorntws 
and their master Lucippus of old maintained, and are lately n 
. Brunus, and some others. Besides, it hath been always an ordinary 
€%nam. as 'Oellhu observes, u for later writers and impostors, to broach many absurd 
and insolent fictions, under the name of so noble a philosopher as Democritus, to 
frt themselves credit, and by that means the more to be respected," as artificers 
asuallv do, .Yevo qui mnrmori ascribunt Praxatikm sue. 'IV EMM so with me. 

'. Cortonaa, flarpyaique No Centaur* here, or 0OTMM I ' ■• • K |a find, 

• .mln^ui |ujlna nostra tapit. My subject la of man and Num. in kind. 

Thoti thyself art the subject of my discourse. 

*<fr*rqal4a(ijr>t am, ilmnr, in, voluptng, I Whale's? men da, vows, feari. In Ire, in ap 

6«b4«a, JixurxK. ii'itf i.ifriiio libelli. | Joya, wandnngi, are the turn of idj • 

iae to use his name, than Mercurius Gallobelgicus, Mercu- 
is, use the name of Mercury, 'Democritus Christian us, &c; although 
r winch 1 have masked myself under this vizard, 
tad some peculiar respect which I cannot so well express, until I have set down a 
OOtf character of this our Democritus, what he was, with an Epitome of h - 

Democritus, as he is described by * Hippocrates and *Laertius, was a little wearish 
•U Mi, very n from company in his latter days," and 

auirh g.v.-n to solitaruMM, ■ ratnovi philosopher in his age, "coavus with 

it die lasUand to a private life: wrote many excellent 
work- ording to the divinity of those times, an expert pliys 

mathematician, as •Diacosraus and the rest of his works 
•la*t-i\—i. Bewaf niocl d with the studies of husbandry, saith "Columella, 

tad « " and oihera treadnc of that aubject He 

:>ts, plants, fish. 

- of then). In a word, he wjw nffthifaridm 
••rtu, a general scholar, a gn t; and to the intent he might better conn m- 



■ 



1 1 ' i ..-.in id!;. 
tolliarlui, -ill, 

m. ,J Dlai ' >< Afc 

. #n u Col. lib. 1 c \. v v i,v»«\ \tt». 

n»lm, 'ictvum vote* «A \\t>\;w»% 

•Vaavc «<itt Coioalm, IC.6. « j lcll Alucril. 



IG 



Di m"critus to the Reader. 



: 



n a 

D 

It 1 

LI1V 

uspi- 

Lfe, 

clam 
been 



plate, !6 I find it related by some, that be put out his eyes, and was in his dm agi 
voluntarily blind, yet saw more than all Greece besides, and " writ of every subject, 
Nihil in tola opifirin nattircr* de quo non scripsitJ* A man of an excellent wit, pro- 
found conceit; and to attain knowledge the better in his younger years, he travelled 
to Egypt and ^'Athens, to coaler with learned men, ""^ admired of some, despised of 
others." After a wandering life, he settled at Abdera, a town in Thrace, and was 
sent for thither to be their law-maker, Recorder, or town-clerk, as some will ; or as 
others, he was there bred and bom. Howsoever it was, there he lived at last in a 
garden in the suburbs, wholly betaking himself to his studies and a private L 
""saving that sometimes he would walk down 10 tin haven, "and laugh heartily 
such variety of ridiculous objects, which there he saw." Such a one was DeatoCHl 
But in the mean time, how doth this concern me, or upon what n lereaoi d«i 
nsurp his habit ? 1 confess, indeed, that to compare myself unto him for aught 1 
have yet said, were both im pudency and arrogancy. I do not presume to make any 
parallel, Jlntistcif mihi millibus In nuiis, a parvtu sum, mil I us sum, ahum iwc spiro, 
nee spiro. Yet thus much 1 will say of myself, and that I hope without all suspi- 
cion of pride, or self-conceit, I have lived a silent, sedentary, solitary, private 
miki tt musts in the University, as long almost as Xenocratcs in Athens, ad senect, 
fere to learn wisdom as he did, penned up most part in my study. For I have bt 
brought up a student in the most nourishing college of Europe," august i.ssimo collegia, 
and can brag with a Jovius, almost, in en luce domicilii Vncicuni* toiius orbis cele- 
berrimi, per 37 annos multa opportunnque didici f* for thirty years I have continued 
(having the use of as good M libraries as ever he had) a scholar, and would be there- 
fore loth, either by living as a drone, to be an unprofitable or unworthy member of 
so learned and noble a society, or to write that which should be anyway dishonour- 
able to such a royal and ample foundation. Something I have done, though by my 
profession a divine, yet turbine rtij)!it.-i ingmii, as i7 he said, out of a running wit, an 
uncoiiHtant, unsettled mind, I had a great desire (not able to attain to a superficial 
skill in any) to have some smattering in all, to be aliquiv in omnibus, nullus in. sin- 
gulis* which w Plato commends, out of him ^Lipsius approves and furthers, u as fit 
to be imprinted in all curious wits, not to be a slave of one science, or dwell alto- 
gether in one subject, as most do, but to rove abroad, centum puer artium, to have 
an oar in every mun's boat, to "taste of every dish, and sip of every cup, 11 wide 
sniih "Montaigne, was well performed by Aristotle, and his learned country in 
Adrian Turnebus. This roving humour (though not with like success) I have ev 
had, and like a ranging spaniel, that barks at every bird he sees, leaving his game 
have followed all, saving that which I should, ond may justly complain, and truly, 
qui ubique est, nusquam est™ which "Gesner did in modesty, that I have read many 
books, but to little purpose, for want of good method; I have confusedly tumbled 
over divers authors in our libraries, with small profit, for want of art, order, memory, 
judgment. I never travelled but in map or card, in which my unconfined thoughts 
have freely expatiated, as having ever been especially delighted with the study of 
Cosmography. M Saturn was lord of my geniture, culminating, &c, and Mars prin- 
cipal signiiicator of manners, in partile conjunction with my ascendant j both fortunate 
in their houses, &.c. 1 am nut poor, lam not rich; nihil <:.s/, nihil dcrsf, I have 
little, I want nothing: all my treasure is in Minerva's tower. Greater preferment as I 
wld never get, so am 1 not in debt for it, I have a competence (I aits Deo) from my 
loble and munificent patrons, though I live still a collegiate student, as Democritus 
in his garden, and lead a monastic life, ipse mihi theatrum, sequestered from those I 
mulls and troubles of the world, Et lanquam in specula positus, f"as he said) in some 



ive 

= 



1 I 

iy 

us 
u- 
ne 



'• Rabelliru.it exempt., Ilh, 10. Oculu>ae privuvlt. ut me- 
lius contemplation i "perani dure!, sutilnnl Tit In 
-, *tc. "N»l'i 

i .J, nrtiuni'i 

mum perliiara callebal. '- Voihing In nalnrc'e 

power to contrive of which he hmi not written. 
I Athena*, et nemo did novit. » Mem enn- 

tempiul et admiration! babitui. »> Solebat ad. 

portam ambulare. el tnde, Ac. Hip. Ep. bameg. 

" Perpetuoriau pulmonem axitare note-hat Darhacrtlu*. 
S*r. Sat. T. -» Ann ram rflrnua prealare muiella. 

" Cltrui Chimb in Oxford. » Pre fat. 



Ili'l. " Keeper of our college library, tnlfly re- 

vived by Otlm Nirolnon, Esquire. " Sralmer. 

» Homebody In everything, nobody in each thing. 
» In Tueat. x> Phil. Stole. II. dirT. 6. Dogma eu- 

phli- et euriMll ini'i'ium tmprtmemlum, nl ill tail* qui 
null! rei aervial.nui exact*, unum allquid claboret, alia 
neclieent, ut arliike*, axe. " Delibnre icrutiim da 

quor.unque cibo, et pltliaare do quocunqu* dollo ju- 
eundum. *> Raaayi, lib. S. "He thai u 

everywhere la nowhere. *• Pratfat bibliothec. 

at Ambo fnrlea et fortunati, Man idem magUienl do- 
lolnui Juxta prlmaca Laovtlii reguUm. * llcnxluj. 




Democnhu to the Readtr. 

h*B pUrr above vou all. like Stoieits Sapiens, omnia strcuJa, prerterita prrsrntiuqut 
nams «»o rrhit in"- I and SCO what i- dOM ifcsoad) DOW Dthfln '"run. rule, 

and Ouj in court and country, for firom those wrangling 

««/<? eon' "i ambilionem^ rid* re meam waiho : 1 laugh at all. 

ups perish, rorn and catlle miscarry, trade di 
1 hav i«>r children good or baa t«> provide for, A mere .spectator of oth« 

oea'a fortiinrs and adventures, and how they act their parts which melhinks 
sV aiat.l t pBascntid unto DM, as- from a common theatre or scene. I hear new i 
•very day, and those ordinary rumours ..)' war. plagues, tiros, inundations, ibi 
OMractS, massacre?, comets, speetrums, prodigies, apparitions of towns 

taken, cities besieged in France, Gennan) . Turkey, Persia, Poland. {*.<-., daily nv 
» ■! ■rs j M Ua i ons and such like, which these ii mpestuous timi - afford, battles lought, 
«t> many m. . monomachies, shipwrecks, piracies and sea-tights ; peace, leagues, 

■caugrnrs and fresh alarms. A vast eeAfbnM of vows, WM 
prmions, : us, complaints, grievances are i 

brought bo our ear?. New hooks eveiy day. pamphlets, i urninto.s. -tunc-. whole 

rrffirmti of all sorts, Ben pan; | imona, schisms, ben 

ophy, religion, &.c. Now come tidings of weddings, masking*, 
munis, jubilees, embassies, til's and tournaments, tropin* 
triumphs revels sports, plays: thee again, as in a new shifted scene, treason 
• lintni/ t.-. . enormous villanies in all kinds, funerals, burials, deaths 

jf princes new discoveries, expeditions, now comical, then tragical matters. To-day 
*t hear oif new lords and officers created, tomorrow of some great men deposed, 
and then again honours conferred ; one is let loose, another imprisoned ; 

w purchase ih, another breaketh : he thrives, his neighbour turns bankrupt ; now 
, tlk/ri again • tl famine; one runs, another rules a ninnies, laughs. 

Thus | dailj hear, and such like, both private and public news, amidst 
gallantry nnd ini-ury of the world ; jolUtl . pride, perplexities and cares, simplicity 
vdbuiv ; subtlety, knavery, candotu and integrity, mutually mixed and offering 

: I tub on prwus privatum ; as 1 have still lived, so I now continue, 
frrtut. Lit to a solitary life, and mine own domestic discontents: saving that 
t if wiiit into I In- iiiy, and Dcmocriuis to the 

is, I did for my recreation now and then walk abroad, look into 
world, and could not choose but make so me little observation, non'tam sogax 
'tmpicr radiator* not as they did, to scoff* or laugh at all, but with a 
suxed na— ion 

• Hllroi ««pe, j"< nni «r»tri movtre lumuliui. 

V« wrrlclinl irilimn, » li".o fuml licala lmv# been, 
liuw ol I • of my mirth and upleen. 

•: ICOrT with I.ucian, and satirically tax with All nippus, 

ft, SOI igain I was *' j» /iilrmli tpltM rlmrhirnm, ami then 

ircur, I was much moved to see that abuse which I could not 

i howsoever I may sympathize with him or them, 'tis for 

roeueh n If under his name; but either in an unknown habit to 

ewume a om of speech, or if you will needs know, for 

that reason 1 and onl which Hippocrates relates at large in his Epistle to 

tt«s wherein he doth express, how coming to visit hun one day, he found 

i at Vbdera, in the suburbs, "under a shady bower, "with 

y, sometimes writing, sometimes walking. 

M melani I, ly and madness; about him lay the 

ral beasts, newly by him eiit up and anatomised; not that he did ron- 

rreatures as he told Hippocrates, but to find out the seat of this atra 

, and how it was engendered in men's bodies 

ip might Ik in r cure it in himself, and by his writings and observation 

• HI Biurrr t|. | « II. ,r lib 1, nt 9, •» Scrunduni manim lf*tu r ral 
- *c ■ Cj nib npacaa, vuibutque ipoDla nail*, 

i it nqun ilrflii»-b»l. placMle mumnium, ub| 
Ih-mocritl coiupmebaUit k ' \V« 

'Irlml, anpe. genus, Tolutofc* teMI_ 
• Il-r /',, 1,1, I -*f iiioi./i..- ,Tlm pstrntla parala, Qi»«et\Amie »l\\nv»Vi»i 
Atom*/./*/ *n/>*p.t u Jmm,i,le*o. i roraulai/m tiiau, n uoTUro vUccr* rtmabaVut. 

b2 



• .!.,*. .1 

• •« m ilaa i ai a a»tm 



8 



Dcmocrifus to the Rawer. 



)ber 

ir;il 

?. 

iger 
.glit 

/WI- 
IS," 

/ent 
dU 

and 

than 
abor 

ieca. 



h others how to prevent and avoid it. Which rood intent of his, Ilippoctai 
highly commended: Democritus Junior is therefore bold lo imitate, and because 
left it imperfect, and it is now lost, quasi succenturiator Dcmocriti, to revive 
prosecute, and finish in this treatise. 

You have had a reason of the name. If the title and inscription nfiend yoc 
gravity, were it a sufficient justification to accuse others, 1 could produce many sober 
treatises, even sermons themselves, which in their Iron Is carrv more lantastic 
RWtlfM Howsoever, it is a kind of policy in these days, to prefix a fantastical iii 
to a book which is to be sold; for, as larks come down to a da\-net, manv v. 
readers will tarry and stand gTiziiiij like silly passengers at an antic picture in 
painters shop, that will not look at a judicious piece. And, indeed, as "'Scalier 
observes, •* nothing more iuviirs a under than BO argument imlooked lor, unthought 
of, ami sells better than a scurrile pamphlet," turn iiuuimr rum ii'intas excitut *' pa- 
latum. u Many men, 11 saith Gelling, -are very conceited in their inscriptions," 
" and able (as "Pliny quotes mir ot' Sem ca) to make him loiter by the way that went 
in haste (" letch a midwife for his daughter, now ready to lie down." For my part 
I have honourable *' precedents for this which 1 liuve done: 1 will cite one fori 
Anthony Zara, Pap. Fpis., his Anatomy of Wit, in four sections, meiulei-, tubal 
fans, s.c., to be read in oiir libraries, 

If any man except against the matter or manner of treating of this my ■object, and 
will demand a reason of it, I can allege more than one; I write of melanrhol- 

I busy to avoid melancholy. There is no greater cause of melancholy lha 
idleness, "no belter cure than business," as M Khasis holds : and ho when, ituUua iil 
rat iw pliarum, to be busy in toys is to small purpose, yet hear that divine bV 
aJtud ttgert quam nihil, better do to no end, than nothing. I wrote therefore, and 
busied mvself in tins playing labour, otiosaq ; dili^tnlia lit vttarcm tor port in JWl 
with Veciius in Macrobius, atq ; otium in utile vcrtcrrm negotium. 

u Simul cl juctindi .-i hi • i ilwere vitir, 

n-tii ilelectaodo iIdiuI al«(iie mout-ndo. 
Poetr. wnuii) profit or df-litM HI 
And with lliu pleaalng have th' tni.rutlli'e joined. 
Profit and plenmire, lh*n, lo ml* Drill) art, 
T' Infiirm lh« Jiidcmenl, nor t'ltcixl the heart. 
Shall gam all MM 

To this end 1 write, like them, saith Lucian, that "recite to trees, and declaim to 

pilhirs for want of auditors . " as " Panlus jEgineta ingenuously confesseth, "not that 
an, [lung was unknown or omitted, but to exeree ," which course if soma 

look, I think it would be good for their bodies, and much better for their eouil 
peradventure as others do, for fame, to show myself ( Scire tuum nUiil eat, nisi ts 
tcirr hoc sciat alter), 1 might be of Thucydides 1 opinion, Uu to know a thing and 
not in express it, u all one as if he knew it not." When 1 first took this task in 
hand, ei QUO& ait ^ille, imprlknte. gmio nrgotium suscrpi, this 1 aimed at; m 9ei ut 
Irnirrm nuimum scribmih, to ease my mind by writing; for I had gnividum cor, 
feelum caput, a kind of imposlhume in my head, which I was very desirous to be 
unladen of, and could imagine no filler evacuation than this. Beside?, I might not 
well refrain, for ubi dolor, ihi digitus, one must needs scratch where it itches. I was 
ti"i I little offended with this malady, shall I say my mistress "•melancholy," my 
vEgeria, or my malus genius f and for lhat cause, as he that is stung wilh a scorpion, 
I would expel durum claco, "comfort one sorrow with another, idleness with idle- 
ness, ut ex riperd T/uriacum, make an antidote out of lhat which was the prime 
cause of my disease. Or as he did, of whom iT Felix Plater speaks, that thought he 
had some of Aristophanes' frogs in his belly, still crying Brecc, ckcx, coax, coax, 
oop, oop, and for lhat cause studied physic seven years, and travelled over most part 




* Cum mnndii* rxtrn ne nil. et mentr cnptim "It. ft i Antimony, fcc. Tont. I. i. e. 9. Non 

iMMlat •• UUiracM, Ut medelniii adhibaat. "' in-lior ipiam labor. •' Boi |i. irta Pi 

ii IB Nihil iimsln leetorem Invllal ■ Htm i|undnV ni.vnquid addfriv nut ft vricrllm* pr 
qua in ■ irfumtintuin, n«qui rend I rx lannl*aain,a«d propria aiareMaltoi 

a p-iulin-i IiIi.t Lib aXB.ll> Mlraa ; rmvii, nequc id quod «rnil« ajiprfcnH, Darlnd* art M I 

avquumui Iniripihiiinni fiutlvttMea * Pr»fat. i mi. MJovlu* Pr*f lilac. " Eraimn 

Nat lllal. Piuri otiMiriricini parnirlenli nilracccrtenit ■ Mnirn olio dolorom dotoro aum ulalat. 
ur'r.iat iiiji ' Aniiniiiv "I l*np. rv, winl I 1. 

'"Vtrnijr of immortality, Angtlut falt.it, Anaiom\ of 




Demoer'Uns to the Reader. 

Europe lo ease himself. To do myself good I turned over such pb 
'libraries would ntTord, or rny l " private friends impart, and have taken thin pains. 

why not! Oar It be wrote bis l-mk, *-De Consolatione" after hw 

so did Tullv write of the same mibjecf e itli like 
after kit daughter's departure, if it be his at least, or eosae impostors pel out 
which Lipsius probably suspects. Concerniug myself, 1 run peradven- 
affirm with Marin* in Sallust, ™ 4 ' that which others ben or read of] I Gut 

my*' get their knowledge by book*) I mine by meJancboliaing n 

errde Rnbcrto. Something I can speak out of experience, irnimnubilis txpt- 
mtia rae dncuit ; and with her in the poet. Bond igmgrm tnuli mi sins nice* 
due Ip others out of a fellow-feeling*, and, as that virtuous lady did 

efolj. *' u being a leper herself, bestow all her portion to build an hospital for lfi] 
I will spend my time and knowledge, which are inv greatest fortunes, for the common 
roodoi.,: 

Tn.. will inft-r that this is "acfmri ttttft, an unnecessary vretk, era 

apjM?nwrr. the bbum again and anil) in other worde. To what pun 

is omitted that may well be thought l.uuan in the like ti. 

tf excellent physicians have written j ti-si rolvmea aad elaboretfl tr* M of 

news here - ; that which I have is stolen from others, "Duitqut 

M pagina far es. If that severe doom of *'S\ nesius be true, u it is a gr 

to steal dead men's labours, than their clothes," what shall become of most 

I hold up my hand at the bar among o d an guilty of felony m 

tha kind, habex confilrnlem reujru, I am content to be BMBeed with the rest. 'Tis 

true, trnet insanahilr mullns scrihtmli caeottkes, and **'* there is no end of 




■rniing ot - the N lsm -man found of old, in this n scribbling age, especially 

whereto *** the number of books is without Dumber, i as a worthy man saith,l presses 
b» opp*re*KMl," and out of an itching humour that every man bath 10 show hitu.-eli, 

*iksiroue of feme and b vus indocti dociiqw 1 be "ill write no 

natter what, and scrape together it hoots not whence. T "- Bewitched with tlna 
tie-art" of feme, et'mm mediis in morblt, to the disparagement of tie ■, end 

able to hold a pen, they must say something, uT 'aini gel therm 

though it be to the downfall and ruin of many other-.' 1 ' T<i be 
Bled wntrr- x» w sethiti >ihir, to be thought and held Polumathee and 

F-Jvhwtnr*. oiiuit imptritum oulgut n'.i r- ntoHB nnmtn arlis, to get a paper-kmi'd 
eefla tpt ftutxtus a i this precipitate, ambitious age, nunc id 

ana/m, inter immaturam eruditionem, ambitiotum ti \ 

ley are sea must be ir. 

Wure ihry be capable and lit Inan-is. Thet will rush into all learning, 
sr— <n», divine, human authors, rake over all indexes and pamphlet* a, as 

-nu do strange bareoj for traffic, write great toxnee, c mm nra tmt ft 
ewJakrw, vd Zoeuociorer, whereas they are not thereby better .scholars, but gre 
pHen. They commonly pretend public good, but as "Gesner obst m >ride 

eW vanity that egg*! them on; no news or aught worthy of note, but the same in 
■e^trrm*. .V "irur fortasse typography velid ndvm est aliqw 

iaw tr%tcniur. \s apothecaries we make Dew mixtures I • pour out 

*f»e* w-m* J into another; and as those old Romans robbed all th if the. 

•**H, lo eel out their bad-sited Rome, we skim olF the cream of other men 1 ! wits, 
prt (lowers of their tilled gardens to set out our own sterile plots. 

M ut libros xuox prr it gracilis uti-nn adipc sujfurcianl (so 7 'Jovius 
■j*»ir -1 their lean books with the fat of others' works. I 

> r finds, ad I do now, and yet faulty tin •m- 







"■ 



•t.'^riri. i alt. •- Ubtat 



rien<inl. »trtl 
■' t J..n;i». the 
t- ■• II 



] qiirruiit cr •< fti 
ttt 



- tl Kmt 






20 



Democrilv 



"* Trmm lilcrnrum Aomin?*, all thieve* ; they pilfer out "fold writers to stuffnp their 
new comments, scrape Ennius dung-hills, and out of ""Democritus' pit, as I hai 
Hone, By which moans it comes to pass, 77u that not only libraries and shops 
full of our putrid papers, but every close-stool and jakes, Scril/unt carminn 

eacantes ; tiny serve to pal under pies, to w lap spice in, and keep raeet-tm 
from burning. u Wjth us in France," Baith T9 Srnligcr, ** every man hath liberty 
write, but few ability. ^Heretofore learning was graced by judicious scholars, 1. 1 
now noble sciences are vilified by base and illiterate scribblers," that either writ 
foi vaixr-giory, need, to get money, or as Parasites to flatter and collogue with son 

I men, they put out 8I burros, quhquiliasque inepliasqwe. "Amongst so manj 
thousand authors you shall scarce find one, by reading of whom you shall be un 
whit better, but rather much worse, quibus inficitur palius, quam perficitur, by wine 
he is ruther infected than any way perfected. 



-Qui In tin Legit, 



Quid didiclt tandem, quid ant nisi eoinnla, iiuga* 1 

So that oftentimes it falls out (which Callimachus taxed of old) a great bool is 
mischief. "Cardan finds fault with Frenchmen and Germans, for their serf 
bling to no purpose, non inquit ab edendo dthrreo, modo novum aliqiiid inviniant, 
he dodi not bar them to write, so that it be some new invention of their own ; but 
we weave the same web still, twist the same rope again and again ; or if it be a ncr 
inve ntion, 'tis but some bauble or toy which idle fellows write, for as idle fellows 
read, and who so cannot invent? ""He must have a barren wit, that in this scri 
blinp age can forge nothing. ** Princes show their armies, rich men vaunt their btrild- 
soldiers their manhood, and scholars vent their toys;" they must read, they 
must bear whether they will or no. 



" Et quodcnnque tem«l tlinrlii tlleverlt, mnnei 
Ueniiel & fufno redeunlei iciiti I a tun. lie, 
Ei pucrow et anus 



What once Is said and writ, ill men mini know, 
Old wives and children u Uii-y tome and go, 



••What a company of poets hath this year brought out," as Pliny complains to 
Sossius Sincsius. " w This April every day some or other have recited." What a 
oatalogus of new books all this year, all this age (I say), have our Frankfort Marts, 
our domestic Marts brought out? Twice a year, m u I'mfe runt st nova ingeniaet 
: retch our wits out, and set them to sale, magna conalu nihil agimns. 
let which "Gesner much desires, if a speedy reformation be not had, by rami 



>ut 

| 

d- 

r 



Prince's Edict! and grave Supervisors, to restrain tins liberty, it will run on in infi- 
Qui* lam a vidus librorum helluo, who can read them ? As already, we 
shall have a vast Chaos and confusion of books, we are 91 oppressed with them, ''our 



iche with reading, our fingers with turning. For my pari I am one of the 

Bomber, nos Humerus sumu$,(wc are mere cyphers) : I do not deny it, I bare only 

tins of Macrobtns to say for myself, Omx mMl mcum, 'tis all mine, and Boos 

As a good housewife out of divers fleeces weaves one piece of cloth, a bee 

gathers wax and honey out of many flowers, and makes a new bundle of all, Flori- 

ut apes in saltibus omnia libantyl have laboriously "collected this Cento out of 

- writers, and that sua- injuria-, I have wronged no authors, hut given every 

man bk OWB ; which '■"Ilieromso nimh commends in Nepolian; he stole not whole 

;■«, tracts, as some do m>w-a-i!avs, mnrraling their authors' names, but 

still said wis was Cypnan'a. that Lactam his, that llilarius, so said Minutius Felix, 

M \ rCtorious, thus far Arnobius : I cite and tjuote mine authors (which, howsoeve? 

some illiterate scribblers account pedantical, as a cloak of ignorance, and opposite 



T » PUuliii. "EDrmorrltl puloo. ^Nnn 

r iaj iiO)ii,,ihecc quain cloaca?. "JEt-r 1 " 

m/tU i ici- :i!i ■ itur in»|Hl« -Rpul nit 1'iiis 

inniliui acribendl ilaliir tibr*rias. 

Ill - "Ollm Itlerar oh bomiin<it in 

nr <nrdm( oh liinmnm » Aim Ml 

hit- r na iiulli- voliimina vn itriun ■ riijim lei 

|a ii. < I. luillto |uil|ui fen pt'jnr. " I'.ilin- 

MnttM u i> <!, mch work*, 

• nun mid trifling llunii*. " l.iii. 
A //, ~ nlr OpOflttl e«e Ingcnm 

turn iminliim, Ac. •» Ciinlin, 

~T «J« • Hot. lib. I, r.it 4. • Epia-l 

- Magnum poetmrum proreutuui annul liic ilm lit. 



A*/ 



menfe Aprlli ntillui frre die* quo nun allqnlt reriravK. 
*» Idem. ■> Princlpibutel doclonhun delitirranuun 

rrlnn|iiii, m •TfBMtur mirlorura furl* el mihr* npe 
iiiir. el truieri* »i nh.-uJi lilmlo eoarroAtur, 
.iliii-r in iiitinunni prnKresmira. " Onemhiinln 

. iii'iiin li-(;i'tiili» nullliil. ** t.llnu ol>r iiiiiiu 

mull Iffendn, iiibiiub \nlitiiiirtn ilidciil. Kiun. Sirnd 
Monio. Lucrelln*. * Ottte^uid uhlqi)*> brne dlrlui 

. mi, .'t Mud iiitin mi' in .id .'I'lnpcridimn, >inn 
ml «.l-in et nil. ii.n.Hriu tUsnbj I'lprliii.i vt'rln>. omne 
auclore* meo* clii-nto* cms •rlillmr. *. r Rarhiliillt- 
krol »* In Kpluph Nop t". .it! 

<'! i> hoc l,»c\, \\\\\A tli\a«. «t. tl*. Viiclaciiiui, in liune 
moduai loqutilu* «M Ainutiiu*, kx. 




Democn/us to the li 



Si 



affected line style, I must and will use) tvmpn, non suripui ; and what Varro, 
de re rust speaks of bees, mi mmi maltfic.r nut icantei /. 

1 can say of myself, Whom have J injured? The m heirs mo* 1 

. a pp tnl vmif nanptum sit (which Seneca approves), alutd tamen 
upturn sit <ij<i«ir<u which nature doth with the aliment of .mr bodies 
• st, assimilate, 1 do ttmeoqwn quod /must, dispose' take. 

tJ-i. in pay inluiti, t<> mi ..in this my Maceronieon, the method only i> mini 
I must usurp that of ** iVcckcr e l\r. nihil dictum quod non dictum jtrivs, 
tola artifici m osirnrfit, v v nothing hut what hath been said, the 

i and method is ours only, and shows a scholar. Orihas'n 
have ail out of Galen, but to their own method, dwtn tide. 

■teal tri'in H"in»r ; he spews, aaith jElian, they lirk it up. IHrini 
i*a words verbatim still, and our story-dressers do as much ; he that comes last 
i commonly best, 

ilnnrr n,n|i1 ' r»i)rtiu» «rl«» 

Poalera •oritjue i>ral melior. » 

Though there were many giants of old in Physic and Philosophy, yet I say with 
■Ehuaru* Stella, u A dwarf standing 00 the shoulders of a giant D nher than 

agiar ,"" I may likely add, alter, and see farther than my pn ; and 

sis oo rrcaier prejudice for me to indite after others, than for .fElianus Moutaltus, 
physician, to write de morbis capitis after Jason Pratensis, EleornJUS, 
&.c, many horses to run in a race, one logician, one rhetorician, 
'■>e then what thou wilt, 

AlUuet ltc*i aaqtie noi ot u*que 
El P r =ii.nuibu» uuprobla laccnco*. 

■ us. And for those other faults of barbarism, "Doric dialect, exteinpnra- 

_•!>>. apish uiiiiation, a rhapsody of rags gathered to g et h ei Broai 

i rag-hills, ex of authors, toys and fopperies confusedly tumbled 0Ui| 

Matt a.'t. invention, judgment, wit, learning, harsh, raw, rude, fantastical, a! 

;. ill-composed, indigested, vain, scurrile, idle, dull, ami dry; I 

is partly affect I not think worse of me than 1 do of 

l the reading, J yield it, I desire thee not to lose time in 

< t. 1 should be peradvenlure loth myself to read him or thee 

Ml 1 say is this, that 1 have "precedents for it, 

urn its qui peccant, others as absurd, vain, idle, illiterate, 

Y'-nmuUi alii idem Jtcerunt ; others have done as much, it may be im ■ 

.■as ct qui te, Jkc. We have all our faults : 

est me, so have 1 done others, and may do 
i. Etc., 'tis lex tahonis, quid pro quo. Go now, censure, crili- 
oat, arotl. and rail. 




, 



-i, drnique nnsiu: 
*♦<• f- plura mcu, 



Wt-rl ttinn all scoff* and flnuu, a very Moroiif, 

ac uuntlvtj, Ihou cauil not say wont ofui 



Tinas, as when women scold, have 1 cried whore first, and in some men's censures 

sat afraid 1 have overshot myself, Loudon: se smsf, niujirrare stulti, as I d t 

trrofvr, I will not derogate. Primus vestriim non sum. nee imus, ] am none of the 
sat, 1 am nom attest of von. As I am an inch, or so many feet, so n 

tarasaafa, after hint or him. I may be psradventure an ace before thee. l'>- 

;, or ill. I have essayed, put myself upon the stage; 1 must abide the 
senenre* 1 may <• most true, stylus virvm arguit, our style bewrays 

as, and as 'huntrrs find their game by . so is a man's genius descried by 

his work-, Multo tu u lineament is, de moribus hominum Judi- 

rule. I have laid myself open (I know it) in this treatise, 
rnside Ot I shall he censured, I doubt not; for, to say truth with 

i'lliciis, there is nought so peevish as in 

■•4. "OatS a later ai Lipunn aHirrau* dialosUt • V n» »WitS» 

N.ir, ilutUUi mu\\i ■ 
hillrtt. > Marimt. 13,1, 

iVrtnj 6 veillgio Lmpieaau, vnuiu »ctty\uu- 
' iM ei rv til.1 ntnuntar, tultL LlLi*. 
uau et the nit ti litmus ut 



.f »i Ova 



Dcmocritus to the J?< 



mfiits; yet this is some comfort, ut palata^ sic judicia, our censures are as varioi 
as our palates. 

TOraa (in-jtf I hnvf, Aifacnl\ne «l my feutt, 
Requiring esch to jrrjtif)' hi> i.ute 

Willi ■ 1 1 f 1 . - r - - 1 . ■ 

beauty, 



iihl convivn- prop* dtoseniire vldentur, 
I'otrenlci vario iiiulluni divema palato, tc. 



Our writings are as so many dishes, our readers guests, our books like 
hat which one admires another rejects ; so are we approved as men's fancies 
in -lined. Pro caplu lectoris habent sua fata hhelli. That which is most pleasi 
to one is amaracum stii, most harsh to another. Qtt»l h /mines, tot srntcnlia, so 
many men, so many minds : that which thou condemnest he commends. ' Quod 
petbi, id sane est in o is um acidumqua duobus. He respects matter, thou art wholly 
for words ; he loves a loose and free style, thou art all for neat composition, Strong 
lines, hyperboles, allegories; he desires a fine frontispiece, enticing pictures, such as 
1 ilieron. Natali the Jesuit hath cut to the Dominican?, to draw on the reader's fttten 
tioa, which tlum rejectest; that which one admires, another explodes as most absurd 
and ridiculous. If it be not poinlblank to his humour, his method. Ins conceit, **i 
quid forsnn omissiim, euod is unimo c once pt r//, si aim dietio, Sac. If aught be omit- 
ted, or added, which he likes, or dislikes, thou art manciptum paucce lectioni*, SO 
kliot, an ass, nulla.'; • t, or plagiarists s tnller, a trivatit, thou art an idle fellow; or 
else H is b tiling of mere industry, a collection without wit or invention, a ver\ 
T Ftia/iu sic putiint unities qua jam facta, wc de salebris cogitant,ubi via strata ; so 
rip n are valued, their labours vilified by fellows of no worth themselves, as things 
of nought, who could not have done as much. Unusquisque abundat sensu sue, 
n abounds in his own sense j and whilst each particular parly is so alUr-ted, 
how should one please all ? 

* Quid item I quid lion dem 1 Renuli lu quod jubel ills. 

Whnl coiiuk-s must 1 chute) 

\\ lial noi 1 Whnl tmlfa would urder yim refuse. 

How shall I hope to express myself to each man's humour and 'conceit, or to give 
satisfaction to all ? Some understand too little, some loo much, qui similiter in 

■ los libros, atqve in satutandos homines imaoU^ nan cogiteMtM mat ■;,••> d 

us induli sint, as '"Austin observes, not regarding what, but who write, " on:.rin, 
habel mtr.lorrs crb-br it as, not valuing the metal, but stamp that is upon it, C<n\<harum 

■ i.ni, non qui/1 in to. If he be not rich, in great place, polite and brave, a great 
doctor, or full fraught with grand titles, though never so well qualified, he is a dunce; 
bni. as '-Jiaronius hath it of Cardinal Carafla's works, he is a mere hog that rejects 
any man lor his poverty. Some are too partial, as friends to overween, others come 
with a prejudice to carp, vilify, detract, and teoffj (qui de me forsan, quicqui. 

ini contrmjilu eoate S tp ftua judlaint) some as bees for honey, some as spiders to 
gather poison. What shall I do in this case ? As a Dutch host, if you come to an 
inn in Germany, and dislike your fare, diet, lodging, Slc, replies in a surly tone, 
■* uliud tih) pusras divcrsorium" if you like not this, get you to another inn : 1 
n 'solve, if you like not my writing, go read something else. 1 do not much esteem 
thy censure, take thy course, it is not as thou wilt, nor as I will, but when we have 
both done, that of " 1'lnnus Sinimliis to Trajan will prove true, k ' Every man's witty 
labour takes not, except the matter, subject, occasion, and some commending favour 
its. happen to il." If 1 be taxed, exploded hy thee and some such, 1 shall haply be 
approved and commended hy others, and so have been ( Erpertus loquor), and may 
truly say with u Jovius in like case, (absit vertto jactantia) Iteroum qwirundnriupon 
ti/ie.um, et oirorum linfilTimi /ilsjiBiliifnf u rt timicitiam, ifratasqne gratias, et multo- 
rum '-,/'( me Imidalorum laudcs sum inde vromeritus, as I have been honoured by 
»oine worthy men, so have 1 been vilitied by others, and shall be. At the first pub 
tishing Of this book, (which "Probes of Persius satires'), ediium librum cominub 
tiruri homines, eitqu, avide deripere cceperuniy I may m some sort apply to this my 
work. The first, second, and laird edition were suddenly gone, eagerly read, and, 
as I have said, not so much approved by some, as scornfully rejected by others 



I 



«■/. To 



» Hot. • lt«r. » Anrweiji. fill. 1S0T. • Md- 
rviu: -int. ■ i\ , • Fi^ti 

/**/. til qu,,d fn/mqae eogHmt, tlirat unut, Muiwim. 
";• / tie nni . r B p II. u traamua. \ i 

n». J, ,d aouutu 300. Eat patcua tile qui i«cer- 



il <l«m ci nmplituditie rrilituiiiii toriliile il inclllur 
.!j 1 | "Bpial rib, B, Cujutqu« in^o. 

nium Mm naum emnrgli, ni»i miU'rur fiuiDf, Kccatia, 
rimiiiirn.l iiitiiM-- i"«V«\t«. "VtBr^ VvV»V. " U\U- 
daii k laudavo t»u» «i\. « Vtu Tlrtk 




Democrilus his fortune. Idem admirt:: rnsioni habiiui. 'Twas 

■ in hi wit, learning, jud ad nhtportM doctus, 

I'lutarch's opinion; that renowned cot 
* &s ■ Flbius terms him, "and painfu' oniniscious philosopher, thai writ 
welL," could not please all partic-H, or eseap 

ins, and Lispsius himself lu> 
In co pl<Taqvr pernittota^ saith the same Fuhiu-,, many childish trarts 
i tin bo r«/w.s, loo negligent often and re < dims 

prt'lritu, dicaees tt iwpltt, sin/rn/us, < nidi ho ]>i< l» m, 
Uffin l\ >-u In /i/irtifnis xfiiwt* ft foMtiiia ka I.i|>- 

i« m all lu> otl -. bo i specially in bia epistles, alia 

yijmnfur, mtricatm ahcuii, ft parum • 

,i many things together unmethodically, after tin -hion, 

ysrmja orxl Ua accumulavit, kc. Ii Seneca be thus lashed* and many (anion* 

nan that I me, what shall I oxpeel I How -Hall I thai am pfo umbra Umti 

■_; 'i-. In >p<- to please? * No man so absolute "Erasmus holds 1 ) ti> satisfy all, 

»t*rpi ssjti<j n' v . prescription, Stc, set a bar.'" Bui aa I have proved in Seneca, this 

i ilace, ; Tie the common doom of all writers, 

•''ide it; I seek not applause; u JVoti ngo vrntostt ve.nor 

. non stun ad* pi I would not be 'vilified 

tt Imirliilmi nhiinde, 

I fj.il.lliu, si iitn. Ii-ctnr, ero. 

I men's censures and lo their favourable acceptance I submit my labours, 

*"• et Ungual mancipiorum 

I mni). 

is me barking of a do?, I se c u r ely aontemn those malicious and soorrue obloi 

f milers and detractors ; 1 scorn the rest. What thcrefure 1 have 
and, pro Imuiitiif m> n, I have said. 

One or two l -trous to have amended if I could, concerning the 

■turner of hi; hject, for which 1 must apologise, deprecert, and 

he friendly reader notice : it was not mine intent lo 
use m> bium m Kul'Ii-Ii. <»r la divulge, secrete Mmrrvte, but la have exposed this 
■ore contrart m Lulm, if 1 eould have got it printed. Any srurrile pamphlet is 
welcome to our mercenary stationers in English ; they prim all, 




-r«ntun«|U* IttMlIm 



In •) 'inriiin lulu, v. i Mima nuila cacortl ; 

I . which is erne of the reasons * Nicholas Car, in his 
lish writer-. L r ives, that so many flourishing wits are 
id and buried in this our nation. Another main mult 
is* that 1 have u opy, and amended the style, which now Howe rem 

i: WSS1 ii . but my li Id not permit ; Feci mc quod pmu't, ru'c 

less it is neither as I would, nor as it should be. 



■I ii i.-. plurlma trtoo 

i Mat, 



\\ I,. !i 1 [M rinr I hit 1)81' I tt llli fl I Ii IV. V» )ll, 

I aiu ulni' li'il. mil nun Ii I tlnlil until 



tpttxi grai-isximum, in the matter itselll many things 1 disallow at this present, 
•» 1 «. ; m est altu,non mens ; 1 would willingly retracl much, 

I i hi only crave pardon now for what is amiss. 

• ii ibat precept of the poet, nonu/n- 

rrma' nm, nm\ hs i mors care: or, ae Alexander the phys 

Id h». tuli, lift) times washed before ii b houhi have 

d mended this tract; but 1 had not (as 1 said; that happy leisure, 
tense* or assistants. I in ' l.ucian, wanting a servant M hi' went 

• ■ok a door bar, and after some superstitious 

maw, :l Li|« 'ii. .Iii.lif ile lurpr frlfflrfn laiiriitri ac Inacrlantir vltii|wr»)l I'll i- 

i 

' S. » \ • 

nil lltlTI* »luil*»lll 

; .|. ponl I 
llnr 

i hi iri, .il.i I' hi iniliularv' 
i -iraitrt. kt. 

•J , 



UMUtmtY. STANFORD UNNOSm 



21 



Dcmocrilus to the Reader. 



words pronounced (Eucrates the relator was then piflMBt) made it stand up like a 
serving-man, fetch him water, turn the spit, serve in supper, and what work be would 
besides; and when he hud done that service be desired, turned his man to a sink 
again. I have no such skill to make new Ben at my pleasure, or means to hire 
them; no whistle to rail like the master of a ship, and hid them run, &c. I have 
no such authority, no such benefactors, as that noble " Ambrosius was to Origen, 
allowing him six or seven amanuenses to write out hisdietaifs 5 1 mu-i for that cause 
i!n my business myself, and was then-tore enforced) as a bear doth her whelps, to 
bring forth this confused lump; I had not lime to lick it into frm, as she dou her 
Voting ones, hut even so to publish it, as it was first wiitten qiusquid in buccum re- 
fli/, in an extemporeau style, as "I do commonly all other exercise.-, rjfttdi uairqmd 
die!:: nit n.s, out of a confused company of notes, and writ with U small 

deliberation as I do ordinarily speak, without all affectation of big words, fustian 
phrases, jingling terms, tropes, strong; lines, that like "Acesurs arrows oawglri lire as 
they flew, strains of wit, brave heats, etogies, hyperbolical exornatioii-, elegancies, 
Sic., which many so much affect. I am ^aqua potor, drink no wine at all, which 
so much improves our modern wits, a loose, plain, rude writer, ficum et 

hgnt in figeiKM) ud M free, as loose, idem calamo quod in menle, *I call a spade a 
spade, (iniims here, scribo, non flMtrtfut, 1 re ap e d matter BOt words; remembering that 
of Cardan, verba propter res, non res propter verba : and leaking with Seneca, quid 
•SfttOM) WW (jU'-miidihoilunu rather what than hoirtn write : for as I'hilo thiiiks, 37 " He^C 
that is conversant about matter, inflects words, and those that excel in this art of*^ 
speaking, have no profound learning, 

■ Vcrbn nii<vnt phnlcrii, n( millus veitrn meilullBi 
liitua li.ii>4Hl 

Besides, it was the observation of that wise Seneca, 33a when you see a fellow careful 
about his words, and neat in his speech, know this for n certainly, that man's mind 
is busied about toys, there's no solidity in him. .?Von est ornament um viril- gw t rftt' 
ji'ins; as be said of a uighlinitnle, vox es, preeierca nihil, Stc. I am therefore in this 
point a professed disciple of 40 Apollonius a scholar of Socrates, I neglect phlWWBi 
and labour wliolly to infonn my reader's understanding, not to please his ear; hi* 
not my study or intent to compose neatly, which an orator requires, but to express 
myself readily and plainly as it happens. So that as a river runs sometimes precipi- 
tate and swift, then dull and slow ; now direct, then per ambages ; now deep, then 
shallow ; now muddy, then clear ; now broad, then narrow ; doth my style flow : 
now serious, then light ; now comical, then satirical ; now more elaborate, then 
remiss, as the present subject required, or as at that time I was afii cted. And if 
thou vouchsafe to rend this trea&M, it shall seem no otherwise to thee, than the 
way to an ordinary traveller, sometimes fair, sometimes foul ; here champaign, there 
inclosed; barren in one place, belter sod in another: by woods, groves, lulls, dales, 
plains, SlC, I shall had thee per ttrduti mun/iiim, el lubrica valliuiiu <t ro.seida 
cespilum, et " glfbosa ciirnpirriim, through vuriely of objects, that which thou shall 
like end surely dislike. 

Tot the matter itself or method, if it be faulty, consider I pray you that of Coltt- 
mella, Nihil ' ptrfeclum, aut a singulari consummatum industrial, no man can observe 
all, much is detective no doubt, may be justly taxed, altered, and avoided in Galen, 
Aristoile, thoej great masters. Boni venatoris ( — one holds) plans feras caprre, non 
omnrs ; he is a good huntsman can catch some, not all: I have done my endeavour. 
Besides, I dwell not in this studs - . .\'<>n hie salens durimiis, non hoc pvlei-n d< snd<unns, 
lam but a smatterer, ] confers, a stranger, '"here and there I pull a flower ; I do 
cosily grant* il a rieid ceiisurer should criticise on this which I have writ, he should 
not flnd three sole laults, as Scaliger in Terence, but three hundred. So many as 

« Em-biua. acclaa. hlit. lib. 8. *>8l.ina pede in l Epift. lib I. 31. » Philiwiratin. lib. - I it A|m>I. 

•ino. a» ho made vcraoa . M Vlr(. ' ' roiorlnm faciiliru. i napania. 

■ •umiii'i elpectaa, inliilmoquo poela. 'St\lu, balur ejua profoaanrea, <iui>d linniMin tapHUd Mi 

n ic niillim, pricier parrhentam " Qui rtbtu *e | •nlnra m«nteii>r«<1der«BleradtOoreai. - Me rata, 

bi qui riili.i Btteii) ilki-niii, quod Seneca da PonIA, bo* harbajs, efconii 

nullum di-i iplln'iiii fatal ii-i-ngiittain. ■" f.ilm. canla Itnornm, vlrao floreO) leoi < I'. : % Ill 

*ren/n*. Wort* i ''-ndi-Ki wiili otnajcHiM, not. la II i nm dnmlcillum liabet 

tun t/ii-i ■■,,„/ ,,/j no narrow trltMrn < ad tftpltrtl tl xuorem, blue ludc Hut cm vciiico, u: aa- 

£ZZ,"''""'"->" r'Jv* polltam e: tolliritam, *n(n ml- nil Nilum taiubwna, 
*o pu.-ilif occupation, in acriplU nil aoliduui. | 






Dcmncritus to the Reader. 



25 



in Cardan's subteties, as many notable errors as M Gul Lauremherjrius, a 
protess'w of Roetocke, discovers in ihat anatomy of I.mrentius, or Ekroriua the 

■< .■.-/■<> botcui. And although tbis be a sixlh edition, in which I should 

"iteted all those former escapes, yet il was magni labonn 

ilirtilt and tedious, that as carpenter* 'Jo find out of experience, 'lis much 

! a new sometimes, than repair an old liouse ; I DOOM M MM \uite as 

more, as alter that which is written. If might therefore be amiss (as I grant 

•quire a friendly admonition. M hitter invective, * i S 
OMtfttf of" ■' i>- , Bfl in ordinary controversies, j'unnn CO ttntU mit ntrta- 

trd emi bonnf We may contend, and likely misuse each other, but to what 
We are both scholars., say, 

» Jlrradc* arobo Both jrniinr Arcadian*, both alik«> inaplr'd 

El Catartar* \r+t*». «t ietpoint*T» parali. To ting 4nd amwcf u llir song rrqu i r " « 1 

• do wrangle, what shall we get by it ? Trouble ami wrong ourselves, make 
It 1 be convict of an error, I will yield, I will amend. Si quid 
mortims, si quid vcriluli dissrntaneum, in sacris vel humunis Uteris g M dictum 
c dictum csto. In the mean time I require a favourable censure of all faults 
harsh compositions, pleonasms of words, tautological 
bear me out, nutuji- Ucitqr, mod wuaaum Mtfta dicitur perturbations 

rs, numbers, printers 1 faults, kc. My translations are sometimes rather ; 
than interpretations, non ad verbum, but as an author, I use more lihi -uy, 
| that'* only taken which was to my purpose. Quotations are often inserted in 
hich makes the style more harsh, or in the margin as it happened. Greek 
Plato, Plutarch, Alhcnieus, Stc, I have cited out of their ink rpn ters, berausu 
was not so ready. I have mingled sacra prophanis, but I hope not pro- 
•n>l ition of author*' namea, ranked tbemstar acrid* M, not at cot 

chronology ; sometimes Neotericks before Ancients, as my memory suggested. 
_"* are here altered, expunged in this- sixth edition, others amended, much 
, because many good "authors in all kinds are come to my hands sine 
^b no prejudice, no such indecorum, or oversight. 

aaflMMfuni -iil«liiri4 rmiono ad vltam fuit, 

<4i"i r. • . ' i- irual novl, 

l( > redai, netcias, 
• trrn-ndn in rc|nidiai. 
a ■• might yrt at firm comriv'd to fit, 
•e, «jfi\ or •■'■■urlhliig would alter it; 
Adti» Ihr.. better, 'Mid. npoa |H-iime. 
Make thee ant «ay. and what thou tak'at refuse 

I am ' to put this treatise out again, JVc quid nimis, I will not 

avaWter add, alter, or retract ; 1 ha The last and greatest exception is, that 

I, bring a divine, have Meddled with ph] 

• Taniumne rat ah N tuft »<li IM, 

M ut OVM) aaquc nihil que ad le attlnenl. 

Which Menedemus ■ to Chrcmes; have I so much leisure, or little business 

af nine own, as to look after other BMO'i matten which concern me not? What 
an* I to do with ph) sir ? Quod medicorum est prmnittant mrdici. The w L'f 

aaoiint w«rr onre in counsel about state-matters, a debauched fellow ■pake i ccellenl 

•ell, and I pose, his speech was generally approved : a grave senator ste 

ap, and by all means would have it repealed, though good, because dckamt&tabatwr 
sudore* it had an author; let some good man relate the same, 

! nam. This Counsel WSJ embraced, factum t\*/, and it was registered 
I mamit, malus auctor mutatus est. Thou - 
mi as thou art, and grantest, peradventure, this which 1 have 
had another done it, a professed physician, 
1 with this tract? 11 -peak. There be many other 

taint ■ a»Uy grant, both in humanity and divinity, lit t<> be treated ««f, of 

which bad I written ad <> m only, to show myself, I should have rath 

chosen, ant! been more conversant, I could have more willin^V 



B*tU)>> 1 aarenM dr~ 

mm — . 00»m*rlu; Ferti,J»., At, 



mill dr- 
ub. I\ 



cap. 3. 



"Henut. Ad 1. aten. V. 



U\\\tt 






26 



Dcmocritus to the Ii 



luxuriated, ami bette at Jsfiad myself and others; bat that at this time I was fatally 
driven upon this rock of melancholy, end earned away by Que by-stream, which, ass 
rilled is deducted from the main channel of my Itodies, in which I have pleased pad 
butied myself at idle hours, ns a subject most necessary and commodious. Not that 
I prefer it before divinity, which I do acknowledge to be the queen of professions, 
and to which all the real are as handmaids, but that in divinity J saw no such great 
need. For had I written positively, there he 10 many honks in that kind, so i 
commentators, treatises, pamphlets, expositions, sermons, that whole teams of oxen 
cannot draw them ; and had I been as forward and ambitious as some others, I might 
have haply printed a sermon at Paul's Cros3, a sermon in St. Marie's Oxon, a sermon 
in Christ-Church, or a sermon before the right honourable, right raven ml. ■ serrAOn 
before the right worshipful, a sermon in Latin, in English, a sermon with a name, 
a sermon without, a sermon, a sermon, kr. I>ul 1 have been ever as des i rou s K> 
suppress my labours in this kind, as others have been to press and publish theirs. 
To have written in controversy had been to cut off an hydra's head, 
veneral, one begets another, so many duplications, triplications, and swarms of ques- 
tions. In xsicro bcllo hoc quod stili W WG Tt mt tuttar t that having once begun, 1 should 
never make an end. One had much better, as "Alexander, the sixth pope, long since 
observed, provoke a greet prince than a begging friar, a Jesuit, or a seminary p 
I will add, for tMspHgndbiU gflttlt hoc hivnimim, ihev are an irrefragable society, 
they must and will have the last word; anil that with such eagerness, impudence, 
abominable lying, falsifying, and bitterness in their questions ihey proceed, that as 
he **said, furorne ccecus, an rapit oil nrriar, an culpa, responsum date f Blind fury, 
or error, or rashness, or what it is that eggs them, I know not, I am sure many times, 
which M Austin perceived long since, trmpcalnte contentionis, srrrnitus clmritatis 
obtittfiilritur, with this tempest of contention, the serenity of charity is overclouded, 
and there lie too many spirits conjured up already in this kind in all sciences, and 
more than we can tell how to lay, which do so furiously rage, and keep such a 
racket, that as 'Tabius said, *• It had been much belter for sonic of them to have 
been burn dumb, and altogether illiterate, than so far to dote to their own destruction. 

Ai nieliu* Tuvral non «crihetp, nanique lacer* - 
Tuiiim semper crii, 

Tis a general fault, so Severinus the Dane complains S7 in physic, " unhappy men as 
we are, we spend our days in unprofitable questions and disputations," intricate 
subtleties, dr Inn'} caprina about moonshine in the water," leaving in the mean tune 
those chiefest treasures of nature untouched, wherein ihe besl medicines for all 
f diseases are to be found, and do not only neglect them ourselves, but 
binder, condemn, forbid, and scoff at others, that ate willing to impure after them. 
These motives at this present have induced me to make choice of this medicinal 

■abject. 

If any physician in the mean lime shall infer, JVe sulor ultra crepidurn, and find 
himself grieved that I have intruded into his profession, I will tell him in brief, I do 
not otherwise by them, than they do by us. If it be for their advantage, I know 
many of their sect which have taken orders, in hope of a benefice, *tH B Common 
nion, and why may not a melancholy divine, that can get nothing but by 
simony, profess physic? Druaianui in Italian (Ctasjanaa, but corruptly, Trittu 
calls him) " fl because he was not fortunate in his practice, forsook his professio 
and writ afterwards in divinity." Marrilius Picinus was scmel ct. simiil ; a prie 
and a physician at once, and H T. Linacer in his old age took orders. The Jesui 

Erofeai both al this timp, divers of them pSTHIIWI MM p< riorum, ehirurgcons. painters, 
iiwds, and midwives, &c. Many poor country-vicars, for want of Otoe? meant, are 
driven to their shifts ; to turn mountebanks, quacksalvers, empirics, and if our 



m 

j 

B 

re, 



" E( in<1»» eaten* quedain fll. qwe hcrrdra ritnm 
tigsl. lirilan. Ilennm. w Mxllft «e brlluni ruin 

nineim ponrlp«t ferrre, rjuiim rum utio ri f'l.iim.-ii 
mi- ml • inllnni «i i *• Uor. rp,»1. iii>. od. 7. 

"Epi-i BO, id ' ii- «• l.ih. 12. cap. 1. 

Mui<>« iii-ci f«i i-niiii Klenlli nifnr lalliu 
juAtii • </ in ftrnpti <* But 

•f trim/,/ tie t>i i ■ lie, fot ttltitct l« III'' * 1 1' t 

**"•" " tm'-lit morUiimt muii.'ibu, auffijlimi. 



lira* me ilacvpuUonitMa ritstn irndiiciiniia, nature 
prmripi'i IbcMurni ITtMltM iii>rti'>ruio 

iTvilu'ina- roUncata tiini, inti rim Iniactoa rclinqukaaa*. 

Nnc lim i. In ii, t.\ -i alms prohihrraun. 

i 'in. foiiili-Miiiniiiii-. i ii- aSetaaaa, 

" QuikI in praxl ii.ii, in,.- i,, run. I- i. -iiinm 

.•I i.i,ii.,ii,ii, i»u4unj 

»«n|i3il. Uv-tner Uiblioiliecu. *» V. Juviut. 






Drmocritu? to the Reader. 



27 



hold as to such hard conditions, as commonly they to, they will 
us work at some trade, as Paul did, ut last turn malt 

coeurrmongers, jjrnzicrs, .«i 11 ale as BOfDO have done, or fOM Mom 
i undrrtikini: this task, I bIuUI commit no great error or tsxfccontm, if all lie 

Irred aright, 1 can vindicate myself with Georgiua iiraunus, and llirronymus 
riu»,tlH»»f two learned divines; who (la borrow ■ Kim or two of a 
drawn by a "natural love, the one of pictures am) maps, prapeetil 
iical delights, writ that imple the ihi- other to Die Aerify ol 

s, penned thratntm genealogicum. n Or else I can excuse my ah 

It is a disease of the soul on which 1 am lo treat 
feta appertaining to a divine as to a physician, tad who know - i ol what 
■trrrc-rrunt there is betwixt these two professions? A good divine either la <>r 
be a good physician, a spiritual physician at least, as our Saviour calls 
end was indeed. Mat. iv. 23 ; Lukr, v. 18 ; Luke, vii. 8. They differ hut in 
to body, the other of tlie soul, and use divers medJcinea to i on \ 
amends ammom /-■ r corpus, the other corpus per an imam, as ""our Regius Pro- 
of ph\ -ii- well informed us in a learned lecture of his not long since. One 
i nnd passions of the soul, anger, lust, desperation, pride, presumption, 
ii _r that spiritual physic; as the other oscs proper remedies in bodily 
NOV this being ■ common inlirmitv of body and soul, and such a one 
1 as much need of spiritual as a corporal cure, I could not find ■ filter task 
myself about, a more apposite theme, so necessary, so commodious, and 
•J] sorts of men, that should so equally participate of both, ami 
..m. A divine in this compound mixed malady ran do little 
ut some kinds of melancholy much less, both make an al 



"Aii»rlu« *lc altera poach opem. 



-K-hiwi In frtmiti|ili> 




A inulual auccour In Meh ulual find. 

. and 1 hope not unbeseeming me, who am by my pro- 
m divine, and by mine inclination a physician. 1 had Jupiter in m\ sixth 
ij with '" -. turn sum m-dictis, w c mediciiur prorsus expert, in 

a* theory of physic I have taken some pains, not with an intent to practice* .but to 
satisfy myself, which was a cause likewise of the first undertaking of this svhji 

tbeao reasons do not satisfy, thee, good reader, as Alexander Munincus that 

; relate, sometiri ip of Lincoln, when he had built six castles, ud 

oprr Mr. Camden, to take away the envy of bia 

> words Nobrigensis hath of Roger the risk bishop of Salisbury, R lio in 

Stephen's liana bnfli ahirburu castle, and that of 1>< uses), to divert ths scandal 

at imputation, u h ■ ii might be thence infem-d, built so many religious houses. I! 

i nal, or savour too much of humanity,] promise 

thee dial I will hereafter make tliee amends in some treatise of divinity. Bui this 1 

haps shall suii. you ba»e more fully considered of the matter of (I lis my 

•abject, rraa tnl>strattnu. melancholy, madness, and of the reasons following, which 

tlity of the disease, the necessity of the cure, and 
lk» en«utii« n .i , or connnon good that will arise to all men by the knowledge of it, 
sasbail st large appear in the ensuing preface. And 1 doubt not hut that in the cud 

tins humour aright, through all the tin tubers 

sf lhi» «mr .Microcosm us, is as great a task, as to reconcile those enrol • rrore 

. •. ruin monarchy, find out the quadrature of a circle, the creeks and oiiuds 

«f uV r north- w est passages, and all out as good a net ■ that 

Usjgiy "Span i ens Australia Incognita, as great trouble as to perfect the 

Mercury, which BO crucifies our astronomers, or to rectify the 

I .mi hi affected for my part, and hope as "Theophrasms did 






' ■ ■•«. • In I 




«.»<« Intlitlim. 



■f l<eka«- 

nl, I".ir J 

•/■•//.i. J) J 
I Hutu. , 



lorn, du> iii-litiiil rirnnhia, r\ colli 
■ -I" d« Qllif 
' pfvw 
rM»i • I MM \i I' 

I /| cliul I 

"• nuitru ad Mtvu 
m ae jndc conicaui. 






httrwcrilus to the Reader. 

by his characters, " That our posterity, O friend Policies, shall be the belter for this 
■which we have written, by correcting ami rectifying what is amiss in themselves by 
our examples, and applying our precepts and cautions to their uwn use." -£ And as that 
great captain Zisca w ould have a drum made of his skin whan he was dead, because he 
' thongTil the very noise of it would put his enemies to flight, I doubt not but that these 
following lines, when they shall be recited, or hereafter read, will drive away m< Ian- 
ehol i I be gone) as much as Ziscn's drum could terrify his foes. Yet one 

cauliim In dm give by the way to my present, or my future reader, who is actually 
melancholy, that he read not the "symptoms or prognostics in this following tract, 
lest by applying that which he reads to himself, aggravating, appro things 

generally spoken, to his own person (as melancholy men for the most port do} he 
trouble OX hurt himself, and gel in conclusion more harm than good. I advise them 
therefore wanly to peruse that tract, IiOfidcB loquitur (so said " Atrrippade occ. Phil.) 
et car, on: h e.forea ne cerebrum, its excutiat. The rest 1 doubt not they may securely 
road, and to their benefit But I am over-tedious, I proceed. 

Of the necessity and generality of this which I have said, if any man doubt, I shall 
desire him to make a brief survey of the world, as ™ Cyprian advised) Dousl, u sup- 
posing himself to be transported to the top of some high mountain, and thence to be- 
hold the tumults and chances of this wavering world, he cannot cluise hut either 
laugh at, or pity it." S. Hierom out of a strong imagination, being in the wilder- 
ness, conceived with himself, that he then saw them dancing in Home; and if ihou 
shall either conceive, or climb to see, thou shall soon perceive that all the world is 
mad, that it 18 melancholy, dotes ; that it is (which Epichlhnnius t'osmopoh 
pressed not many jean since in a map) made like a fool's head (with that motto, Ca- 
put hcl/i born digltum B Crazed bead, 0O0M stultorum, B fool's paradise, or as Apol- 
louius, a common prison of gulls, cheaters, flatterers, Sec. and needs to be reformed. 
Sirabo in the ninth book of his geography, compares Greece to the picture of a man, 
which eompomoa ttt his, Nic. Oerbeuas in his exposition of Sophianns' map, ap- 
proves; die h: open from those Acroceraunian hills in Epirus, lo the Simian 
promontory in .Attica; Pogae and Magaera are the two shoulders; that |>ihnuis flf 
Corinth the neck; and Peloponnesus the head. If this allusion hold, 'tis sure a 
mad head, ftfarea may be Moria ; and to speak what I think, the inhabitants of 
modern Greece swerve as much from reason and true religion at this day, as that 
Mores doth from the picture of a man. Examine the rest in like sort, and you shall 
find thai kingdoms and provinces are melancholy, cities and families, all creatures, 
vegetal, sensible, and rational, that ail sorts, sects, ages, conditions, are out of tune, 
as in Cebes' table, omnes errarem hibuni, before they come into the world, they are 
intoxicated by error's cup, from the highest to the iowest have need of physic, and 
Be particular actions in "Seneca, where father and son prove one another mad, 
may he general; Porcius Lutro shall plead against us all. For indeed who is not | 
fool, melancholy, mad i — '■ Qui nil molitur inepte, who is not brain-sick? lolly, 
melancholy, madness, are bill one disease, Delirium is a common name to ill Alex- 
ander, (lordonius, Jason Prulensis, Savanarola, Guianerius, Montalius, con found them 
as (tillering secundum magis el minus; so doth David, I'sal. x.vwii. ."». "I said 
unto the fools, ileal not so madly," and 'twas an old Sloical paradox, omnes stultos 
truant/*?, "all fools are mad, though some madder than others. And who is not a 
fool, who is free from inelanelm] y ? Who is not touched more or less in habit or 
disposition ? If in disposition, " ill dispositions beget habits, if they persevere,'' saith 
M Plutarch, habits either are, or turn to diseases. 'Tis the same which Tully main- 
tains in the second of his Tusculans, omnium iruipirntum animi in mnrbo sun/, et per- 
turbatartnn, fools are sick, and all that arc troubled in mind : for what is sick 
but as "Gregory Tholosanus defines it, * l A dissolution or perturbation of the bodily 
league, which health combines :" and who is not sick, or ill-disposed ? in w In -in doth 

•• Purl I. MA, 3. ■ Pr«f. lectori. I p 2. Sntyra 3. Llamaslppu* Sioicm prulnt nmnri Multoi 

I. 8. ml IJoiiaiimt. Pikiilnpi i i. II [. -id ^uliiliiri in .mini i» ■ i n i r •' lib. 5. c. 6. Animi 

BOint* Ttrticcm CI Imioiem, *p«eulare l"Sa fnim ju- ntTri Ik>iif<, «i diiiliue innare-ml, pi . • i innl IM- 

MnttN ■ In 'lin'iaa pori«rli«, liin in- tiimv '■ I8,< >P I Syni. ;iri. imr MartM 

•Alia inn tid I turbines Inluera. Jam Omul mil rtdebhl nihil Ml aliud quoin dlnaolulin "l" irbjtlio 

.**".' ' 4 c MUM*. I. '}. rout. 7. ct iVrilerin in impure exlalaalia, aicul i con- 

X a. cunt. '-Jlorattut, "Idem, Hot. L J. icnlieulU bonscoipoTU cuoattmiuauu qucdiiu. 









Dt mnrritus 



:, fear and sorrow reign ? Who labours not r f this 
Luii a link leave, and you shall 
argument*, I wiB evince it, thai mosl men are mad, thai they bad as much 

:'o*s time tliry (!itl i as in our 

!n, our Lady ol i Lauretta, <" seek for help; 

I voyage as that of Guiana, and that there is much 
rwrtl of hellebore than of tobacco. 

oly, mud. giddy-headed, hear the testimony 
\nd 1 turned to behold wisdom, madnwff and folly,*' 
hit days u-, his travel grief, ami his heart I 

So thai take melancholy in what sense Ton will, property 
improperly, in dispo habit, fir pleasure or for Data, dotage, 

r part, or all, truly, or metaphorically, "'tis i 
ording to Solomon, and as St. Paul hath it, " Worldl} sorrow 
dcntli/'' '♦The hearts of the sons of" men are evil, and madi their 

IjiI. i\. 3. - \\ [se men diemselves are no better." 1'crl. i. 
ude of wisdom is much ' he thai b wisdom 

sorrow," chap. ii. 17. He hated lift itself, nothing pleased him : he I 

i conclud ion ,,f vpinr " And 

i in the world, raacftiarturfl eopfeitfta, and had wisdom 
e will not vindicate himself, or instil] I"- own actions. "Surely I 
more I nan, and have not the understanding of a man in me," 

.2. Be they Solomon's words, or the words of Agur, the boh of . : 
en: id, a man alter <.iod's own heart, confessed) as mud 

i Pnl. xxxvii, 2 1 , 22. u So foolish was I and ignorant, I was even as a beasl be* 
■ah inns all for fools, Psal. xriii.; xxxii. t) ; xlix. 20. lie 
them to u beasts, horses, and mules, in which there is no understanding.' 1 The 



•.tr 



Fob.-*, v. I 

yoo ?* How ol 



th himself in like sort. 2 Cor. ix. 21. M I would you would 

1 speak foolishly." "The whole hi ad 

■">. And makes lighter of them than of oil D am 
reed Dent xxxii. <> ; Jer. iv.; Anws iii. 1 ; 
ired, foolisb (ialatiatis, who hath bewi 
ded with this epithet of madness and folly? No 
gst the fathers of the Church and dil what 

irorld, and how (hey valued men's actions. 
ink far otherwise, and hold them most part wise men that are 
men, they are wise men born, all polil 
ji must needs be so, for who dare speak against them? And on ihe 
neat, we esteem wise and nun fools. Which 

DesBoenti d in an epistle L >f his to Hippocrates: 1S i 

• do most men living. Shall 1 tell you the reason of 
■ii and Tolly, their second-, up 
man thought th.it Fortune and Folly would have the « 
isea; but it fell out otherwise. Fortune was Mind and eared not 
rhom, without laws, Jiu<labalarum iflftor. kr. Folly, nv«h 
aad inconsiderate, esteemed as little what she said or did. Virtue ami Wisdom gave 
"nhce, were lu>*ed out., and exploded by the con fde; Folly and Fortune 

admired, and 80 their follov : knaves and fools commonly fare 

aad deserve boat tn »■> dimus' eyes and opinions. Many good men have no better 
■Ut in their ages: A Id David for a madman. "Elian 

David was derided of the common , 
i beeorae a monster to many." And generally we are accounted ! "ds 
•We fools thought his life madness, and his end without 
and his Apostles were censured in like sort, John x. ; 

irlgabani lllm 

. •lullillti In III! coin un-a, «t 

inr lintiel fclnluir, nulult i 

.lulu trcunduui iluluilmti. • ! 

in | Hi g . ■ 

c 2 

IANE LIBRARY. STANFORD UNIVERSE 





ao 



to the Render. 



Mark iii. ; Acts xxvi. And so were all Christians in M Pliny's lime, fur runt rt alii 
timilis J'truntitT, N.c. And called not long after, H Vesaniee scctalorcs, BUafMTU h'vni- 
nu/n, pn/luli noeatom, fanatici, canes, malrfici, rrri'fu i, Gul'dcni homuncumes, ke. 
Tis an ordinary tiling with us, to account honest, devout, orthodox, divine. rrli?i<m*. 
plain-dealing men, idiots, asses, that cannot, or will nut lie and dissemble, shift, flutter, 
accommodare se ad eum locum ubi nati Hfltf, in;ike good bargains, supplant, thrive, 
natronis imervire ; solennes ascendendi modos apprehi ndrn\ KgtS, nrnr**, cwisuctu- 
>rvare, candide laudare, fortitcr deft nrf< r<\ ft nt> ntias smp&cfi, dtpit- 
tartf cfc nullus, credere omnia, aceipt re amnio, nihil repn ih ndi n • cateraqur qua 
promotiotum ferunt el securitatem, qua- sine iunbtv.\e. ftetici <m, rnhlunt liomitv m, r/ 
eere fttjTteaten ff/W nw ■ that cannot temporise as other men do, *Miand and take 
bribes, ice bin fear God, and make a conscience of their doings. But the Holy 
host that knows belter how to judge, he calls them fools. "The fool hath said 
his heart," Psal. Hit 1. " And their ways litter their folly, 1 " Psal. xlix. 14. * 4 ** For 
what ran be more mad, than for a little worldly pleasure to procure unto themselves 
eternal punishment ?" As Gregory and others inculcate unto us. 

Yea even all those great philosophers the world hath ever had in admiration, whose 
works we do so much esteem, that gave precepts of wisdom to others, inventors of 
Arts and Sciences, Socrates the wisest man of his time by the Oracle of Apollo, 
whom his two scholars, "Plato and "Xenophoii, so much extol and magnify with 
those honourable titles, " best and wisest of all mortal men, the happiest, and 
most just;" and as *" Alcibiades incomparably commends him; Achii: 
worthy man, but Brae ides ami others were as worthy as himself; Antenor and Nes- 
tor were as [rood as Pericles, and so of the rest; but none present, before, or after 

Socrati's, i rsm tuque town </'" nunc *«nf, were unt such, will match, or 

conn i. Those seven wise men of Greece, those Britain Druids, Indian 

Bnirhinanni, Ethiopian GymnosophisL, Magi of the Persians, Apollotiius, of whom 
Philostratns. Abu dncltts, ted nulus sapiens, wise from his cradle, Eoicurus so much 
admired by his scholar Lucretius: 

Hnl gram liuinaniiin Ingralo *ii|nr:ivii. ul onilicti I Whose wil otcell'd Ihe wil» ofmi-n at far, 
I'er, lnio.il KallM esortOi ul n-tln hub siil. | , As Uif sun HjImj dulh obscuro n tl.'ir, 

Or that so much renowned Empedocles, '*"" , »»-»«'""~ 

*> Ul vii huirnnn vlrteamr Mlrpe creams. 

All those of whom we read such 91 hyperbolical eulogiums, as of Aristotle, that he 
was wisdom itself in the abstract, Si a miracle of nature, breathing libraries, as Euna- 
pins of LongUMIS, lights of nature, giants for wit, qBmteSBBDCe 0? wit, ilivine spirits, 
eagles in the clouds, fallen from h<a\in. irods, spirits, lamps of the world, dictators, 
,\'u/l" ferant lah m wcla futura rirum : monarch?, miracles, superintendents of wit 
nnd learning, occanus, phmnix, alias, monstrum, portentum hominis, orbis unicersi 
nsaum, ultimas Humana nalurte *oneitus, naiura marilus, 

meritft cui docllnr oilut 

Siil»im»«i» dr-fert faiinbtin linpeiium. 

lian writ of Protagoras and Gorgias, we may say of them all, fanhim a sapientihts 

runt, quantum a riris pveri, they were children in respect, infants, not eagles, 
but kites; novices, illiterate, Eunuchi sapienlia. And although lln-v wire the 
wisest, and most admired in their age, as he censured Alexander, I do them, there 
were 10,0<M in his army as worthy captains (had they been in place of command) as 
valiant M hnn-i If; ihere were myriads of men wiser in those days, and yet all short 
of whftl they ought to be. *'Larl:mtius, in his book of w isdo m, proVOi then to be 
dizardfi, fools, asses, madmen, so full of absurd and ridiculous tenets, and brain-sick 
positions, that to his thinkine; never any old woman or sick person doted worse. 
•'Democritus took all from Leticippus. and left, saith he, u the inheritance of Ins folly 






I J.lh. in. «-p. 97. M Aue. rp. ITS. « Qui- 

Lata ino^niiK f|u»m pro 
iriilu ii-rlcrni*lc nianclparpiiuppl 

I ti.i^iri fl En- 
!c i'i in. In i.i 1.11111111111 qili>* rl|k>rll 
• iimi, el jn -i ■ 

•" Xniop. I. 1. '<« ah - i- a«l Hneni. i.nh« fun 

m el fn'llii>*lmiirn «tJ- 

ruam. ~UI, :■■ , ,,,„ * I, ( |. 

rrUug. n Antxagormi ohm men* dictui ab anli- 



■", hi* rj Roiulri natnrr. natunp mirarulum, ipis 

erudilin dirmoiinim homlris. sol .«ri.-nt iitu hi. mure, 

.oplii.i, anlifim lilemnim el NpfcmlhP, til Si inppim 

■ t lloiiipiiiK. Aijiniii In nvbihuR, tmpo 

• iunif n liri-r.ii' eru4t- 

■■rrr »' I Hi S. ill" »*l» 

c. IT. rt DO. MMiea Philnrophl. nril ul nil ■. nil I in-uin; 

nnll.i ni.m millna ircef InrplllSn drlir ,i li I»". 

;"• doctu*, liii ri'ilu.netn tiullltla 
rcliquit Epic. 




Demoerilus to the Reader. 



31 



Epicu 












'tmsanienti J urn $apien/ia, kc. The like he holds ot Plato, AristippBA, 

\t them and beasts, saving that they could 
*Theodoret in hu tract, l> att grte.aj d manifesdj evinces m n 

"U that Oracle of Apollo continued to be the wisest man 

mog, and saved him from plague, whom '.£000 years have admired, of whom 

irill ax eoo evil as of Christ, yet re vera, he was an illiterate idiot, as 

nphancs rails him, irriscor et ambitioaa^wt bis master Aristotle terms him, 

Atticus, as Zi'ii". an "enemy to all arts and sciences u Athameus, to pbjloeo* 

M sea, :i eavilhr, a kind of pedant; for his manners, 

<^jrrensts describes him, a "sodomite, an athei-i. so convicl by Anytus) 

■fats et rhritiA, dicax, &c. a pot-companion, by JC0 Plato's own confession, a 

ker; and that of all others he was most sottish, a v an m bil 

> an<! Pythagoras was part philosopher, part magician, or part witch. 

re 01 Apollonius, a great wise man, sometime paralleled by 

to Christ, I refer you to that learned tract of Eusebius against 

lea, and for them all to Lucian's Piscatory Icaromenippus^ JV< cyoinaniui . their 

n L'eneral were so prod isurd, ridiculous, which they 

ted end maintained, their hooks and elaborate I sere full of dotage, 

. dclirani plenum/ ; seriptnres in libns 
• tlieir words, they commended poverty to others, 
-.extolled love and peace, and yet persecute.; 
hate and malice. They could give precepts for verse and 
not & man of them (as 'Seneca leUi them home) could moderate his afleo* 
nusic did show us JhiiUi mndos, &c. how to rise and (all, but they 
Dot no contain themselves as in adversity not to make a lamentable tone. 
_: n'try. set down limits, divide and subdivide, hut 

tutum komim satis, or keep within rompass of reason ana 
uare circles, but understand not the state of their own souls, 
jht lines and crooked, &.c. but know not what is rijjht in this life, quid :n 
; so that as he said, JS'escio an Antic tiram ruti<-> [flu destinet 
\ntii yr:e will not restore them to their wits, 'if these men 
■ art, Crates liver, F.pietetus lanthom, were so sottish, 
sad hail tio more brains than so many beetles, what shall we think of the MB- 
it of tl l 

•. that is true of heathens, if they be conferred with Chris- 
19, -The wisdom of this world is I i with God, earthly 

M James calls it, iii. 15. "They were vain in their imaginations, I 
roll of darkness,' 1 Rom. L 41, 22, •• \\ ben they profesw 
tarmsri res wiee, frfimt Ebola.' 1 Their witty works are edmi on 

merited in hell lire, hi some sense, Christian* Crc 
arc Crassians, and if compared i<> that wisdom, no better Mini fools. 

,'u.f. 'I'yt! . "God is only wise," Horn, \m Pal 

artermioes Austin well contends, "and no man living can 

jwUfird in -i fJod looked down from heaven upon the children 

awn, i- stand," Psalm liii. 2, 3, but all are corrupt, err. B 

>d, no, not one. 11 . Job aggravates this, iv. (S, " Behold he 

*wnd no strdfaxtnrss in his servants, anil laid folly upon h is angel s." li>. H How 

mac*> them that dwell in houses of clayr" In this sense we are all fools, 

alone is arr Minrrrer, we and our writings are shallow and 

Bear- -not 6o mean; even in our ordinary deelin 

"All our -is "Pliny told Trajan, "uphra ■" oiv 

• laughter: we are i Ij wise; and the 

hirh • ast to be wise by reason of his antiquity, us : lingo de 



and 



he 

or 




* Nihil 

Uod tnqil-lMur lie 
I » Neb rt 

url, ted 
tut apnotia Uc- 



lull cvriitlip non posatint. Ncnmlml cl 

jpcur CraUtlf. • I.ili. <!«r nul t 

. ii.iimc Rophttr fnii - <Pitcfjr Ira- 

' in ifowi I'nl Mn 

tiirralur, «rd ul jiiur \ull lotll -v 



. 



to ths Reader. 



■ 

other 



Prato Florido will have it, semprr slnltiznt, is every day more foolish than other 

the more it is whipped, the worse it is, and as a chilli will still he crowned with 

roses and flowers, 7 ' ^_We are apish in it, MUM f'ip"f<-s, and every place is full MUX r- 

sortim ,'lpnl iorum, 6f metamorphosed and two-legged assaSj inversorut,: M% 

childish, jiwerj instnr bimuli, trcmuld patris dormientis in ulna. Jovianus Fon- 

tamis, Antonio Dial, brings in some laughing at an old man, that by n 

% of his age was a little fond, but as he ftdntooisheth there, .Ye mirens mi hospet 

tie hoe Mtl ■; marvel not at him only, for tola li<i-r. eiritas ibVirium, all our t<iwn dotes 

m like sort, "we arc a company of fools. Ask not with him in ihr port, ' Istrva 

hunr. intempcricr insaniaquf, agitanl scnrm? What madness gho-ls this old man, 

but what madness ghosts us all ? For we are ad vnum omncx, all mad, jewel MMMi" 

vimus omnes, not once, hut alway so, et snm I, ct simti/, el semper, ever and altogether 

as bad as ho - ami not MUM Ml />iicr, dclira anus, but say it of lis all, MMJMT j>ui ri, 

young ami old. all dote, as Lactantius proves out of Senpca; and no dillerencc betwixt 

us and children, saving that, majora htdimus, el grandioribtu pupis, they play with 

babies of clouts and such toys, we sport with greater baubles. We cannot at 

or condemn one another, being faulty ourselves, delirtimmta liujurris, yon talk idly, 

or as ,0 31 i I to upbraided Demca, inxnnis, avferte, fur we are as mad our ownselves, 

and it is hard to say which is the worst! Nay, ''tis universally so, "Vitam regit 

fortvrvi, non so pi> nl'ui. 

S When "Socrates had taken great pains to find out a wise man, and to that purpose 

C. had consulted with philosophers, poets, artificers, he concludes all men were fools; 

/ and though it procured him both anger and much envy, yet in all companies he 

/ would openly profess it. When "Supputius ia PoBtMMU hud travelled all OTM 

I Europe tO COnfo witlv a wise man, he returned at last without his errand, and could 

| find none. "Cardan concurs with him, " lew there are (for aught I can perceive) 

/ well in their wits." So doth ,4 Tully, M I see everything to be done foolishly and 

unadvisedly." 

Ultftl I irnr>i>m.nnu« ntrlque I / One reel* in thii, annum |© thill wall. 

Error, mil voru. UlodU partihiis omnei. | \JTbjlbetime error Hint drludci them ill. 

"Thf-y d.>h all, hut not alike, Maria yap rtaw ufMHa, not in the same kind, " One is 

■ ovr i ■. ious, a third ambitious, a fourth envious, &.c." as Dama- 

sipjuis the Stole hath well illustrated in the poet, 

■falM -nine, a-que ac la. | f ul "l 01 ' !**° fl,l >'' > " ** ,v ' lh r '<" : " f,,im 

May plead an ample tule to the namu. 

Tk an inbred malady in evorv one of us, there, is semimtrium stullititr, a seminary 

of folly, u which if it be stirred up, or get a-head, will run in infinitum, and infinitely 

varies, as we ourselves are severally addicted." Mith "Balthazar Castilio : and cannot 

so easily he rooted out, it takes such fast hold, as Tully holds, alia radices stulliliai r 

■v« are bred, and so we continue. Some say there he two main defects of wit, 

error ami ignorance, to which all others are reduced; by ignorance we know imt 

\ , by error we know them falsely. Ignorance is a privation, error a 

.eact. From ignorance conies vice, from error heresy, fee* But make how 

many kinds you will, divide and subdivide, few men are free, or that do not impinge 

on some one kind or other. * Sic plerumque ffgitat slullos inscilia, as he that 

in- own and other men's anions shall find. 

11 Charon in Lwrian, as he wittily feigns, was conducted by Mercury to such a 

place, where he might see all the world at once; aftt r he had sufficiently viewed. 

and looked shoot, Haretuy would needs know off him what he had observed: He 

told him that he saw a vast multitude and a prom Venous, their habitations like 

tiolehills, ill! 1 men as emm* K " he could discern cities like so many hives of bees, 

when bee had aating, and they did nought else hut sting one another, some 

Jmineerinir like hornets bigger than ihe rest, some like filching wasps, others as 



• Inaamimte'imnet pucrl, rtirmTilqnp pin-lla-. llnr. 
• Plautus tabular. '• M'-lpli art V «ren. H. 

■Tully T«H ' f'Ttnn-. DOI » imlnin, got*.- rim "i>r 
.!».•< 'Plato \polnru Sorrnlia. "Ant. 

Dial. » t.i> ] di .;> |iniri in viilf-n nan* mmiia 

NBfc ie ft Ineaute nmnra nci (MM. 

' Inimli n.'ii >.iim. Btmui (tul 3- cent. 

10. Bcrou moruluiiii <[ul non aliqua in re deaiprt, licet 



aliua alio mnrho laborer, bic libidinia, ille araritiir, 
nirit.ii|..ni., mvifllw. •» If..r. I- 1 s.t. 3. '"Lib, 

1 .I.- niilKi. Km la) linni|.H"| | ni>i>lriiiii ariniri irimn 

i ti ■|ii)iiiilne\cltrlur, in iriliiiit.uu 

■ it. >• Prlmaqiii* lm vIIt pn-n» 

Jiirnib oral. ""Tihullua, ji' lal data, 

llieir wlU are a wool-galherine. So funis tniumonlf 
dole. * Dial. conlem|>lanica, Tom. 2 




oih rr 



•ffadfl 



Demoenttu to the Reader. 

Over their heads were hovering a confused company of perturbations, 

r, anger, avarice, ignorance, &.c, and a multitude of diseases hanging, which 

•till palled on their pates. Some were brawling, gome lighting, riding, running, 

le iitigantrsi for toys and trifles, and such momentary tilings, 

town* and provinces mere lindens, neb against poor, poor against rich, nobUB 

artificers, they against nobles, and so the rest In conclusion, he condemned 

ail for madmen, fools, idiots, asses, stulli, qiurnam hac est amentia f O 

D madmen, he exclaims, insana stuilia, insani /«/••- ■■. fee, Mad endeavour.-. 

tad, mad, "O seclum insipieris r.t infiucetunu, a giddv-headed a>re. 

the philosopher, out of a serious meditation of men's lives, fell a weeping, 

SO Otinual tears bewailed their misery, madness, and folly. Demooni' 

side, burst out a laughing, their whole life seemed to him so ridiculous, and 

so far carried with this ironical passion, that the citizens of Abdera took him 

ad, and sent therefore ambassadors to Hippocrates, the physician, that he would 

his skill upon him. But the story is set down at large by Hippocrutcs, in 

to Damogetu*, which because it is not impertinent to this discourse, 1 will 

almost as it is delivered by Hippocrates himself, with all the eircum- 

bviooejiag unto it. 

• Hippocrates was now come to Abdera, the people of the city came flocking 
iim, some weeping, some intreating of him, that he would do his best. After 
Utile repast, he went to see Democritus, the people following him, whom he 
, m before ) in his garden in die suburbs all alone, B * sitting upon a stone under 
tree, without hose or laOM) wiUi a book on his knees, rutting up several 
and bosy at his study." The multitude stood gazing round about to see the 
pocrates, after a little pause, saluted him by his name, whom he 
tshamed almost that he could not call him likewise by his, or that he had 
pocrates demanded of him what he was doing : he told him that he 
'•bo- ip several beasts, to find out the cause of madness and 

Hippocrates commended his work, admiring his happiness and leisure. 
4ad morriius, have not you that leisure? Because, replied Hip- 

dcanestie affairs hinder, necessary to be done for ourselves, neighbours, 
expenses, diseases, frailties and mortalities which happen; wife, children, 
and such business which deprive us of our time. At this speech Dcino- 
pmfaeely laughed (his friends and the people standing by, weeping in the 
time, and lamenting his Badness . Hippocrates asked the reason why he 
••••Id him, at thi and the topperiea of die time, to see men M 

d[ all vi; ons, la hunt so far after gold, having no end of ambition j 

a Ukr such infinite pains for ■ little glory, and to he favoured of men; to make 
■ca deep mine* into the earth for gold, and many tunes to lind nothing, with loss 
4 thru trees and fortune- io love do >me to desire to be 

•Wjrcd m man' a,** and yet themselves will know no obedience. "Some 

t »»vr their wives dearly at first, and after a while to forsake and hate them; 
^FMUUf children, with much care and cost for their education, yet when they grow 
■> ■sa's estate, p t . neglect, and leave them naked to the world's mercy. 

'Dw sot these beh intolerable folly r When men live bj peace, 

fay eorct war, detesting quietness, "deposing kings, and advancing others in their 
, murdering some men to beget children of their wives. How iikjijv strange 
«n are in men ! When they are poor and needy, they seek riches, and when 
fa? hate them, they do not enjoy them, but hide them under ground, or else 
•fcrtrfuDy spend them. O wise Hippocrates, 1 laugh at such things being done, bat 
•en more when no good comes of them, and when they arc done to so ill purpose. 
TVrrn m no truth or justice found amongst them, for they daily plead one against 
1 the son against the father and the mother, brother against brother, kindred 



l*T rtrrr 
tbrv ,,». 




• Up" 

bmrtaa. hl.i.itr, . 

,•*« [wrwui, sed 



ttili«l ; nsinr.im di*niiiren*. *» Aum. 1. 1. in Gen. 

Juineiiti h. »er»i tut obiequium rlciJe po»t<iU». el in 
nullum pmlu alils. nrr ipil Dta " C x«irM 

unit form* rjirlunt. R I'uero* »ma I 

■ Uaid hoc mb inuniA deeil 1 *• IU- 
gunllClllil. Htpr niirt *■ Contra iwrenlet, fratrra, 

civei, perperuo ruanlur, «t Inlnlciltu* »RunA 



Democritus to the Reader. 



. as 

I 



nnd friends of the same quality; and all this for riches, whereof after death th< 
cannot be possessore. And yet notwithstanding' they will defame and kill or 
another, commit all unlawful actions, contemning God and men, friends and count 
They make great account of many senseless things, esteeming them as a Irani 
nf iheir treasure, statues, pictures, and such like movables, dear bought, and so cun- 
niiiL r lv wrought, as nothing but speech wanteth in them, 3l and yet they-hate living 

{-us speaking to them. M Others affect difficult things ; if they dwell on firm 
and they will remove to an island, and thence to land again, being no way constant 
to their desires. They commend courage and strength in wars, and let themselves 
■uquered by hist and avarice ; they are, in brief, as disordered in their minds, as 
Thcrsites was in his body. And now, methinks, O most worthy Hippocrates, ft 
should not reprehend my laughing, perceiving so many fooleries in men ; w for n< 
man will mock his own folly, but that which he MW in a second, and bo the 
justly mock one another. The drunkard calls him a glutton whom he knows to 

Many men love the sea, others husbandry ; briefly, they cannot agree in 
dwb trades and professions, much less in their lives and actions. 

When Hippocrates heard those word* so readdy ottered) without premeditation, 
to declare the world's vanity, full of ridiculous contrariety, he made answer, That 
necessity compelled men to many such actions, nnd divers wills ensuing from divine 
permission, that we might not be idle, being nothing is so odious to them as sloth 
and negligence. Besides, men cannot foresee future events, in this uncertainty of 
human affairs ; they would not so marry, if they could foretel the causes of their 
dislike and separation -, or parents, if they knew the hour of their children's death, 
Utterly provide for them ; or an husbandman sow, if he thought there would be 
no increase ; or a merchant adventure to sea. if he foresaw shipwreck ; or he a magis- 
trate, if presently to be deposed. Alas, worthy Democritus, every man hopes the 
best, and to that end he doth it, and therefore no such cause, or ridiculous occasion 
'of laughter. 

D'Hi'M-ritus hearing this poor excuse, laughed again aloud, perceiving he wholly 
mistook him. and did not well understand what he hud said concerning perturbations 
and tranquillity of the mind. Insomuch, that if nun would govern their actions by 
discretion and providence, they would not declare themselves fools as now they do, 
and he should have no cause of laughter; but (quoth he) they swell in this life as 
if they were immortal, ant! demigods, for want of understanding. It were enough to 
make them wise, if they would but consider the mutability of this world, and how 
it wheels about, nothing being firm and sure. lie that is now above, to-mormw is 
beneath ; he that sate on this side to-day, to-morrow is hurled on the other : and 
not considering these matters, llicy fall into many inconveniences and trouble*, 
coveting things of no profit, and thirsting after them, tumbling headlong into many 
calamities. So that if men would attempt no more than what they can bear, they 
should had contented lives, and learning to know themselves, would limit their 
ambition, M they would perceive then that nature hath enough without seeking such 
superfluities, and unprofitable things, which bring nothing with them but grief 
ami molestation. As a fat body is more subject to diseases, so are rich men to 
absurdities and fooleries, to manv casualties and cross inconveniences. There are 
manv that take no heed what happeneth to others by bad conversation, and there- 
fore overthrow themselves in the same manner through their own fault, not foreseeing 
dangers manifest. These are things (O more than mad, quoth he) that give me 
matter of laughter, by suffering the pains of your impieties, as your avarice, I 
malice, enormous villanies, mutinies, unsatiable desires, conspiracies, and othe 
incurable vices; besides your *"' dissimulation and hypocrisy, bearing deadly hatrc 
one to die other, and yet shadowing it with a good face, flying out into all filth) 
lusts, nnd transgressions of all laws, both of nature and civility. Many things whi 
tiny have left off, after a while they fall to again, husbandry, navigation; and lea\ 



*> Mola Inanlmala ■mint, anlmata mtio habent, «ic 

ponllfirii. a Credo cquldrm vivo* duccnt A mnr- 

more vuiiii" tin •lultltian parapiell name, 

ted alter alteram deritivt. * Penique ait fini* qua- 

r*ndi, cumque lulteai plus, pavpericw caelum minua, 



rt t'uiu-c laborem tacipl.-m, parlli quod arobftf. ii<<to 
Jlc.r ■ AtiMiiin vnpiil«aerviittab|H>clorr viil[ii.m 

i v.il|M |n..sHu» panic! vulpinari-'i Cretit 
dum elm lieu. 






Demoenlus to the Rtadrr. 



35 



inconstant as they are. When they are young, they would be old 
j.-^** Princes commend a private life; private men itch after honour 
s a quiet life; a quirt man would be in hi* office, and obeyed 
m he is : and what is the cause of all this, hut that they know not themselves? 
Some delight to destroy, "one to build, another to sjioil one country to enrich 
another and himself. M ln all these things they are like children, in when tl 

■ •r counsel and resemble beasts, Baring that beasts are better than they, as 
; contented with nature«Y*When shall you sec a lion hide gold in the ground, Of i 
ctmtrni! for hetier pasture ? When a boar is thirsty, he drinks what will - 
.and no more ; and when his belly is full, ceaseth to eat : but men arc bmnedi 

>j-t — they covet carnal copulation at set times; men always, ruinating 
the health of their hodies. And doth it not deseive laughter to see an am 
fool torment himself for a wench; weep, howl for a mis-shapen slut, a dowdy 
that might have his choice of the finest beauties ? Is there anv n i 
for tins in physic ? 1 do anatomise and cut up these poor beasts, *to see ilie.se dis- 
ranities. and lollies, yet such proof were better made on man's body, if my 
nature would endure it: "who from the hour of his birth is most miserable 
and sickly; when he SUCks he is guided by others, when lie is grown great 
unhappiness **and is sturdy, and when old, a child again, and repenteth 
at his life past And here being interrupted by one that brought books, he fel| 
> agnin. that all were mad, careless, stupid. To prove my former speeches, look 
or private houses. "Judges give judgment according to their own 
ig manifest wrong to poor innocents to please others. Not aries alter 
and for money lose their deeds. Some make false monies; others eoun- 
I folse weights. Some abuse their parents, yea corrupt their own sisters ; others 
long libels and pasquils, defaming men of good life, and extol .such as are lewd 
oos. Some rob one, some another: "magistrates make laws a_ ree,( 

the reriest thieves themselves.J(^ome k ill themselves, others despair, not. 
g their desires. Some dance, sing7"laugh, feast and banquet, whilst oth 
sight languish, mourn and lament, having neither meat, drink, n< Sonic 

up their bodies, and have their minds full of execrable via 
bear fake witness, and say anything for money ; and though judges know of it, 
for a bribe they wink at it, and suffer false contracts to prevail against equity 
are all day a dressing, to pleasure other men abroad, and go like sluts at 
not canng to please their own husbands whom they should. Seeing men are. 
sottish, so intemperate, why should not I laugh at those to whom ,: folly 
dam, will not be cured, and perceive it not ? 
It pew late : Hippocrates left him ; and no sooner was he come away, but all the 
about flocking, to know how he liked him. lie told them in 
notwithstanding those small neglects of his attire, body, diet, "'the world had 
: a wiser, a more learned, a more honest man, and they were much deceived to 
' mat he was mad. 

Dcmocritus esteemed of the world in his time, and this was the cause of his 
: and good cause he had. 

Demnrrttna did well m IniiRh of old, 



>6rkle„eo 



ijtti ijuidcm. nuoe plus lli-in.>crita ride ; 
i ikaaa I tin tec nunc mar,e riuirul* cat. 



Good cause lie had, but i."w much more ; 
Tbi» life uf onr» i> ninrr rtdi< uli-ai 
Than thai or Ilia, nr long before. 



•<> much cause of laughter as now, never so many fools and madmen. Tis 
i nee * Dcmocntus will serve turn to Laugh m these d ay- ; w* base now need of ■ 



•QaM «f M«*T«M nt i»#irin qm 
* IttmH, rd 

TnjHMaiK''. 



'!...%» '..- f »tlUl.< 

aaaa rati- xa !»»»« 
• l«Va Hut 
Ml 

:i»ilmi 
■ If 



J*4n-*l9 s wm. a>< 



<• • l&MftvlJ A It under m I i, rim, 



h m. Sell Darnnat font* judex, quod Inlus onrmtur. t'j-finiin 

ii vivat, "Viillua maunn curs, iiiafoa annul locuria. Am. 

nirirata room- M»rri-I ' II rr«m)i re» e*t, vix duo verba etna 

innbiuui, qin'in nieiidiirioprnffriinlur : ei quano i» aoletiniter ii'imlnaa 

"Qui id »rril»iem dlr'Tnliini iiivn.-ninr, pajanre lanaaa nun 

en- dniiilnni. ni pi decern lembun vtl tinoa veram diral. 

npc Calv. in S Jubn, e>erni I 'Mara 

til. *»«iqoidfin #npipnti«! »»*■ adinirn- 

i none me romp'. ■«> Mnitov. 

rw4MII*tni« flat aatvov poteal turn ■ cMat«. 

rf\f. ■> Plutr» Dcroni r\\\ iimwi rvn •wtt- 

'i»i r/iint, npul Demorril'- qui Diuioi mum xuitttV 
•Tu ji'—inini i Muna. 



J6 



tmoeritta to the Reader. 



u Democritus to laugh at Democritus-," one jester to flout at another, one fool 
Hear at another : a great s tentnrian Democritus, as big as that Rhodian Cole 
For now, as" Salisbunensis ttid in his time, tatut mundus histrioncm agit, thewhol 
work! plays the fool ; we have a new theatre, a new scene, a new comedy of error 
a new company of personate actors, volupia. sacra (as Calcaguinus willingly feigr 
hi his Apologues) are celebrated all the world over, where all the actors were mac 
men and fools, and every hour, changed habits, or took that which came next. H 
that was a mariner to-day, is an apothecary to-morrow ; a smith one while, a pfailoM 
her another, in his volupia ludis ; a king now with his crown, robes, sceptre, ntlenc 
ants, by and by drove a loaded ass before him like a carter, &.c. If Democritu 
were alive now, he should see strange alterations, a Dew company of count 
vizards, whiillers, Cuniane asses, maskers, mummers, painted puppets, outsider, fan- 
tastic shadows, gulls, monsters, giddy-bead*, butterflies. And so many of them ar 
bodied i 'il all he true that I have read). For when Jupiter and Juno's weddir 
leniniscd of old, the gods were all invited to the feast, and many noble BM 
besides : Amongst the rest came Crysalus, a Persian prince, bravely attended, ric 
in golden attires, in gay robes, with a inajestical presence, but otherwise an ass 
The gods seeing him come in such pomp and state, rose up to give bin place, ex habit 
k iminrm metientea ; M but Jupiter perceiving what he was, a light, fantastic, idle fel- 
low, turned him and his proud followers into butterflies : and so they continue at 
; for aught I know to the contrary) roving about in pied coats, and are called chr 
Udes by the wiser sort of men : that is, golden outsides, drones, and flies, and things 
»f no worth. Multitudes of such, £tc. 

" -nbique Invent** 

Stulto* avaroa, tycupltanla* prodigal.*'" 

Many additions, much increase of madness, folly, vunily, should Pernocrhus observe, 

were lie now to travel, or could get leave of Pluto to come see fashions, as Charon 

did in Lucian to visit our cities of Moronia Pia, and Moronia Fcelix : sure I think 

he would break the rim of his belly with laughing. * Sifortl in terris riderct De- 

vi<>t:ritits, sru f &.C. 

A satirical Roman in his time, thought all vice, folly, and madness were all at full 

sea, " Omne. in pracipili viliitm strlif. 

V " Josephus the historian taxeth his countrymen Jews for bragging of their vires. 

'publishing their follies, and that they did contend amongst themselves who should 

be most notorious in villatiies; hut we flow higher in madness, far beyond them, 

..... . ,., , ., I And yet with Almti to ui unknown, 

* Mox daluri progeniem vllioatorem," | , J(|r £„, ,„„„ „, ark ,„ e coming nf , \ Mf own> 

»m\ die latter end (you know whose oracle it is) is like to be worse. 'Tis not to 
be denied, the WOrM alien every day, Ritual urhes, rrgna tnmsfentntur, &c. varian- 
tur /> -y.« iniun-anlnr, as Co Petrarch observes, we change language, habits, 

laws. . manners, Imt not viei.-s, nut diseases, not the symptoms of f.llv and 

ass, they are still the same. And as a river, we see, keeps the like name and 
. but not water, and yet ever runs, " Labitur ctlabctur in omne vohibilisttvum; 
our limes and persons alter, vices are the same, and ever will be; look how night- 
's sang of old, cocks crowed, kiue lowed, sheep bleated, sparrows chirped, 
dogl harked, so they do still : we keep our madness still, play the fools still, ncc 
dum jiiiitus Orestes ; we are of the same humours and inclinations as our predecea- 
«ors were; you shall find us all alike, much at one, we and our suns, el nnti nuto- 
rum, cl qui nascuntur ab illis. And so shall our posterity continue to the last. But 
ik of times present. 

If Democritus-wera alive now, and should but see the superstition of our age, out 
* religious madness, as a Meteran calls it, Rcligiosam insaniam, so many profe 



•• Pnlycrat. lib. 3. cap. 8. e Patron. " Ubi omnca 

dulirnlmiil, nmtiea Inaanl, ttc. horfie nan la, era* plnhi- 

•opfaut ; (iodic fiber, era* pharmnci.pula j hie modo 

Igabal ami 10 tallcllltin. tiara, rt (cepiro nrna- 

tur. I'M ui. v ill amirtu* ceaticttto, ii-urnm HitHlarium 

Imii.'lhi " Caltagninui Apol. Cryaalus e elarta 

■nro dW«a, maniraia pepto et tiara connpirnm, Irvia 

mji.;jt,m ft aulllm contilii, &.c. ii.aenn faitu inrredi- 

''"•'"'" ''". *c "Bed huminit lerualetn 

imn/ticttaM, *t ta (in.ijull) esto 6onituli.>, Ac. 



protlnuaq ; veaile ilia maiiir.au in alat veraa eat, M 
mnrlalea Hide Chryaalkdaa vocanl bujuarnodi hoounoe. 
■ I'M win meet coveteiu fuott and prodigal ayco- 
phinta everywhere. "Juv.-n. "Juveu. 

*»De bello Jud. I. 8- e. It. IniquliMea rcslnr ncmi- 
nam latent, ioqiie diei alngulDi rertamen babtiii quia 
peiorail. "Iter. » Lib. 5. Epiit . ■> 11/ 

"aapaniitto eat iaatnua error. "Lib. 8- 1 

BeJg. 



Dtmocrihu to the Header. 



37 



, yet to few imitators of Christ ; so much talk of religion, so much science 
i conscience; so much knowledge, so many preachers, so littje practice; such 

of sects, each have and hold of all sides, •* obvia signis Signu, Bu 

"aditions and ceremonies: If he should meet a ** Capuchin. 
in, a Pharisaical J< -.int. a man-serpent, a shave-emu iwd Monk in his n 
■ see their thr ee -crowned Sovereign Lord the Pope, poor I'> 
r, serttu terrorism Dei, to depose kings with his foot, to (mail on empci 
make them stand hare-foot and bare-legged at his gates, hold his bridle find 
ttx. i O that Peter and Paul were alive to see tliis !) If he should observe 
'Prince creep so devoutly to kiss his toe. and those Ked-cap Cardinals, poor parish 

of old, now Princes' companions ; what would he say ? Calum ipsum 

i.'w/nri .• Had he met some of our devout pilgrims going bare-foot to Jenn-a- 

oar lady of Lauretto, Rome, S. Iago, S. Thomas' Shrine, to creep to those 

it and maggot-eaten reliques ; had he been present at a mass, and seen such 

of Paxes, crucifixes, cringes, duckings, their several attires and ceremonies, 

«f taints, "indi pardons, vigils, fasting, feasts, crossing, knocking, 

at Ave-Marias, hells, with many such; jucvnda rwli s-prrlucula plebi^ 

■'\, ami mumbling of beads. Had he heard an old woman say her 
in Latin, their sprinkling of holy water, and going a procession, 

■ "tncedunl monacborum neiiunj mille j 

Quid nomeretn Texllla, cruc«», idolaque culia, A I 

• breviaries, bulls, hallowed beans, exorcisms, pictures, curious crosses, fables, and 

Had he read the Golden Legend, the Turks' Alcornn, or Jims' Talmud, 

n»' Comments, what would he have thought? How dost thou think he 

* been effected ? Had he more particularly examined a Jesuit's life wou gjW 

rt, be ehould have seen an hypocrite profess poverty, '"and yet possess neoM 

end laaw 1 - my princes, to have infinite treasures and revenues ; teach 

to fast, and play the gluttons themselves; like watermen that row DM w.iv 

|ook another. n Von virginity, talk of holiness, and yet indeed a OOtorioee 

famous fornicator. tmcwuM j»'cir<i. a very goat. Monks by profession,'- 

ea five oirer the world, nnd the vanities of it, and yet a Mtictriarchan rout 

inner of state : holy men, peacc-rnnkers. and yet Composed of envy, 

hatred, ind malice; Are-brands, adulta {>fi?ri,r pflM*fj traitors. MUHH 

iter avi *ui/ra, and this ■ to ■■pemugeta, and merit heaven for them-i - 1 x ■ ■ 

ea on the adverse side, some of our nice and curious schis- 

■ t all ceremonies, and rather lose their lives and livings, 

do or «*l< ing Papists have formerly used, though in things indillcreut 

feerj aloor ore the tree Church, tal terra-, cum sint omnium insuhissimi). Formal- 

*+. oat at fear end beee flattery, like 00 many weather-cocks turn round, a rout • >f 

rew< >raee and maintain all that is or shall be proposed in hope 

another Epicurean company, lying at lurch as so many vultures, 

for a pn rj tode, and reed] to rise by the downfall of any : aa 

mid in like rase, what dost thou think Democritus would have don< 

§e tilings ? 

he but observed the common people follow like so many sheep one of 

rOowe drawn by the horns over a gap, some for zeal, some for fear, quo 00 

rrtfrrttfai, to credit all, examine nothing, and yet ready to die before 

n-s to which they have been eocustomed, 

out *4 G e quBU l sermons, knock their breasts, turn up their 

ml. ilmin reformation, and yet professed usurers, gripers, monsters of nun 

drciU in their lives, to express nothing less. 



I Ml* 



■ Faibrt Arr*lo, Kir Ouk« of JoyeuT, 
Mt mi Ik* A>{« lo Rnmt, Icr.. <*■ SI 

■edikf n rente* 

I aaawiU*. lafli in.lijr.i lit,, -r,«. im dis.i- 

I I ir*. <■<>«. HI 

111! .1111 



taut d« aelit Rom- Poni. * Pleating apemrlri 

i« Ui* i|tnnraiii poor. • Th. Keageor. ■■■ Hum 

.rqillstveruiit ritii 30 gi 
tpaiio bl« cdilena nitllia librarum onniia Arnold, 
n Kl <i' •!'■ y urlule »r»« IP 

luiiliuli, rluiiL-x atrium liilioie norliiMi", > 



,1 lib! « i.l.n'.i v I 

■ niut, *i borum tpeclalur beatfebSMl 



D 






Danocritus to the Reader. 



What would he have said to see, hear, and read so many bloody battles, so man) 
thousands slam ut once, such streams of blond ulilt: to turn mills: unius ob noxai 
furiatqvc, or to make sport for princes, without any just cause, 76i ' for vain liilc 

. precedency, some wench, or such like toy, or out of desire of domi- 
neering, vainglory, malice, revenge, folly, madness," (goodly causes all, oh que 
univrrsiis orbis bull is ct cadibus misceatur,) whilst statesmen themselves in the me 
time an.' leCHM at home* iximpered 'With all delights and pleasures, lake their ease, 
anil follow their lusts, not considering what intolerable misery poor soldiers endure, 
their nfim wounds, hunger, thirst, &.c, the lamentable cares, torments, calamine 
and oppressions that accompany such proceedings, they feel not, take no notice 
it. " so Van are begun, by the persuasion of a few debauched, hair-brain, poor, 
■lute, hungry captains, parasitical fawners, unquiet hotspurs, restless innovator 
n heads, to satisfy one man's private spleen, lust, ambition, avarice, 6tc. ; tale 
rapiunt scrkrata in pralia causa. Flos homimtm y proper men, well proportion 
carefully brought up, able both in body and mind, sound, led like so many "beast 
to the slaughter in the 11 o we r of their years, pride, and full strength, without j" 
remOIW and pity, sacrificed to Pluto, killed up as so many sheep, for devils' food, 
40,000 at once. At once, said I, that were tolerable, hut these wars last always, and 
for many ages; nothing so familiar as this hacking and hewing, massacres, inn: 

desolation! ignoto ccclum clangors rcmugit, they care not what mischief they 

procure, so that they may enrich themselves for the present ; they will so long blov 
the coals of i-onii ntum, ull all the world be consumed with fire. The "siege 
Troy lasted trn veiis, i i<rht months, there died 870,000 Grecians, 670,000 Trojans, 
at the taking of the city, and after were slain 276,000 men, women, and children of 
all sorts. Ctesar killed a million. ** Mahomet the second Turk, 300,000 persons; 

as Denlutus fought in a hundred battles, eight times in single combat he over- 
came, had forty wounds before, was rewarded with 140 crowns,, triumphed nine 
tunes lor his good service. M. Sergius had 32 wounds; Scaeva, the Centurion, I 
know not how many ; every nation had their Hectors, Scipios, Caesars, and Alex- 
anders! Our n Edward the Fourth was in 26 battles afoot: and as they do all, he 
glories in it, 'tis related to his honour. At the siege of Hierusalem, 1,100,000 died* 
with sword ami famine. At the battle of Cannas, 70,000 men were slain, as "'Poly- 
bins records, ud as many at Battle Abbey with us; and 'tis no news to fight from 
i-ni to sun, as they did, as Constaiitine and Liriuius, Its, At the siege of Ostend 
( the devil's academy) a poor town in respect, a small fort, but a great grave, 120,000 
men lost their lives, besides whole towns, dorpes, and hospitals, full of maimed 

rs; there were engines, fire-works, and whatsoever the devil could invent to 

il isehief with 2,500,000 iron bullets shot of 40 pounds weight, three or four 

millions of gold consumed, K< * Who (saith mine author) can be sufficiently amazed 
at their flinty hearts, obstinacy, fury, blindness, who without any likelihood of good 
■access, hazard poor soldiers, and lead them without pity to the slaughter, which 
rnav justly be culled the rage of furious beasts, that run without reason upon their 
own deaths :" M quis malus genius, qutc furia qua pestis, Stc. ; what plague, what 
Airy brought so devilish, so brutish a thing as war first into men's minds i Who 

so soft and peaceable a creature, born to love, mercy, meeknesB, so to rave, rage 
like beasts, ami run on to their own destruction? how may Nature expostulate with 
mankind, Ego tr dirinuni animal fmxi, Sec. ? I made thee an harmless, quiet, a divine 
Rxe&tun : how may God expostulate, and all good men ? yet, horum facia (as "one 
Condoles) tantum <i<lmirnntur, el hcroum numtro habent : these are the brave 8] 

illants of the world, these admired alone, triumph alone, have statues, crowns, 

nids, obelisks to their eternal fame, that immortal genius attends on them,, lute 
itur ml nxini. When Khodes was besieged, u fossa urbis cadaveribus rcji/< Uf .s»nr, 
the litches were full of dead carcases; and as when thfl said Solyinan, great Turk, 
beleaguered Vienna, they lay level with the top of the walls. This they make a 



"Ob I .mm lllulng, olv proration l. i, 

■■■.-. hi him. I .[.i.. il (■ .full Ilia nattim, 
<•>■] < unmet, quod mpid't dotnlnandt, lililrlo normal, 

Ac. '■' Hi'lluill fl'in BltfM lii'llill Him. 

'top lib. * "Manner. COMBOf. I. i, r. 8 E. 

'- Ctttco* '• JoriuM rlt. eJttM. « Comlneu* 



« Mb. J. ■ IliM nf Oic niece Of OjIpihI. fol. «S. 

** Kra*ftin« it i" l>i-lin l'i placldOn Uln.t «mnni baoa> 
Tnlfnnir nalum lam fcrlna vcconllft in npituatn 1 

" Kich. Kiiioih. iiiifni. Belli 
Gal. mJovIu*. 




Democriixu to the Reader. 



30 



and will do it to theil friends and confederates, against oaths, vow??, Bfi 

treachery or otherwise; M dolus an eirtusf quts in hook rtquiralf 

and laws of arms, (*\ mi, r urma,) for their advance, o 

kumma, proculcata plerumque sunt ■ God's and men's laws are trampled 
foot, the sword alone determines all; to satisfy their lust and spleen, they care 
i what they attempt, say, or do, m Rara fides, probitanqur viris qui caslra scquunlur. 
so common as to have Hw father fight against the son, brother • 
kinsman against kinsman, kingdom against kingdom, province again 
nstians against Christians:" a quihus tur unquam cogitations f iterant L 
'whocn tbey never had offence in thought, word, or deed, Infinite treason 

towns burned, flourishing cities sacked and ruinated, quodque. animus memi 
joodly countries depopulated and left desolate, old inhabitants expelled, 
ad traffic decayed, maids deflowered, Vtrgtncs nmidum thalamic jugatcr, n 
v md t t m pa*Ui* rpfuzbi ; chaste matrons cry out with Andromaclu 

far pati rjus„ qui inttmnit U ball be compelled perad- 

M ith them that erst killed their husbands : to see rich, poor, sick, 
lords, servants, eodem omnes incommodo niacin consumed all or maimed, &c. 
qmctptid gaudens Sctbrc animus audfl, rl prrrersn MSW, saith Cyprian, and 
Stent, misery, ini-chi.-l, hell itself, the ibvil, * g fury and rage can invent 
r own ruin and destruction; so abominable a thing M "war, ae Gerhelhia e.on- 
tuirofirda et abominanda res est helium, ex quo hominum etsdse, rasta/r 
, the wourge of God. S ■< t. fruit and punishiueut of sin, and not irmsura 

a fpiwria as Tcrlullian calls it, but ruina. Had Democritus been pres en t at 

late d 'hose abominable wars bt llaque matribua detestata* 

•where in less ll: irs. ten thousand men wire consumed, sailh Colli glUOB, 

u-.nid churches overthrown; nay, the whole kingdom subverted (as 
•ill adds). So many myriads of the commons were butchered up, 
•word, famine, war, tantn odio utrinqur. ut barhari ad wMwm tulum lanit 

»rr n/, with such feral hatred, the world was amazed at it: ot at our late 
Ids in the tune of Henry die Sixth. be t W U Cl the houses of Lin<"i-irr and 
and ml thousand men slain. **ona writes; '"another, ten thousand families 
. "That no man can but marvel, saith Comineus, at that barbarous 
naadneaa, eOBOnitied betwixt men of the same nation, language, and 
m Quixf: t>t*f a Why d o tin aith 

. I'sal. li. \)i But we mn) ask, why do i . furiously 

m .irma volunt, quart pasrunt, rapt unique juventusf Unlit fat Gentiles, 
lean for us so to t\ nmnize, as the Spaniard in the West Indies, that killed up in 
uin (if we dp. " Bartholomseua a Casa, their own bishop) 12 millions 

' and exquisite torments ; neither should I lie (said he) if I said 
ifflkf** I omit those I ranch massacres, Sicilian evensongs, M the Duke of 
tnnies, our gunpowder machinations, and that fourth fury, as "one calls 

inj*h inquisition, winch quite obscure* those ten persecutions, w satvit 

'Man impitif arbe. Is not this l mundus furiosus, a mad world, as he terms it, 

i helium f are not these mad men, as 'Scaliger concludes, qui in ]>ra li<> mfeTSd 

tmama tva memrrriam pro perpCtUO trstr r< linquunt pnsterHaii ; winch I 

» fmpiriit battles, as perpetual memorials of their nadnesa to all —w dtwg igea : 

:his, think you, have enforced our Democritus to laughter, or rather made 

bis tune, alu»r his tone, and weep with 'Ilerarlitus, or rather howl, 'roar, 

tear hie hair in commiseration, stand amazed ; or as the poets feign, that Niobe 



I 



?l«dio. bvlln, fame inl»er.itiili(t-r iM-ricrunl. 
hlii : < ll millu- r rl 

mlmirrnir rruriXuaierri, el barbaram inaaniatn, qua> 
ini'-r (mil— a. eodem tub t«rlo nai<>», ejutjrui linguae, 
• 1 1 1 lt -i 1 1 1 18 , rcllglonin, eserrrliaiur -'•an. 

'. an *jp-« ll 
■ Read Met» ran of hi» Mnprnd cruelties. * Urn 

• \ ,, ; <,. . r. ■ ,„ ., ..HI »«• 

IhroiiKhnul ilir wltnlc arorl ■ ttVa* 

ii, Mvf, Mumlua futUFfii- V*m\, 

-J" aerm. *, • StwM lifi«\Ami» 

■ iiinrrtlua. » CutC Uvc» \o^U\lu\ui , \»- 

t*»tlciuul. pltbiM l»l BiffiaJit i gmie* alupent. 





i iiclluruin ne- 




*> fniar 




< 'in, h.z. 








i -Uf »»ll- 




■• Ira 


I "■■■I'.M'r.i. 




IU« •' l< 





I 



4C 



Democntus to the Reader. 



was for griet quite stupified, and turned to a stone ? I hare not yet said the worst, 
that which is more absurd and s mad, in their tumults, seditions, civil and unjust 
wars, "quod stultc sucipitur, impie ge.rilur, misere Jinitur. Such wars I mean ; for 
all are not to be condemned, as those fantastical anabaptists vainly conceive. Oni 
Christian tactics are all out as necessary as the Roman acies, or Grecian phalanx, 
to lie a soldier is a most noble and honourable profession (as the world is i, not to 
be spared, they are our best walls and bulwarks, and I do therefore acknowledge 
that nPTully to be most true, *' All our civil affairs, all our studies, all our pleading, 
industry, and commendation lies under the protection of warlike virtues, and when- 
soever there is any suspicion of tumult, all our arts cease ;" wars are mi >st bi b< iveful, 
• /. />, If, iinn si n^ricolis civitati sunt uiiliores, as *Tyrius defends : and valour i> much 
to be coiiiuH-iided in a wise man ; but they mistake most part, auferre, trueidare, 
rapere, futsis nominibtts virtutem vacant* fitc. ('Twas Galgacus' observation in 
Tacitus) tliey term theft, murder, and rapine, virtue, by a wrong name, rapes, 
slaughters, massacres, kc. jocus et ludus, are pretty pastimes, as Ludovicus Vive* 
motes, ,tt They commonly call the most hair-brain blood-suckers, strongest thieve 
the most desperate villains, treacherous rogues, inhuman murderers, rash, rruel and 
lute caitiffs, courageous and generous spirits, heroiral and worthy captains, 
10 brave men at arms, valiant and renowned soldiers, possessed with a brute persuasion 
of false honour," as Ponlus Huler in his Burgurulinn history complains. By means 
of which it comes to pass that daily so many voluntaries oiler themselves, leaving 
their sweet wives, children, friends, for sixpence (if they can get it) a day, prostitute 
their lives and limbs, desire to enter upon breaches, lie sentinel, perdue, give the first 
onset, stand in the fore front of the battle, marching bravely on, with a cheerful 
noise of drums and trumpets, such vigour and alacrity, so many banners streaming 
in the air, glittering armours, motions of plumes, woods of pikes, and swords, variety 
of colours, cost and magnificence, aa if they went in triumph, now victors io ihc 
■I, and with such pomp, as when Darius' army marched Io meet Alexander at 
Iseus. Void of all fear they run into imminent dangers, cannon's mouth, ike., ut 
viihtrribus suis ferritin, hos/ium hebefent, saith "Barlctius, to get a name of valour, 
honour and applause, which lasts not either, for it is but a mere flash this fame, and 
like a rose, intra diem mium extinguitur, 'tis gone in an instant. Of 15,000 prole- 
taries slain in a battle, scarce fifteen are recorded in history, or one alone, the General 
perhaps, and after a while his and their names are likewise blotted out, the whole 
beetle itself is forgotten. Those Grecian orators, gumma vi in^rnii rt cloqtujilur. set 
out the renowned overthrows at Thermopylae, Safamis, Marathon, Micalc Man- 
eh* romea, Plaiaa. The Romans record their battle at Cannas, and Pharsa- 
lian fields, but they do but record, and we scarce hear of them. And yet this 
supposed honour, popular applause, desire of immortality by this means, pride and 
vain-glory spur them on many limes rashly and unadvisedly, to make away them- 
•lves and multitudes of others. Alexander was sorry, because there were no more 
rorlds for him to conquer, he is admired by some for it, animosa vox vidctur, el 
rg/'/, 'twas spoken like a Prince-, but as wise "Seneca censures him, 'twi 

sunn el stultissima, 'twas spoken like a Bedlam fool; am! that sentence which 
'Seneca appropriates to his father Philip and him, 1 apply to tin in all, .Von 
minons fiihr pestct mortalium qitam inttndalio, quam cmtflagratfo, quibvs; Jx.c. they 
did as much mischief to mortal men as fire and water, those merciless elements when 
they rage. '* Which is yet more to be lamented, they persuade them this hellish 
of life is holy, they promise heaven to such S8 venture their lives hrlln sacft}. 
and that by Uiese bloody wars, as Persians, Greeks, and Romans of old. tf modem 
Turks do now their commons, to encourage them to fight, ut cadant infcliciter. 



« Arm* ament r«pu>, n*e •»! r»Hon(« In mini*. 
* trumiii I'ii Marvin. Omiipa mltrinr r«f. 

omnia intuitu, niimli fnrpti-i* laua el indusiria talet in 

■ t pracMM In tin .•■ \ until- ■ I • l run I :Hi| M in- 

cripmli ntateia mmuruu, mtr« mil ■> iiu-ir* i 

• SCT. IS » Crmlf lin-niiiiH 

IIIHri|i rnnllllfiB hillitTl |>ri)|IIIL' 

ni« II...H, Q tilling omnia in «tn I 

; tills juvat iiim ui trie, nee ullam ol»r [uil-uil 



vtinm. que? non natniovprit <irni>» IS, »u. 

Sranpfrlii'g. i^Nulli lipallnrea Intn 1 1, i|ii»m t|ui 

In prti'lus rertdnnent. Hrt»iiniu«i do rep. Pent mini. I. 
I fnl. 3 Mi lik-iii l.arUnOiu dp Hi. mam- • I (.'rirria 
M- tn Vnimianua. lib 33 dp Parthla 
«(iiii« Iiiiimi« .,|nt.i ,'on • | ii in |ir<i'im i mi. Mi inlmun. 

Dp Upnrf lib. 8 c I. "Nalip «B«V 

lpru» Ampilmritliiiii IIii-Ih iqitiM lor, In. i. IVrtnlra 

II in in i irltlil 

puiain, Lacun. do fains tellg. 1. J. cap. 6. 



*» 



S^ 



Democntus to the Reader. 



4, 



1 they d»e in the field, they go directly to heaven, and shall be canonized for saints." 

dabohcal indention ! i put in the Chronicles, in perprtuam rei memoriam, to their 

nwmorr j when as m truth, as "some hold, it were much better (since wars 

•Dotage of God for sin, by which he punisheth mortal men's peevishness and 

inch brutish stories were suppressed, because ad morum ivstitutinnrm nihil 

they conduce not at all to manners, or good life. But they w ill haw it thus 

and so they put note of " u divinity upon the most cruel and pernicious 

of human kind," adore such men with grand titles, degrees, statues, images, 

applaud, ami highly reward them for their good service, no greater glory 

to dit ui the field. s> AJricamu it estuBad by Eurine: >lars, and '* Hercules, 

I know not how many besides of old, were deified ; went this wav to heaven, 

indeed bloody butchers, wicked destroyers, and troublers of the world, 

I monsters, hell-hounds, feral plagues, devourers, common executioners of 

kind, aa Lsr taut ins truly proves, and Cyprian to Donat, such as were despe- 

w»r», and precipitately made away themselvi -j. like those Celtes in I>ama- 

nlous valour, ut dedecoromm pvtarent muro rumii se subducere, a 

IB awny for a rotten wall, now ready to full on their heads,) such as 

ru-»h on a sword's point, or seek to shun a rannoirs shot, are base cowards, 

no valiant men. Hy which means, Madrt orbis muluo sanguine^ the earth wal- 

m IWr own Mood, " Sa-cil amor f'rrri rt snlrrali insnnitt belli; and for that, 

i be done in private, a man shall be rigorously executed, •••ltd • kieh is 

■ than murder itaslf; if the same fact be done in public in wars, it is called 

and the party is honoured for it." "Prospcrum etfalix scelus, virtus 

asure all as Turku do, by the event, and most part, as Cyprian notes, in all 
places, saritia: magnilrtdo impunitutrm scehris arquirit, the foulness 
feet vindicates the offender. "One is crowned for that which another is tor- 
llle entetm rim in/it. hie diadema , made a knight, a lord, an 

a great duke, (as a Agrippa notes) for th.it which another should have hung in 
aa a terror to the real. 



■el lamon niter, 



p.~r 



St f«i«»ci uli-ni, tadcrot aub Judic« morum "' 

therp-stealer is hanged for stealing of victuals, compelled peradventure by 

ty of that intolerable cold, hunger, and thirst, to save himself from starving : 

i * great man in • orely rob whole provinces, undo thousands, pill 

poll, oppress ad lihihim. Sea, grind, tyrannise, enrich himself by spoils of the 

wi Inn actions, and aiVr all, be recompensed wiili tur- 

llea) honoured for his good service, and no man dare find fault, or * mutter 

•nr would our Dcmocritus have been affected to see a wicked caitiff, or " M fool, 

•Iden ass, a monster of men, to have many good men, wise, 

»tl lramrd men IO attend upon htm with all submission, as an appendix to his nches, 

br that respect alone, because he hath more wealth and money, "and to honour him 

lea, and bombast epithets," to smother him with fumes and eulogies, 

t fooL, a covetous wretch, a beast, kc. u because 

To see sub eivviis hoius onagrum, a filthy loathesome carcass, a Gor- 

i"» liead pnfled up by parasites, assume this unto himself, glorious titles, m worth 

i mtant, a Cuman as*, a painted sepulchre, an Egyptian temple r To see a wither- 

disewsed, deformed, cankered complexion, a rotten carcass, a viperous mind, 

areas soul with orient pearls, jewels, diadems, perfumes, curious 



rt,fi-!U Mint .inllmi 
• iijiii |>miii. f» pvrprtua oblivions 

K" ■ mum nx-n-nf ■• 
(Jail 
» -»• f fi" I" 'iirirm divinita- 

appl.u- 



• „ -L.rul Tit* i. ml., il , . r ' ■ i . *i }\i. 

• ltnt. de prlutip nobllitali*. ' 

d2 



>»J«Ten Mat. 4. • Pause raptt, qaod Nm 

nme Tu [H-uimni omnium luro en, a* Drmrlrlua 
tti* Pirate ("id Alfiarnler In Corliua. * No! itual 

innrit. \--. i r lin|.robum et • lulinm. al 

multoi bunoi vinm in (crrttotem habentaaa, 
ob id dutilaiiat quod ci oiiilmptit ■■ttforann i tltJjtS- 
inaium cnmiilut, ut appendices, et ■ddiiami*nii mi- 
mlamaliim Noma I d«IM- 

•** itnaniam, qol dlvinnt I nrM ila 

i n >itrli(|..» *i aTiifii, ■(Boarimt; non 
. .in. ,, quam qaod dtttt ttat. 



Democritus to tlie Reader. 



srate works, as proud of his clothes as a child of his new roats ; and a goodly 
person, of an angel-like divine countenance, a saint, an humble mind, a meet spirit 
clothed in rags, beg, and now ready Is bfl Marved ? To see a silly contemptible 
sloven in apparel, figged in Ids coat, polite in speech, <»f a divine spirit, wise ? another 
icat in clothes, spruce, full of courtesy, empty of grace, wit, talk BOW 
To see so many lawyers, advocates, so many tribunals, so little justice ; so many 
straits, so little care of common good ; so many laws, yet nevermore disorders; 
Tribunal lilium segefem, the Tribunal a labyrinth, to many thousand suits in one 
court sometimes, so violently followed ? To see injustissimum stepe juri pnpsiden- 
. itapium rcligioni, imperitissimum eniditioni, otiosissimum labori, monstrnsum 
In/matiitati? to see a lamb a executed, a wolf pronounce sentence, lalro arraigned, 
and fur sit on the bench, the judge severely punish others, and do worse himself, 
10 euiuhm furt um facere el pumrt, " npiit am pt<'cteri\ quum sit MM raptor f Laws 
altered, misconstrued, interpreted pro and con, as the ^ Judge is made by friends. 
In i bed, or otherwise affected as a noBe of wax, good to-day, none to-morrow; or 
lii mi in Ids opinion, cast in his? Sentence prolonged, changed, ad arbilrium judittt, 
still the same case, M " one thrust out of his inheritance, another falsely put in by 
svour, false forged deeds or wille, M Incisa leges negliguntur^ laws are made and 
not kept; or if put in execution, "they be some silly ones that are punished. As, 
put case it be fornication, the lather will disinherit or abdicate his child, quite cashier 
him i out, villain, be gone, come no more in my right) ; a poor man is miserably 
tormented with loss of his estate perhaps, goods, fortunes, good name, forever di 
graced, forsaken, and must do penance to the utmost ; a mortal sin, and yet mat 
the worst of it, nunquid aliitd frcit, sailh Tranio in the ^poet, nisi quod facittnt sum- 
mis nati gewritatf be hath done no more than what gentlemen usually do. 
que riorum, neque mirwn, neque secus qnitrn alii solenl. For in a great person, right 
worshipful Sir, a right honourable G randy, 'tis not a venial sin, no, not a peccadillo, 
'tis no ollence at all, a common and ordinary thing, no man takes notice of it; he 
justifies it in public, and peradventure brags of it, 

** "Nam quod tit rpe bonln, Tilio, Scioque, ileccbat 

C'riaplnum." — — - — 

For what would be linsc in good men, Tilitin, and 8clu», became CrU-piini«. 

'Many poor men, younger brothers, Stc. by reason of bad policy and idle edncat 
; for they are likely brought up in no calling), are compelled to beg or steal, and 
then lumped for theft; than which, what can be more ignominious, non minu.t mim 
turpc jtrincipi multa supplicia, quum. medico multafuticra, 'tis the governor's fault 
Lib' alius verberunt qutun docent, as schoolmasters do rather correct ih-nr pupils, than 
teach them when they do amiss. M " They had more need provide there should be no 
more thieves and beggars, as they ought with good policy, and lake away the occa- 
ii hi them run on, as they do to their own destruction : mot out likewise 
those causes of wrangling, a multitude of lawyers, and compose contiovcrsies, litis 
lustrn/'S ,t secnlarcS) by some more compendious means." Whereas now for every 
toy and trifle they go to law, "Mugit litibus instmum forum, et stmt inviam di&cor~ 
danfium rabies, they are ready to pull out one another's throats ; and for commodity 
41 to squeeze blood," saith Hierom, "out of their brother's heart," defame, lie, dis- 
grace, backbite, rail, bear false witness, swear, forswear, fight and wrang'e- span 
their goods, lives, fortunes, friends, undo one another, to enrich an harpy ml rocs; 
thai preys upon them both, and cries Eia Socrates, Eia Xantippe; or sol, b corrupt 
Judge, that like the "Kite in /Esop, while the mouse and frog fought, earned both 
away. Generally ihey prey one upon another as so many ravenous birds, brute 
beasts, devouring fishes, no medium, u omne s mt out cuptanlttr out capiant ; nut cadi 

vera qua: laceranlur, aut corvi qui hcernnt 7 viihvr deceive or be deceived; tear others 



"Cyp. 1. ad Donat. ep. Ul reua innocent pereat, 

■i -in. Judex damnat form, quod lniu» •'prraiur. 

mill* Apo. " Balviaiiun 1.3. do Drcivik'ii. 

•* Ergo ludir liirn nihil e«i nln puhlica Bon M. i atro- 

' leget udl mla pecunia rcgnall 

"llic BfcaDtUI lin'r.'dilatlbm liln n. Uc 

ila. falaum con*ulil, alter ie*tamen- 

iii.n •-.•rrumpil, <kc. Idem. NVtJil centuia co- 

tuntma. -- I'laut. inotlel. "idem. *Juven. 

mat, 4. -Quod tot Mint tatn el fliendicl, mafia- 



Iraliuim culpa lit. qui maloa imitanur prircrpiorea, 
tpuloi liln-iiuiii verbatUi quatn dotum. Mo- 
in*, Clop lib. I. "•Uerrrnu'tiiii (tar I gratis •( 

borranda aupplicla, quuin potiva |ion«leriduni mult' 
furet ne furea mil. ne caJquaai linn'i furundl aut 
pfmiinrtl all naraaallaa Idem. * *,-leru» de aug- 

ment, urh. lib. 3. cap. 3 •" E Ir ro curde «an 

guinein eliciunl. "Milvua <-j| r, ic dcglubil 

«-■ Pelronlui A« Crolone civil. 




Democritua to the Reader. 

? themselves; like so many buckets in a well, as one riseth 
Ueth, one's empty, another's full ; his ruin is a ladder to the third ; such 
oniinary proceedings. What's the market? A pl:u t, u cording to "Aim- 
wherein they cozen one another, a trap; nay, what's the world i 
ehaoK, n coafusion of manners, as fickle as the air, domtciUum iiiMWflrMWi, 
i turbulent troop full t>\' imparities, a mart of walking spirits, goblins, the theatre of 
rpoensy. a shop of knavery, flattery, a nursery of villany, the scene of babbling, 
athMfl <jt giddiness, the academy of vice ; .1 warfare, uoi ulis unfit pugnandkm, 
' tea* mil succumbui, in which kill or be killed ; wherein every man is for ium- 
• private ends, and stands upon his own guard. No charity, 4 * love, friciiil>liip, 
4, alliancr-, affinity, consanguinity, Christianity, can contain them, but if 
be any ways offended, or that string of commodity be touched, they fall foul. 
friend* become hitter enemies on n sudden for toys and small offences, and they 
erst were willing to do all mutual olfices of love and kindness, now revile and 
one another to death, with more than Yatinian hatred, and will not be 
So long as they are behovelul, they love, or may bestead each other, 
when th< re is no more good to be expected, as they do by an old dog, hang 
Op or cashier him : which 4: Cato counts a great indecorum, to use men like old 
r% or broken glasses, which are flung to the dunghill ; he could not find in his 
lo sell an old ox, much less to turn away an old servant : but they infti ad of 
ipense. revile him, and when they have made him an instrument of their villany, 
'Bojajut the second Emperor of the Turks did hy Acomethcs Bassa, make him 
r, or instead of *" reward, hate him to death, as Silius was served by Tiberius. 
• word, every man for his own ends. Our summum bonum is commodity, and the 
kMom we adore Dca moneta, Queen money, to whom we daily offer sacrifice, 
rich al o ais our hearts, hands, "affections, all : that most powerful goddess, by 
re are reared, depressed, elevated, M esteemed the sole commandress of our 
for which we pray, run, ride, go, como, labour, and contend M ■> for 

1 rrumb that falleth into the water. It's not worth, virtue, (that's bonum thcatralcy) 
wisdom, valour, learning, honesty, religion, or any sufficiency for which we are 
respected, but "money, gjeatness, office, honour, authority ; honesty is accounii-d h>l- 
, knavery, policy ; "men admired out of opinion, not as they are, but as they seem 
1 bs : such shifting, lying, cogging, plotting, counterplotting, temporizing, flattering, 
emrnuig, dissembling, **" that of necessity one must highly offend God it he be con- 
to the world," Cretizarc cum Crete," or else live in contempt, disgrace and 
One takes upon him temperance, holiuess, another austerity, a third an 
a fl bt te d kind of simplicity, when as indeed, he, and he, and he, and the rest are 
[Mterites, ambidexters," out-sides, so many turning pictures, a lion on the one 
«*>,.i Uinb on the other. 1 * How would Democritus have been affected to see these 
thro*. I 

«ee a man turn himself into all shapes like a ramelion, or as Proteus, omnia 
iPWAsforaunu ttst in miracula rcrum, to art twenty parts and persons at once, for 
advantage, to temporize and vary like Mercury the Planet, good with good ; bad 
bad ; having a several face, garb, and character for ever)' one he meets : of all 

humours, inclinations ; to fawn like a spaniel, mmtitis et mimicvi ob> 
like s lion, bark like a cur, fight like a dragon, sling like a serpent, as meek as 
and yet again grin like a tiger, weep like a crocodile, insult over some, and 
others domineer over him, here command, there crouch, tyrannize in one place, 
hasBed in another, a wise man at home, a fool abroad to make others merry. 

* so much difference betwixt words and deeds, so many parasangs betwixt 









ii qao • 









. • Wo.l.i 



lU rwtnim rnlijjiur. Ta*. ••Pnueu charinr *ft 

fide* quam pecunla. Salmi. •> Prima fere vet! et 

cunctla. tc. *>Et genu* et foiiunm rrfina |>< 

111a dnnnt Quantum qnifqiie aua niiinniuriirii -errat 
in area, tanlum habri • i m.i. i ■ Non a pcritti M4 

ab ornalu el vulgi vocibu* lubrniur aietllcntM. Car- 
dan. I S. ri> 1 m PerjurnlB too pOat|MMll mi- 
nima lucro, Mcifsmr. ll ,»••« .ttini'urai *v\ vr\ V«o 
lnnu- di«;//icerr. vrl ah Imminkbua contatutiV, viah\, Vat> 

• rtmet tiller, m- lift- " Qui < urm» sitnutant el Ba.c«.fcw«i\ M «W««\. 

tue Imis tunt dutu - Trarrlajilm aiiullc* vel ceulanne, tui*ucn VKiuuuti, 
am ante reaere pro grt - . deonum equl. 



: I Itl Ii > (•■ > - 

11. jii rur.ctiiRi. 

iBllir, 

itch v 11 . 

•■Imli Ull Hill 

1 dicam, 










Dcmocrttus to the Reader. 

tongue and neart, men like stage-players act variety of ports, "give good precepts to 
others, soar aloft, whilst they themselves grovel on the ground. 

To see a man protest friendship, kiss liis hand, u qucm mallet tmncatvm videre* 
"smile with an intent to do mischief, or cozen him whom he salutes, "magnify hi* 
friend unworthy with hyperbolical eulngiums ; his enemy albeit a good man, tc 
vilify and disgrace him, yea all his actions, with the utmost that livor and malice 
can invent. 

To see a" servant able to buy out his master, him that carries the mace more 
worth than the magistrate, which Plato, lih. 11, de leg., absolutely forbids, Epirtetue 
ftbbon, A ROTM that tills the "land fed with chalV, an idle jade have provender in 
abundance; him that makes shoes go barefoot himself, him that sells meal almost 
pined ; a toiling drudge starve, a drone flourish. 

To iae mun buy smoke for wares, castles built with fools' heads, men like apes 
follow the- fashions* in tires, gestures, actions: if the king laugh, all laugh; 

•"Ride*! nrijiire rliachinno 

niitur, Act ai l&cbiymat conijKiit ainki." 

"Alexander stooped, so Ud his courtiers ; Alphunsus turned his head, and so did his 
lies. "Sabina Poppes, Nero's wife, wore amber-coloured hair, so did all the 
Roman ladies in an instant, her fashion was theirs. 

To see men wholly led by affection, admired and censured out of opinion with- 
out jmliriiunt : KB im onsiderate multitude, like so many dogs in a village, if one 
bark ah bark without a cause j as fortune's fan turns, if a man be in favour, or com- 
manded by some great one, all the world applauds luin ; ** if in disgrace, in an instant 
all hate him, and as at the sun when he is eclipsed, that erst took no notice, now 
gay.r and stare upon him. 

To see a man 6 'wear his brains in his belly, his guts in his head, an hundred oak* 
on his back, to devour a hundred oxen at a meal, nay more, to devour houses and 
town--, or as those Anthropophagi, **to eat one another. 

To see a man roll himself up like a snowball, from base beggary to right worship- 
ful and right honourable titles, unjustly to screw himself into honours and offices; 
another to starve his genius, damn his soul to gather wealth, which he shall not en- 
joy, which liia prodigal son melts and consumes in an instant. 1 * 

To see the *a*of i^ia* of our times, a man bend all his forces, means, time, fortunes, 
to be a favorite's favorite's favorite, &.c., a parasite's parasite's parasite, that may 
I\ de world a< having enough already. 

To see an hirsute beggar's brat, that lately fed on scraps, crept and whined, crying 
to all, and for an old jerkin ran of errands, now ruffle in silk and satin, bravely 
mounted, jovial and polite, now scorn his old friends and familiars, neglect his kin- 
dred, insult over his betters, domineer over all. 

To see a scholar crouch and creep to an illiterate peasant for a meal's meat ; 

a scrivener better paid for an obligation; a falconer receive greater wages than a 

nl : & lawyer L r et more in a day than a philosopher in a year, better reward lor an 

hour, thM a scholar lor I twelvi month's study ; him that can 70 paint Thais, play on 

a fiddle, curl hair, Sic, sooner get preferment than a philologcr or a post 

To see a fund mother, like ACsop's ape, hug her child to death, a "wiltol wink at 
his wile's honesty, and too perspicuous m all other atliiirs; one stumble at a straw, 
and leap over a blocL; rob Peter, and pay Paul; scrape unjust sums with one hand, 
purchase great manors by corruption, fraud and cozenage, and liberally to distribute 
to tin- poor with 'the other, give a remnant to pious uses, &.c. Penny wise, pound 
foolish; blind men judge of colours; wise men silent, fools talk; "find fault with 






,T Prirrrpiii mil" ru-linn |iriiriiilliin(, i|»i interim 

pnlvrim iitihiI villa inanripla. - M Silr. 

btandlrl ui r'ulla oi . 

i ' ii "H uiiin. like iii" 

i- ui' u parapacUva tiara. Ilia one mn1 
thr other niaki Ii ■ - •' Mmitlrl lori 

i 






fn.-i. I. 



!{>m I- nam culBBl 

1 -:. ',11.111.11: 

iJiHtI 
u ban I Id ili<- lusi» nf hi* 



niut I. 37. cap. 3, cftplllna habuil Mtclnaoa, •■ \ iri<la 
fnrcuiii ut omnia piictlio Kiimsnte cnloreiii Ilium aflrc- 
lorcril. ■ Oiln •I.iiiiiii.m.. Jhv \ _ri(ij»a 

' 7. Quotum ■ ii in venliv. ii 

iiiii In palmiv a PaaJ. They eat up B»y i'""|'lr 

.i< bWU, l..i-re« crrul>i I 

vata centam clnvlinii, ■•! in. I pavlincnttl 

mperbo, pnii i id emu |»»llure can la It .r <« ll 

Tli Hi Inn piiiLTcru, inlHrc lililiiin. iiiipm' rrinea. 
■ uiiar "Tiilinw Bal i imc 

propiiusi atull i.iilu im i »i». 

Drum. IiItii Ari.h,- id I hi iniiuiu 



" Uoillo, lib. 4. de tepub. cap. 6. "I'll- i Omotno .lulinw cujiudam emu puto, 4tc. 



H 



Demoeritvs to the Reader. 



45 



worse themselves; ^denounce that in public which he cloth in secret ' x 
Aurelius Victor gives out of Augustus, severely censure that in a third, 
: wlurh he is moit guilty himself. 

we • poor fellow, or an hired servant venture his life for his new master that 
re give him his wages at year's end ; A country colone toil and moil, till 
tek" for » prodigal idle drone, that devours all the gain, or lasciviously DOB* 

Hith phantasticaJ expencea; A noble man in a bravado to encounter d 
foe a small flash of honour to cast away himself; A worldling tremble at an ex- 
r, *i A fear hell-tire ; To wish and hope for immortality, desire to 

r, and means avoid death, a necessary passage to bring him to it. 

• >l-hardy fellow like those old Danes, qui decolluri vialtmt qurnn 

d» raUier than be punished, in a sottish humour embrace death with 

yet '"scorn lo lament his own sins and miseries, or his dearest friends' 

we viae men degraded, fools preferred, one govern towns and cities, and j 
woman overrules him at home; 7S Command a province, and yet his own ser- 
ot children prescribe laws to him, as ThcfBlStOClee' son did in Gn 
Tat I will (said he) my mother will, and what my mother will, my father 
To see hones ride in a coach, men draw it ; dogs devour their masters ; 
masons; children rule; old men go to school; women wear the 
"sheep demolish towns, devour men, tvc. And in a word, the world 
cpside downward. viueret DemocrUiis. 

•■< in every particular were one of Hercules' labours, there's so many 
instances, as motes in the sun. Quantum est in rebus inane f (How 
y there is in things !) And who can speak of all ? Criminc ab una disc* 
take this for a taste. 

these are obvious to sense, trivial and well known, easy to be discerned. How 

TNmiih lilnii have been moved, had he seen "the secrets of their hearts } If 

bed a window in his breast, which Momus would have had in Vulcan's 

that which Tullv so much wished it were written in every man's forehead, 

dc rrpu - i. what he thought ; or that it could be effected in 

I i rury did by Charon in Lucian, by touching of his eyes, to make 

/ et simul rumores el susurros. 



at. inof boa, votnmquc laborea, 
uraa." 



•Blind hop«i and withe*, thrlr ilmnchia and aflalra, 
WbVtptta and iumours, and those dying" Can 



" 



ulnrum nbductas foras recludere et srereta cord turn peneirare, 
rh*f ore and locks, shoot bolts, as Lucian's Gallus did 

a feather of his tail : or Gyges' invisible ring, or some rare perspective gitM, or 
nttfirtm, which would so multiply that a man might hear'and see all at 

- Jupiter did in a spear which he held in his hand, 
pteatQl unto him all that was daily done upon the face of the earth), 
cuckolds' horns, forgeries of alchemists, the philosopher's stone, in w pro- 
file, and all those works of darkness, foolish vows, hopes, fears and v. 
deal of laughter would it have afforded ? He should have seen windmills in 
»'» bead, an hornet's nest in another. Or hail be been present with fearotM- 
Lucian at Jupiter's whispering place, "and heard one pray for rain, an- 
■at weather ; one for his wife's, another for his father's death, 8tc ; •* to ask 
: at Gutfs hand which they are abashed any man should hear :" How would he 
been confounded ? Would he, think you, or any man else, say that these 
Were Wefl in their wits ? Hac sani esse kominis qui$ sanus jurct Oreshs f 

ep. prrd. Hon. drjerantet et pmantei daprehendet, 
boa vomonlei, Uloi litlranlet, inaidias molienlpa. a>if- 
fraeantea, Tenena mtacantaa, in amicorum aecuaaifo- 
nem (DbMribenlet, ho* florla. Ulna ambltlone. ropidi- 
latc, mente caploa, Ar. "» Ad Donal. pp. 2 t. 1. O 
«.( poasea in apeeula luhllmf constitutua. Ate. ■ Lib. 
1. dp nop I'lnlnl in qui quid ilnfiill nalionom popull 
rib nu'iihiia (itiirtf'-ni. rrlurebat. "0 }b> 

plirr rnwintai mlhl aurum h»redita«, ate. Multoa da 
Japlter anno*. Dementia quanta »ai homtntn. 
plaalma Tola dilf Inmaurram, «i quia adninvem aurora, 
i onnceacunt ; et quod aclre homines uo\un\, 1>eu \kVt- 
tmai. Senec. ep. 10. 1. 1. 



III! a rat. Salvtanni ' 
«kax«adia viiim rjutbtu ipai vehe- I 
•urn. eCCl. bhrt cap. SIS. [ 
atttui foerit, Ittlua eaae gloria eat ; nam ' 
at fUttctum caHersqoe eonipanrlinnuni 
»-m aaliibria trtimint, ita abominantnr 
' {am BMcalla Ma pro defonctia amlcit ulli 
I'.raa. via famulnm 
aWa. ' icajald rro volo hoe 

rt qawwl fatit patrr. 

I»tm. nnne i» m Indnmltuniet edax 
. WVHUA.C Morua . Ulop.llb. J. "DI- 
•Dewvrtit 



46 



Democrittts to tht Header. 



Can all the hellebore in the Anticyra cure these men? No, sure, " u an acre 
hellebore will not do it." 

That which is more to be lamented, they are mad like Seneca's blind woman, 
and will not acknowledge, or "seek for any cure of it, for pauci vident murium 
suum, omncs amanl. If our leg or arm offend us, we covet by all means possible to 
redress it; "and if we labour of a bodily disease, we send for a physician ; but for 
the diseases of the mind we take no notice of them : M Lust harrows us on the one 
side ; envy, MUST) ambition on the other. We are torn in pieces by our passions, 
as so many wild horses, one in disposition, another in habit; one is melancholy, 
another mad; "and which of us all seeks for help, doth acknowledge his trior, or 
knows he is sick ? As that stupid fellow put out the candle because the biting fleas 
should not find him j he shrouds himself in an unknown habit, borrowed titles, be- 
cause nobody should discern him. Every man thinks with himself, Egomct vidtor 
tnihi sanus, I am well, I am wise, and laughs at others. And 'tis a general fault 
amongst them all, that m which our forefathers have approved, diet, apparel, opinions, 
humours, customs, manners, we deride and reject in our time as absurd. Old men 

account juniors all foois, when they are mere dizards; and as lo sailors, Icrra- 

que itrltesque rcceduni. they move, the land stands still, the world hath much 

atom wit, they dote themselves. Turks deride us, we tin ■ ra i ; Italians Frenchmen, 
accounting them light headed fellows, the French sroff again at Italians, and at then 
several customs ; Greek* have condemned all the world lull themselves of barbarism, 
the world as much vilifies them now; we account Germans hcavy,dull fellows, explode 
many of their fashions; they as contemptibly think of us; Spaniards laugh at all. rind 
all again at ihem. So are we fools and ridiculous, absurd in our actions, carriages, 
diet, apparel, customs, and consultations; we w scoff and point one at another, when 
as in conclusion all are fools, '""and they the veriest asses that hide their ears most. 
A private man if he be resolved with himself, or set on an opinion, account* ID 
idiots and asses that are not affected as he is, — ■ — » m nU rectum, wsL quod plaruit 
duett, that are not so minded, "'(quodque volunt homines M bene re lie puimit,) 
all fools that think not as he doth : he will not say with Alliens, Srtam quisque 
Sjmnsam^ mihi meant, lit cVery man enjoy his own vpOQW: hut his alone is fair, 
mus amor^ 8tc, and scorns all in respect of himself, ^ will imitate none, hear none 
•*but himself, as Pliny said, a law and example to himself. And that which Hippo- 
crates, in his epistle to Dtoiiysius reprehended of old, is verified in our times, Qtti*- 
que in alio superfluttm esse cCHtttj ipse quod non habet nee curat, that which he hath 
not himself or doth not esteem, he accounts superfluity, an idle quality, a mere fop- 
pery in another: like JSsop's fox, when he had lost his tail, would have all his u I- 
low foxes cut off theirs. The Chinese say, that we Europeans have one eye, they 
themselves two, all the world else is blind : (though "* Scaliger accounts them brutes 
too, inrruni pecus,) so thou and thy sectaries are only wise, others indifferent, the 
rest beside themselves, mere idiots ami Thus not acknowledging our own 

errors and imperfections, we securely deride others, as if we alone were free, and 
spectators of the rest, accounting it an excellent thing, as indeed it is, JWen& "pti- 
tnum frui imaniii, to make ourselves merry with other men's obliquities, when as 
he himself is more faulty than the rest, mutato nomine, de (efabulu iuirralur,\\e may 
take himself by the nose for a fool ; and which one calls maximum atuliili<r spee'nnin, 
to be ridiculous lo others, and not to perceive or take notice of it, as Mars) as wi 
when be contended With Apollo, non intelligent sc deridiculo hnhiri, saith '*' Apt 
, 'tis his own ranse. In- is a convicted madman, as "lAuabll well infers "in the 
l of wise men and angels he seems like one, that to our thinking walks with 






Tlmiiu* Mcncch. non potcil hrc re» tlrllrbnri ju- 
bllnarter. M SoqM ltuvhu murium ana iu- 

n r |>. nrhianti. "Ctur lirrliiiii aeoha, futiVM 

"iid etl oniinnm, diffcri runrniU leiigpu* 

In annum. Ilor. "SI caput, crat dolot. bracbium, 

&c . M*-dicum acceroliiiug, rocie ot honcsir, *i par 

eilum ludiKiria in animi mofbi* ponernnr. Joh. Pe- 

i. «nlin lib. 9. de bum. nflec. mprborumqu* cura. 

i'iiivqiiiM|UK lamon «*t qui contra lei prate* 

tnedlcmn > »quira< vel ■irrottre »e iiraurm ! tboHM 

l, Ac. El noa tamen Bgroa cue nejitinut. Inco- 

medicum recusant. Pruciu tin tlultithui 



prUrl< eiprobrat. Hurt dn rAhc lib. S. <*Sene 

pro mullli hnbenl Juvene*. Unlth. Cut »Tlodiu 

acciual nucchoa. *> Omnium MulUttimi qui an 

culaa iludiiwe temmt. Sal. Mfiilp. •> H«r I 
» Proiper. * Aiaiim inpium, statlm • tumi. nemi 

nera rrvircntur, ncininrm iuiiluntur. I; 
plo. Plln. Eplil. lib. H. "Villi nil.' 

concedit, ne denirwre videalor. Agrlp. w ()iunl 

orbli ncrifchlo a porini ad Lutltanlnm. "'J Klo 

« Aueun. Qua in in i iv ni i« bominumqvl Invwi it 
bat amhiilat. talia in oculit *aptenium el vi^elot* 
qui libi placet, aul col patnouct duuiuianiut 



iMmocrihis to the Reader. 



n 



So thou laughcst at me, and 1 at thee both at a third ; and he re- 

lltal of the poet upon us again, n Hci mt/ii, limmil'a M6 aiunt, qvum tpsj ultro 

We accuse others of madness, of folly, and are the veriest dizarda our- 

For it is a great sign and property of a fool (which Eccl. x. 3, points at) 

»f pride and self-conceit to insult, vilify, condemn, censure, and call otiu r tner. 

i ridemus mantica quod a tergo est) to tax that in others of which we are 

faulty ; teach that which we follow not ourselves : For an inconstant man to 

.'■ liver prescribe rules of sanctity and piety, I duaid 

" make a treatise of wisdom, or with Sallust to rail downright at spoilers of 

and yet in "office to be a most grievous poler himself. This argues 

, and is an evident sign of such parties' indiscretion. m Peccat uter m 

dignitcgf - Who is tli* fool now r* Or else jteradventure in some p)|flM we 

oiai] for company, and so 'tis not seen, Satietas erroris el dementia, puriter 

tt admiration? m tollit. Tis with us, as it was of old (in 'Tully's cen« 

at least) with C. Fimbria in Rome, a bold, hair-brain, mad fellow, and so es- 

o( all, such only excepted, that were as mad as himself: now in such a case 



B-.i 



■ Ikwnai paucb »ld* anir ; co quod 

i p*x» hoininum mortal jat taiur eodem." 



" When oil are mul. where all are like npprrst 
Who can discern one limit man from ih« reall" 



■Akfa 



p«ll case ( ul some one be manifestly Convicted of riiadn. 

w takes ' his folly, he it in action, gesture, speech, a vain humour he 

. .l.liiiL'. hr^ging, jangling, spending, gaming, courtiiijr, scribbling, prating, 
bo is rifk ulous to others, 4 on which he dotes, lie doth acknowledge aa 
yet with all the rhetoric thou hast, thou canst not so recall him, but to the 
anding, he will persevere in his dotage. 'Tis amabilis msania, 6t 
gratisstmu*. _■. so delicious, that he "cannot leave it. He 

hi* error, hut will not seek to decline it, tell him what the event will be, 
, sorrow, sickness . shame, loss, madness, yet '"an angry man will 

vengeance, a lascivious his whore, a thief his booty, a glutton his belly, before 
dlare." Tell an epicure, a covetous man, an ambitious man of his irregular 
irean him from it a little, pol me occidislis amid, he cries anon, you have 
him, and as T a u dog to his vomit," he returns to it again ; no persuasion 
take place, no counsel, say what thou canst, 

"Clamea licet et mare rcelo 
— — Confundat, surdo turns,"' 

. sses did to 'Elpenor and Gryllus, and the rest of his companions 
■Wiai-h men." he i- irrefragable in his humour, be uill be a hog stilly bray 
ta a m will be the same. If he be in an heresy, or some perverse opi- 

settled as some of our ignorant Papists are, convince his understanding, show 
several follies and absurd fopperies of that sect, force him to say, peril em- 
it as clear as the sun, w he will err still, peevish and obstinate as he is; 
be *oid "*» in hoc erro, libnilcr erro, nee hunc errorem auftrri mihi volo ; I 
a» I have done, at my predecessors have done, u and as my friends now do: 
doie for company. Say now, are these men D mad or no, "Hcus age responde f 
they riilicn mvis arbitrum, are they sana- mentis, sober, wise, and 

union sense ? A titer est inxnnior horum ? I am of De- 

P opinion for my part, 1 hold them worthy to be laughed at; a company of 
dizanis. as mad as "Orestes and Athamas, that they may go M riiie the 
and all nil along to the Anticyra?, in the ** ship of fools" for company together. 
not much la'iour to prove ihis which I say otherwise than thus, make any 



..... ..i....,, lur 

mm mm 

' — «i BJBasj inftaiiiritn'' 



■ laMiiirc | 
I ronrrd«r« »eru 



rernnr of Asnichhy 
• lanilatit uatrocl- 

Pro 
■ittal insanu.tnnus, 
iqaw Inaaniunt. » Ne- 

l, furrrr, rn-l ,[)lllt relin- 

<n> non est genua 
-Milium 
mi nua- 
nce wse 
ronanea Insanl- 



__ ; •cortiui viir i>ra>ponil, Iracundut 
' psawtani, parasiius lulam, aoibuuisur 



hnnnrei, ararus opei, tr. odimiia haw et accercimua. 
| Cardao. 1. *. de conso. ' Prov. iivi II. I *l- 

llimieh y i . i) rail nut, and confound the tea and sky, 

ill' address a deaf man. • Plutarch G 

I auilll bominrt sic Hern. Alex. VO. '»N"n ner- 

i •nadehm, ett.ioni pertiuaeri*. "Tully- Mil.. 

• 11 in litis iitsaoire, quam com alii* hens tenure. 
''Uni inter tins eiiiilriuulur, non mnfis npara (masunt, 
qulm qui in rullna bene olere. P«trnn. "Per- 

• ius. tailor, a. Mr. which of IMBSJ is the ptor* 
mad. "Veaanuni cxacitanl (urn, innunta 
puelta. 



48 



Dcmocritus to tte Reader. 




I p 

:h 

\ 



solemn protestation, or swear, I think you will believe me without an oath ; 

a word, are they fools ? I refer it to you, though you be likewise fools and maul men 

yourselves, and I as mud to ask the question | for what said our comical Mercury ? 

>' " Jimtum all injinlls petc.ro iniipieolin cat." I I'll Hand to your censure yet, what I lit nk you I 

But forasmuch as I undertook at first, that kingdoms, provinces, famile 
melancholy as well as private men, I wdl examine them in particular, and that which 
I have hitherto dilated at random, in more general terms, I will particularly insis* 
in, prove with more special and evident arguments, testimonies, illustrations, an " 
that in brief. "JVujic accipe quare dcsipianl omnes aque ao tu. My first argi* 
is borrowed from Solomon, an arrow drawn evit of his sententious quiver, Pro. iii. 7. 
"Be not wise in thme own eves.''' And xxv 12, "Seest thou a man wise in his. 
own conceit '. more hope is of a fool than of him." Isaiah pronouncclh a woe 
against such men, cap. v. 21, " that are wise in their own eyes, and prudent in their 
own sight." For hence we may gather, that it is a great offence, and men are much 
deceived that think too well of diemselves, an especial argument to convince ihern 
of liillv. Many men (saith ,D Seneca) "had been without question wise, had they 
not had an opinion that they had attained to perfection of knowledge already, even 
before they had gone half wav," loo forward, loo ripe, praproptri, too quick and 
ready, "citb prttdentes, citb pit, citb niari/t, citb patres, citb sacerdotes, citb omnis 
officii capaces el curiosi, they had too good a conceit of themselves, and that marred 
all ; of their worth, valour, skill, art, learning, judgment, eloquence, iheir good pirts ; 
all their geese are swans, and thai manifestly proves them to be no belter than fools. 
In former times they had hut seven wise men, now you can scarce find bo many 
fools. Thalcs sent the golden Tripos, which the fishermen found, and the oracle 
commanded to be ""given to the wisest, to Bias, Bias to Solon," &c. If such a 
tiling were now found, we should all fight for it, as me three goddesses did for the 
golden apple, we are so wise : we have women politicians, children metaphysicians; 
every silly fellow can square a circle, make perpetual motions, find the philosoplii i ■< 
stone, interpret Apocalypses, make new Theories, a new system of the world, new 
Logic, new Fhilosophy, &.c. Nostra utique regio, saiih B Pclronius, * our country 
is so full of deified spirits, divine souls, that you may sooner find a God than a man 
amongst us," we think so well of ourselves, and that is an ample testimony of much 
folly/ 

My second argument is grounded upon the like place of Scripture, which though 
before mentioned in effect, yet for some reasons i.s to be I and I >y Plato's pood 

. I may do it, v &f *i> xatibv prpiv oi&v fainm) u Fools (saith David) by reason 
of their transgressions." Jtc. Psal. cvii. 17. Hence Musculus infers all tAAflgn 
must needs he fools. So we read Bom. ii., "Tribulation and anguish on the soul 
of every man that doeth evil;" but all do evil. And Isaiah, Ixv. 14. '• My servant 
shall snip for joy, and "ye shall cry for sorrow of heart, and vexation of mind." 
Tis ratified by the common consent of all philosophers. "Dishonesty (saith 
Cardan) is nothing else but folly and madness. ^Probus quis noUscum 

iow me an honest man, JWma mahis qui non stultus, 'tis Fabitis' aphorism to the 
le end. If none honest, none wise, then all fools. And well may they be so 
aeroimtcd : for who will account him otherwise. Qui iter adornnt in orridin/rm, 
quttm prn/icrctnl in orient r.m? that goes backward all his life, westward, when he is 
hound to the east? or hold him a wise man (saith *'Musrulus) ;i that prefers momen- 
tary pleasures to eternity, that spends his master's goods in his absence, forthwith 
to be condemned for it ?" Ncquicquam sapit qui sil/i non sapit, who will say that 
a sick man is wise, that eats and drinks to overthrow the temperature of his body ? 
Can you account him wise or discreet that would willingly have his health, and yet 

rill do nothing that should procure or continue it? "Theodoret, out of Plotinus 
l'latonist, " holds it a ridiculous thing for a man to live after his own laws, to do 



3 



. itui '" Hor. I. S. aal. 2. Snperbitn uliiltl- 

tlmu I'Iimiim vnc.il. 7. epUl. 21. quod itrnirl dlxl, ilium 

ratuiunii" -it. " Mnlll«aplenle> proeuMublo 1'u!«- 

•Alll, u Br non putattcnt ud •aplenty minimum pcr- 

ren/it?. "Jdem. '' 1'lurir, Iiiim Snlniip. 

Drrur mapientintt "Tnm pnrfrntiliii, plena 

,"' nu "'tiibu», ui tkcllUw pouii Dcnm t;un ra Immlnem 

larciure. "falrhrum bit dkert a*n nocct. 



'< Malefactor*. * Who can And a faithful man 1 

Pro*. IX. 0. "In Peal. Kill. U<il momcnlaues 

■pinplteritK, qui dclapidat hrri abipntir bona, tool la 
Jui vncundus pt damnandui. v Per<juafn tull- 

eulum Ml homines oi anlnit icntenlla rlrira, pt una 
Dtla Ingrnla emit ex-qiii, ••! nni"ti l\ f-\\f l> 
»olvo» fieri, quurn propnn «\\i\.'n cittim »b|«««iuil 
[ Theod. c. 6. de vrofkl. Wa. 4e earn. v«c- attatV 






DtmocrUu* to the Reader. 



49 



, whtck at offensive to God, and yet to hope that he should save him : and when 
•lalunUi : . • ;s his own salety, and contemns tin- DMUI, tO ihink U> hi> ijfliver- 
d by another : * !i-» \* ill nay these men are wise ? 

.ird argument may be derived from the precedent, B all men are carried away 
ism paaskm, discontent, lust, pleasures, Sic, they generally hate those virtues they 
IriTc, and lore such vices they should hale. Therefore more than melancholy, 
Bad, brute ba lion, so Chrysostom contends; "or rather 

«nd I as **Phdo Judeuj concludes it for a certainty, « of all 

i» earned away with passions, or labour of any disease of the mind. Where 
and sorrow," there "Laetantius stiffly maintains, H wisdom cannot dwell. 

— 'qui cnplct, metnet qanqaii porrb, 

Qui tnelucnt vivit, iilx-r imlil mm eril unquam.' " >' 

1 the stoics are of opinion, that where is any the least perturha- 

tmd. '• Wliut more ridiculous," 1 as w ljictantius urges, 

bow Xerxes whipped the Hellespont, threatened the Mountain Alhos, 

lie- To speak ad nm, who is free from passion? "Mortalis nemo est 

aitingat dolor, morbusve, as ^Tully determines out of an old poem, no 

can avoid sorrow and sickness, and sorrow is an inseparable companion 

■I v. "Chrysostom pleads farther yet, that they are more than mad, 

:plfied and void of common sense : " For how (saith he) shall I know 

re a man, when thou kickest like an ass, neighest like a horse after women, 

!ike a bull, ravenest like a bear, stingest like a scorpion, rakest like a 

subtle a* a fox, a* impudent as a dog? Shall I say thou art a man, that 

the symptoms of a beast ! How shall I know thee to be a man? by thy 

That ofTnghts me more, when I see a beast in likeness of a man. 

■licam rocem, an heroical speech, " A fool still 

ind accounts it a filthy lightness in men, every day to lay new 

i of their life, lnit who doth otherwise ? One travels, another builds ; one 

, another tor thai and old folks are as far out as the rest; divim- 

rr tui r m, Tul! . is. Therefore young, old, middle age, are all stupid, 

lotr. 

t many other, sets down three special way< 
thnt he cannot find : he is a fool that a 
in more harm than good : he is a fool, that baring 
to bring htm to his journey's end, takes that which is worst, 
■t awn arc I .mine their courses, and you shall soon perceive what dizarda 

«&4 nai! nam the map •• 

noon men, and such as more than ordinarily 
kfcrht r The first pot quencheth thirst, so Panyasis the poet 

tsnainr* in Athenam*, arcunda graiiis, horis et Dyonitrio : the second makes merry, 
totfUfd for pleasure, quart n ad huaniam, the fourth makes them mad. If ihis posi- 
■ t* tree, a ie of mad men shall we have ? what shall they be that 

tag fmtr timn four ; spra onwffli fumrrm, supra amnnn insunian red- 

f 1 am of Ins opinion, they are more than mad, much worse than 




The "Abderiles condemned Democritus for a mad man, because he was sometiiaes 

<si,aad sometimes again profusely merry. Hue Patria < saith Hippocrates) ob risam 

. i:is countrymen hold him mad because he laughs; *ind 

res him to advise all his friends at Rhodes, that they do not bisgh 

or be over sad." Had those Abderites been conversant with us, and but 

■ rtki *ni Impvrirxu*. fcr. Ilor. 1. Mr. " ' mitlirriii, ul m«n« Tentrl tndulrea*. quum rnpia* at 

fct, at imjul* formain hmmma habeo, Id magi* 

i pro »<w1«i» fiintn •> Lib. dr Mp. terret, quum frn»m hunuina *p«tcie vldere me pniwu. 

•«>•«. Mpw-aita »<].-•»» ii. quit. '■ Hv who * MpiM lib. 'A 13. Smliu* armpor inr.ipii vlvaaa, 

v i.o Href In feur fcriln hominuni levltaa, novaquotiili<- funrt.iincnia !«• 

.•- pomrc, iniva* ipc*. Ac. 'Dc curlal. mtarr. 

tl I J Whern tiluliua. qui queHl quntl nrquil invenlre, Mtiliua *«4 




Pre* 



ui Hutu*, luti'.tir ai equui pott tnn . 



:rivr|ilinn, tiultu* <\\\\ cum \iW\»et 
' 'fem dcliglt- MibA vi«Ver>\.ut hiiww 
l Jcc. ■ Ep. t1«m>f(\e. * Kiwt* 
Jitliu, ne niiuiuin ndcara, *uv TvVmVv^ 



tocritus to the Reader. 

seen what * fleering 1 and grinning there is in this age, they would certainly hav 
concluded, we had been all out of our wit*. 

Aristotle in lii.s ethics holda fasli-i idnnquc sapiens, to be wise anil happy, 
icciprocal terms, bontis idemque sapiens honcslus. 'Tis "Tully's paradox, 

are free, but fools are slaves," liberty is a power to live according to his own 
hws, ns we will ourselves : who hath this liberty ? who is free ? 




-" laptefea slhique ini[i 



"He li wi»e that can command lii« own will, 
Valiant nnd cnnatanl to himself »lill, 
WV'in .'"vtTly -ior death, nor binds can fright, 
I'tiecka hl» dcairca, acorn* Honours, jmt ana njnt. 



. 



Quoin mniue pauper U, ficiiiie mors, neque vlneula 
terrent, 

ire i ii |h.) in boa, rontemnere bonore* 
Portia, el in ti-iptn totut tcrcantque rotundu*." 

But when shall such a man he found? If no where, then e diumrtm, we are 
•lines senseless, or worse. JYenw maltfS f<cli.v. But no man is happy in thi 

DOM L r < ii >il. therefore no man wise. a Rtiri quippe boni For one virtue you sh 

find tin vices in tbf same party; pauci Promt" tnel^multi Ejtimitltri. We may pcr- 
ailv inure usurp Ihe name, or attribute it to others for favour, as Carolus Sapiei 
Philippus bonus, Lodovicus Pius, &.c, and ilesrribe the properties of a wise in 
as Tully doth an orator, Xenophon Cyrus, Castillo a courtier, Galen temperament, 
an aristoenics' is described by politicians. But where shall such a man be found ? 

" Vir bonus et inplent, qunlt-m vlr rcpporll unuin I i "A wise, .i SMd nijin In a million, 
Millibu* e multu hoiitntuin cantultu* Apollo. 1 * , | I Apollo cunsullcd could scarce And one." 

A man is a miracle of himself, but Trisniegistus adds, .Minimum miraculum homo 
sapii /t-s 1 , ■ wise man is a wonder : mulli Thirai^cri, jxiuci lhtcchi. 

.Alexander when he was presented with thai rich ;ui<l n»iU <;isket of kinir Darius, 
and every man advised him what to put in it. he reserved it to keep Homer's works, 
as the most precious jewel of human wit, and yet "Scaliger upbraids Homer's muse, 
,Vu!rict m bitflag snpiintitF, a nursery of madness, ** impudent as a court lady, that 
blushes at nothing. Jacobus Mycillns, Gilbcrtus CogaafUS, Erasmus, and almost 
posterity admire I.ucian's luxuriant wit, yet Scaliger rejects him in his censure, a 
«all- him the Cerberus of the muses. Socrates, whom all the world so much m 
niiied, is by IjtctnrUius and Thcodoret condemned for a fool. Plutarch cxt 
ca's wit beyond all the Greeks, nulli secundus, yet ** Seneca saith of himself, *• wh 
I would solace myself with a fool, I reflect upon myself, and there 1 have him. 
Cardan, in his Sixteenth Book of SublUlies, reckons up twelve super-eminent, acute 
philosophers, for worth, suhtlety, and wisdom: Archimedes, Galen, Vilruvius. \ 
chitM Tarenlmus, Euclid, Geber, that first inventor of Algebra, Alkindus the Math 
malinai), both Arabians, with others. But his triumviri trrrarum far beyond the 
rest, arc Ptoloma?us, Plotinus, Hippocrates. Scaliger exercitat. 224, scon's at this 
censure of his, calls some of them carpenters and mechanicians, he makes Galen 
jBmhriOH Hipjmcrafis* a skirt of Hippocrates: and the said *' Cardan himself else- 
whi ir condemns both Galen and Hippocrates lor tedioosnesa, obscurity, confusion. 

ICelstll will have them both men* idiots, infants in phytic and philosophy. Sca- 
liger and Cardan admire Suisset the Calculator, qui pcM mo/lum uxettU MMM I 
gtmi^ and yet ^Lod. Vives calls them Mttjttl Smsx, tims : and Cardan, opposite 
himself in another place, contemns those ancients in respect of times present, "'Jtfi 
joresquc Jtostros ad presentcs collalos juste pveros appellari. In conclusion, t 
said '"Cardan and Saint Bernard will admit none into this catalogue of wise men, 
61 hut only prophets and apostles; BOW they esteem themselves, you have heard 
We are worldly-wise, admire ourselves, and seek for applause: but hear 

Saint "Bernard, quanta magis ferns et anpfaif, tenia toagit intus ttulttu efieeris^ k& 

in omnibus cs prudem, cirra hipsitm insi pirns : the more wise thou art lo oihers, 
the more fool to thyself. I may not deny hut that there is some folly approved, a 
divine fury, a holy madness, even n spiritual drunkenness in the saints of God them- 
selves; sanctum insuuium Bernard calls it [thoUfffa not as blaspheming "Vorsth 
would infer it as a passion incident to God himself, but) familiar to good 



•a- 



•Per multum liium potent oncno*c*r« amltum. 
t. ft «'8apjent<rt libeil, •lulti acrvl, li- 

berta* est poletta*. Ilc. " llor. 3. ser. 7. «» Ju- 

M "(Jonil people are tcrnxe." M llypocrn. 

■It matter aulica nul/iut nuileoi. *Epiiil 33. 

Jo/tniln I'tluo drtntan volo, mm fit Inngt <]mrrrrw|ii«, 
' iMleo. tr primo coniradiccntiutn. "Lib. 



de cautii corrupt, artium. " Actinne .i.1 rabttl 

Heal. rol. ITX. -> 1.1b. 1. de aap. »• v „ 

limiio. i|ni.i loium Pit vanllui, tolnm tttiltma. lulu 
di!tnentia. quicquid Tacit in hoc mundo. pra'ter line i 
lnni < 1 1 1 ■ ■ . ! proptot IK-uro. facia. Htz. de mlaai. bun 
'- In 1 riiiuma diaV. I. d« Jutio »■' l>uiu nam 

odllim in Do ;e\cia, vonU. 



Demomtus to the Reader. 



51 



" he was a fool," 8tc. arid Rom. i.v. he wisheth himself to !>e 
fur thrm, Such is that drunkenness which Fieinus speaks of, when 
is el> id ravished with a divine taste of thai heavenly Meter, which 

• <! by tin of Dtonysiiis, and in this sense with tin 

jurr nictfta Austin ezhorta us, ad tbrietaltm srqui.it/ur paret i lert all be ma I 
'dnsnk. But we commonly mistake, and jro beyond our commission, w< 
b oppoeile part, - we are DM eapah and as he said of til 

temper pueri, tos Britannia Oulli, (hrniani. Jtali. fcce. you are a company 



d parti bus ad latum, or from the u1m.1i- to pari-;, and you shall find 
', the parts shall be sufficiently dilated in this follow niL r riefaee. The 
needs follow by a sorites or induction. Even' muhim< 
twa multarum crpitum, (a many-headed beast 'i, precipitate and rash without 
t, Btvllum animal, a roaring rout. "RogCT Baron proves it out ol \r; 
dtruii m npposilum contra sapirnfes, quod rulgo Cldctur m rum. falsum 
hieli the commonalty accounts true, is most part false, they are am] opposite 
bet all the world is of this humour (eai I thou tbyaelf ait d 

one of the commonalty ; and he, and he, and so are all the rest ; and ihere- 
a* Pbocion concludes, to be approved in nought you savor no, mere i<li< -ix 
MS. Begin then where you will, go backward or forward, choose out of the 
pork, wink and choose, you shall find them all alike, •• never a barrel better 

. Atlas his successor, is of opinion, the earth is a planet, moves and 
k> others, as the moon doth to as, I>iin;es, Gilbert, Keplerus, Origanus, and 
.defend this hypothesis of his in sober sadness, and that the moon is inhabi- 
d it be so 'in then are we also giddy, vertigenous and 

maze. 
I could pcodurc sin h arguments till dark nii.'ht: if you should hear the i 

-AM €-« <Uih cOftponrnl Temper OttffipO: " I ' J'" !"" 1 — *.*■ , ' al,, »'*<"<>" » | « 

1 'lay WOUld iOi'lirf III in lln- I •!'• I.- .Ii : ■ 

ta according to my promise, I will descend to particular-. Tin- melancholy exu 
awif not to men only, but even to vegetsla and aenstbles. I speak Dot 

aatun-* which are saturnine, melancholy by nature, as lead, and sucli like i 

iants, rue, cypress, ice. and hellebore itself, of winch " Auiippa treats. 

Is, and beasts, h "rmice, &c, owls, bats, lughtbirds, but that 

eutirnl, which is perceived in them all. Bemove a plant, it will pine away, which 

*ep»cally pe' you may read at lartre in Constanlme\ lius- 

wixt the vine and the Cabbage, vim- and oil. I'nt | lt,r< I 

• tr m, or a beast in a pen, or luke his young on 

an, and see what effect it will cause. But who perceives not 
enmtnua passions of sensible creatures, fear, sorrow, &.c (if all other, doga are 
tsttbjr malady, insomuch some hold they dream as men do. am 

of nvUiifhoh I could relate many stories of doge that have dii d 

irf, and pined nway lot h>>-s of their masters, but they arc common in every 

Kmjriom*. province-*, and politic bodies are likewise sensible and subject to this 

■ewe, as •Boteri: politics hath proved at \- in human bodies 

• '< ■ - - . rations proceeding from humours, so be dure many (lis- 

m s commonwealth, uhieh do x>* diversely happen from several distsmj 

row. assy easily pereieve by their particular symptoms. For where yon ihaQ sen 

le eivd, obedient to GimI and princes, judicious, peaceable anil quiet, rich, 

• live in peace, in unity and concord, a country well tilled, 

lair built and populous ■ -iiies. ubi iAcota niteni as old **Cato said, the people 

polite and terse, uhi bene, be ale que vivunt, which our politicians make the 



«« d m. ht ulmntur »h uhor- 
» Ik r„) . ir An.ilr. ■ I., |U- 

» rai.i n rfiri.o 
Bmt. 

-De occult 1-1,1 



tn.op I. 1. r. 25 el 19.«-ju.iJ. I. Llh 10 ra<> \ 

IllutlOuin \H». \ . i '■ 
" U't ;i fa /lurnanif roponbui TafUr BftVtqnl I 

-. *e rr ir »nlmi*|iie, fir in 4it. 

.-/uJo»«pa»mor, Plato. ■ Ub. 6c t<e to*\. 



52 Dtmocrttus to the Reader. 

chief end of a commonwealth ; and which K Aristotle Polit. lib. 3, cap. 4 calls Con* 
mune bonum, Polybixis lib. 6, optabilem et selection station, that country is free from 
melancholy ; as it was in Italy in the time of Augustus, now in China, now in many 
other flourishing kingdoms of Europe. But whereas you shall see many discontents, 
common grievances, complaints, poverty, barbarism, beggary, plagues, wars, rebel- 
lions, seditions, mutinies, contentions, idleness, riot, epicurism, the land lie untilled, 
waste, full of bogs, fens, deserts, &c, cities decayed, base and poor towns, villages 
depopulated, the people squalid, ugly, uncivil ; that kingdom, that country, must 
needs be discontent, melancholy, hath a sick body, and had need to be reformed. 

Now that cannot well be effected, till the causes of these maladies be first removed, 
which commonly proceed from their own default, or some accidental inconvenience * 
as to be situated in a bad clime, too far north, sterile, in a barren place, as the desert 
of Lybia, deserts of Arabia, places void of waters, as those of Lop and Belgian in 
Asia, or in a bad air, as at Alexandre Ucl, Bantam, Pisa, Durrazzo, S. John de Ulloa, 
&.c, or in danger of the sea's continual inundations, as in many places of the Low 
Countries and elsewhere, or near some bad neighbours, as Hungarians to Turks, 
Fodolians to Tartars, or almost any bordering countries, they live in fear still, 
and by reason of hostile incursions are oftentimes left desolate. So are cities by 
reason "of wars, fires, plagues, inundations, "'wild beasts, decay of trades, barred 
havens, the sea's violence, as Antwerp may witness of late, Syracuse of old, Brundu- 
shun in Italy, Rye and Dover with us, and many that at this day suspect the sea's 
fury and rage, and labour against it as the Venetians to their inestimable charge. 
But the most frequent maladies are such as proceed from themselves, as first when 
religion and God's service is neglected, innovated or altered, where they do not fear 
God, obey their prince, where atheism, epicurism, sacrilege, simony, &c, and all 
such impieties are freely committed, tliat country cannot prosper. When Abraham 
came to Gerar, and saw a bad land, lie said, sure the fear of God was not in that 
place. m Cyprian Echovius, a Spanish chorographer, above all other cities of Spain, 
commends " Borcino, in which there was no beggar, no man poor, &c, but all rich, 
and in good estate, and he gives the reason, because they were more religious than 
their neighbours :" why was Israel so often spoiled by their enemies, led into capti- 
vity. Sec, but for their idolatry, neglect of God's word, for sacrilege, even for one 
Arhan's fault ? And what shall wc except that have such multitudes of Achans, 
church robbers, simoniacul patrons, &c, how can they hope to flourish, that neglect 
divine duties, that live most part like Epicures ? 

Other common grievances are generally noxious to a body politic ; alteration of 
laws and customs, breaking privileges, general oppressions, seditions, &c, observed 
by w Aristotle, Bodin, Boterus, Junius, Arnisrus, Stc. I will only point at some of 
chiofest. "^ Impotent i a gubernandi, aUtr'uu confusion, ill government, which proceeds 
from unskilful, slothful, griping, covetous, unjust, rasii, or tyrannizing magistrates, 
when they are fools, idiots, children, proud, wilful, partial, indiscreet, oppressors, 
giddy heads, tyrants, not able or unlit to manage such offices : 7l many noble cities 
and flourishing kingdoms by that means are desolate, the whole body groans under 
such heads, and all the members must needs be disaffected, as at this day those 
goodly provinces in Asia Minor, &c. groan under the burthen of a Turkish govern- 
ment; and those vast kingdoms of Muscovia, Russia, n under a tyrannizing duke. 
Who ever heard of more civil and rich populous countries than those of u Greece, 
Asia Minor, abounding with all "wealth, multitudes of inhabitants, force, power, 
splendour and magnificence ?" and that miracle of countries, M the Holy Land, that 
in so small a compass of ground could maintain so many towns, cities, produce so 
many fighting men ? Egypt another paradise, now barbarous and desert, and almost 
waste, by the despotical government of an imperious Turk, intolerabili servitutii 



« Vel puliliram Dtitilatem : ralui publics suprcma 
lax estn. Beat* et vitas non ubl panel beat I, sed tola 
eJvilaa heata. Plato quarto de republic*. « Man - 
Ma vie miser* nlmium vlcina Cremona. •» Intor- 

dam a ferle, tit nlln Mauritania, dec. •» Delicti* 

Hu-panlv anno 1601. Nemo malua, nemo panper. op- 
tuuo* ouiMjue atqne ditiesimiis. Pie, aancteque vlve- 
*•»/ mammmqum cum naermUone, •! timon dlvino 



9. c. 3. * Boleros Polit. lib. 1- e. 1. Cam nempe 

princept rernm sjerrndarum Imperitus, eegnla, ok.1* 
tana, suique muneri* linmemor, ant fatuua est. 
" Non viget rmpubllca cnlui caput innrmatur. **• 
linburienais. c. IS. "9nDr. Fletcher's rela- 

tion, and Alexander Garnlnua' history. n Alma- 

dans omnl divitiarum afluentla tacoUrwn winllitueHM 
splendors ae poientla. M Not above MO miles m 



cmiui, mmerHqu* nbm /■comaweaal. • PoUt. 1. . length, W tat •math, aecocdJac to Adikoamhn 



Democnlus to the Reader. 



53 



('"one saith) not only fire and water, goods or lands, scd ipse spiriius 
■ctoris prude t nutu, BQch if their slavery, their live? and souls 
h» insolent will and command. A tyrant that spoils all wheresoever he 
, tn*otnurh ti»t an '"historian complains, ■ if an old inhabitant should no-.. 
«i*nld not know them, if a traveller, or stranger, it would grieve his hen 
Item." Where. i le notes, JVorce cxactioncs* nova onrra impost: 

i and exactions daily come upon them, like those of whirh ZocSatUft, lib. 2, so 
u-l riri uxores, patres filios proslituercnt ut exact or ikut i gflttfu, Js.r., tlny 
"da he discontent, Ai'nc civitatum grmitus ct plnratiu, ns "Tully l 
aw thooe complaints and tears of cities, ** poor, miserable, rebellions, and 
r •object*, M ^ Hi (ipolitus adds; and "as a judicious countryman ol 
not long since, in a survey of that great Duchy of Tuscany, the people 
ranch grierrd and discontent, as appeared by their manifold and manifest e< un- 
it kind. " That the state was like a sick body which had lately taken 
rbose humours are not yet well settled, and weakened so much by purging, 
las; «*•■» leti l>ut ■wbniilirity*' 

the princes and potentates are immoderate in lust, hypocrites, epicures, 
i religion, but in show: Quid hypocriti fragiiiui f what so brittle ami unsure? 
subverts th. ir estates Ihtn wandering and raging hisls. on their 

•if to my no worse. That they should fact in jtcrprre. had the 
Dili - actions, are the ringleaders oftentimes of all mischief and ditto* 

Itar c our x » . and by that means their countries are plagued, *' "and they themselvM 
*en rosacd, banished, ormordered by conspiracy of their subjects, as Sardanapatoi 
fia Disrrnus. junior. Reliogabalua, Periander, Pisistratus, Tarquinius, Tintoe: 

- Claudius, Andronicus. (Jaleacius Sforsia, Alexander Medices," fee* 
die princes or great men arc malicious, envious, factious, ambitious, 
y tear a commonwealth asunder, as so many Giulfs and GibeliMi 
die quietne*s of it, ""and with inuiual murders let it bleed to death; our lus- 
tre too full of such barbarous inhumanities, and the miseries that issue from 



tbey be like so many horsc-lceches, hungry, griping, corrupt, " cot 

R olves, for as Tully writes: qui pnrt st jtrtrdest, et 
nri pratdihu pr trcxr, di Act eorum uti/itati insrriire : or such as prefer their pn 
Wlm the pohl For as ■•he laid long since, res privates publicis SflMjKf 

•Jeer*. Or whereas tiiey be illiterate, ignorant, empirics in policy, uM Jet U fucul- 
■ ■'. 5, cap. 8,1 el gcientia^ wise only by inheritance, and in 
favour, or for their wealth and titles; there must needs he 
, • great defect : because as an * : old philosopher alfinns, such men ■ 
fit. »»Of an infinite Dumber, few alone are senators, and of those few, fewer 
of that small number of honest, good, and noble men, few that u 

et and sufficient, able to discharge such places, it must needs turn to the 
of a state." 
a* the • Princes are, so arc the people ; Qualis Rex, talis grcx : and which 

Tig' id of old, qui .Macedonia regem erudit, omnes etiam tut 

be that tcacheth the king of Macedon, teacheth all his subjects, is a true 




' €»•• do leiin. do n-icl, <! 



' WinCim cl tilhif nnt 



Comimpunt vhinnini excmtila durotxita. ma:.'nl* 
Cum aubcaul nnlino, aucloflbua.". ■> 



■TMirfJ— are soonest followed, vices entertained, if they be profane, irrcli- 



... 81 qui* In- pUnt and nvarthrnw Iheir adverrorica, enrich ihem- 

.'» afBeacrrr' »ca, get honour*. di««mble ; but xvh.it i, ttii» t.. i|,« 

' nidrliu. princiiiiim. Ii.iib ease, or prrrervaiicm nf a CnmnnniK . • ' 



prrali. *• R 

t. 

• il. -I- I H . • i-\i|lrril. 



i .m» |i. cur.iii- - liniwrium auaple apmite cnrruil. •* Aful I'rim 

F I • r Ex Innumrrabililma, poiiri ReaaUil 
hdbilCJt, t con»'il inbu* |..iuri tumi, * bnah 
eriiiiili. ■■ Nni, toluln \ i 

pea, u*d clinm in In nun n I In f n nnlftii. plu»'\H« cv 

t'ic. I dt \i \ \«K. 

• n S.il 4. Psiipeitat ifil^ iwm i 
ii. A rial. Pol. '1. i- " 
• iarn()le« .|>i>rni«) m"r» (\u\tkU' vy^.ix \i» w\\«a 
'•■tt -u:;r.t, <} | aut m itij f by high authoiiuct. 

* 2 






Democrilus to the Reader. 



o will the 



gious, lascivious, riotous, epicures, factious, covetous, ambitious, illiterate, so 
commons most part he, idle, tmthrifts, prone to lust, drunkards, and therefore poor 
aud needy (17 ntna woaw iunom. xai xcaovpyiaif, for poverty begets sedition and villauy) 
upon nil occasions ready to mutiny and rebel, discontent still, complaining, mur- 
muring, grudging, apt to all outrages, thefts, treasons, murders, innovations, in debt) 
shifters, cozeners, outlaws, Prqfiigatit famcc (U i-ine. It was an old "politician's 
aphorism, " They that are poor and bod envy rich, bate good men, abhor the pi 

nnient, wish fog a new, and would have all turned topsy tuny." When Cati- 
line rebelled in Koine, he got a company of such debauched rogues together, they 
were Ins familiars and coadjutors, and such have been your rebels most part in all 
ages. Jack Cade, Tom Straw, Kette, and his companions. 

Whan they be generally riotous and contentious, whore there be many discords, 
many laws, many lawsuits, many lawyers and many physicians, it is a manifest sign 
of a distempered, melancholy state, as w Plato long since maintained : for where such 
kind of men swarm, they will make more work for themselves, and that body politic 

sed, which was otherwise sound. A general mischief in these our inn- 
insensible plague, aud never so many of them : u which are now multiplied (saith 
Mut. Geraldna, w a lawyer hinwelf,) as so many locusts, not the parents, but the 
plagues of the country, and for the most part a supercilious, bad, covetous, litigious 
ration of men. ^Cntmrnimu/ga natio. Sac. A purse-milking nation, a clamor- 
on- company, gowned vultures, m qiti ex injuria panes' et sanguirv. cirmni, thieves 
leminanes of discord ; worse than any pole re by the highway side, auri acci^i- 
(retj mtri evtcrcbronidis, pecuniarum hamioli?, quadntplnturvn, curia* harpafi 
fori tintinnbula y monslra hominum, mangoncs, kc. that take upon them to make 
peace, but arc indeed the very disturbers of our peace, a company of irreligious har- 
pies, scraping, gcjping catchpolef, (I mean our common* hungry pettifoggers, *rabu- 
las forenses, love and honour in the meantime all good laws, and worthy lawyers, 
thai are so many "'oracles and pilots of a well-governed commonwealth). Without 
art, without judgment, that do more harm, as w Livv said, t/inim liella ta&mOt/t 
nmrl'irr, than Sickness, war*, hunger, diseases; "and cause a most incredibb 
■traction of a commonwealth," saith M Sesellius, a famous civilian sometimes in Paris, ' 
as ivy doth by an oak. embrace it so long, until it hath got the heart out of it, so do 
they by .such places thty inhabit; no counsel at ali, no justice, no speech to be had, 

inn j;n:fflukra, he must be fed still, or else he is as mute as a fish, better open 
an oyster without a knife. Kiprrto crude, (saith ,0o Salisburiensis) tn mantis eorum 
tniltics iw'idu it Charon immitis qui nulli pepcrvi! ttnquanuJns louge eh inrnilor est ; 
** I speak out of experience, I have been a thousand times amongst them, and Cliaron 
himself js more gendfl than they; 'he is contented with his single pay, but they 
multiply still, they are never satisfied,'" besides they have damni/im* Ungwu, as he 
terms it. nisi fttmbw argenUit etneiatj they must be fed to say nothing, and a get 
more to hold their peace than we can to say our best, They will speak their clients 
fair, and invite them to their tables, but as he follows it, a "■ of all injustice there is 
none so pernicious as that of theirs, which when they deceive most, will seem to 
be honest men/' They lake upon them to be peacemakers, et fovcre causa* humi- 
Jwm, to help them to their right, jwifmr insi It afflict is, * but all is for their owl 
good, tit locuios phniorotn exhauritmf, they plead lor poor men gratis, but they are 
but as a stale to cau h others, ll" ihere be no jar, s they can make a jar, out of the 
laW itself find still some tpiirk or other, to set them al odds, and continue causes so 
long, lustra aliquot, I know not how many years before the cause is heard, and 
when 'tis judged and determined by reason of some tricks and errors, it is as fresh 
|0 begin, alter twice seven years sometimes, as it was at first; and so they prolong 



1 Pnln«l S.-nip.T in i\\ it, itr rjintim n|«-s nut tie mint 
11I1 Inviilriit. vcien uilem, nova exopinnt. ( .1 1 • ■ 1 |. 

_Mi«fini!iniiiii ii pigtUlM ' lie Ic-ilmn. 

"■^"■■kkl? tn I'i'N'i Ii ■ Ipline c»l indicium j u 1 1 - f- 1 1 
tiiTiim iiiiin.Tin.r1 mi'iliriiriim cupci. "- In pruf. 

»»ilil ;iin< Mnllipllc.Mitiir nun. in t < r r i f> III Incline 
n-ri |»in»' psrenl^t, »cd (wstr», p.- "'imi homh 

Ha nipcrri'i. ,. \ f l>. mini 

Intrmrntium Hietceat. — pniJ«.i r|i*l Imijui.1. ii 

l<„/..,, vulture* tngitt. * Bntc. Argett. ' Jnum 

CAB0U1U downs utMfuJum cniuiu. Tilly, m Ub. I. 



•Lib. 5. "Lib 1. dc rep. Gullnriini rrdililtrm 

reipnli pornirii-ni iMVninl '*• Polyenl lili ' 1* 

-ii|i.' umtMlin, ll In i»hsp» intrcrii" mlii iimLllpllrnrt 
jillwnl. » I'luj urnpiuM inertc, ipriiii ■■»• loqul. 

■ Tolla* i nilla c«pilalior, ipiAni ."rum qui 

rii in inn.unie il> i ipiniil. id aflat, ill bum mo 
il'Niiilnr < Nam qiiiiriiiii|ui* nuxlu i ni-.i rrmrdnl. 

hue s/'mpi-r auiiur, in l>»'iili impleiniiir, *i»i avarllia 
'■Wlari. ' N • -rt. k q\li <i nihj 

»n latum ft )un» »V^Vbtt» Vw*» u.iucn sercrc callenl. 



Dl. 



Dtmocrttus to the Reader. 



55 






M .-;,.• 



la ull they hi fl themselves, and beggii< An 

lx ..\n wrangling l;iv 
jm. art' M In itriou>i anil busy here on earth, that I 
■ r,aomeol them in helL 'Simlerna 
rf tin- advocates in his tune, that vheo they ahoakl 

: their causes mam 
, nil their patrimonies be consumed, and th 
■ ♦pru 1 L-vkiiiL' 1MB the iliing is worili, or they shall gel by the ice... 

t he that goes to Jaw. a- th) 
i a stonn runs for shelter to a brier, if he prosecute ha 

what iliii They had wont berclofor 

ittOMI urbilros ; and so in Switzerland (we a 
. " they had some common arbitrators or daysmen in • 
dly composition betwixt man and man, and lie much wonders 
■ uld keep pence to well, and end such great rmraoi 
means. | At "Fes ill Africa, llu-v have neither lawyers nor advocates ; but 
j amongst them, both parties plaintiff and defends*) 
• Aliakins or chief judge, "and ai once without any farther appeals or pitiful 
led." Oui forefatb worthy chorographer 

i observes, had wont pauculis Cruofil mtnis, WJth a lew goloea i 

all ronvi And such was the candour an 

ling ages, that a deed (as I have oft seen) to convey a wln.lt> 
twenty lines or thereabouts; like that scedc 
much renowned of old in all contracts, which B Tul 
i lend* to Athens, Plntarch in bia Lyaander, JbriMtotb Twtcy- 

>ru* and Suidua approve and magnify, for Uiat I • viiy 

according to ''Term I ban 
b in ds. And so was it of old throughout: 

ina of parchment wi turn; he that buys and scl 

a bonsr. most have a house full of writings, there be so many circumstances, so 
ntologi d repetitious of all particulars (to avoid cavillaiion 
.t we find by our woful experience, that to subtle wits it is a cause of much 
-•.and scarce yance so accurately penned by 

II not find a crack in, or cavil at; U' any one word be mis- 
all is disannulled. That wlmii is a law to-day, is none to- 
nmw ; that whii ■ in one man's opinion, is most faulty to another; that 

icaochwkm, here ie nothing amongst us but contention and confusion, we 
v ag**n*i another. And that which long since "Plutarch complained of ihem in 
lied in out limes. "These nun here assembled, come not to BBBXt* 
,'iicr their first-fruits, or merriments to Bacchus ; but an 
Asia hath brought them hither, to make an end of their 
Brtrmer>ie« and lawsuits." Tie mMhihtdo ptrdtwthm H ]» > rntn.'niiu, a • 

Sucli most part are our ordinary Buiti 
, mistakes, ivils, and at this present, as I have 

how many thousand causes: no | 
ich hitterness in following, so many slights, procrastina- 
• >r infinite sums an- inconsiderately olence 

4 eaaltoe, I knou whose fault, lawyers, clients, laws, both or all: 

1 since, I may more positively infer now: 

rWre ie a fault amongst you. and I speak it to your shame. Is there not a 
IB amoog*i yon, to judge between his brethren ? but that a brother goes to law 




i 

life I 3. 

n jimnil lit l 

nt, mil 

■ 

/.I » I COf. »l. 5, 6. ' . liMAUAO 

m cv mp aww u rlut. if. ttamm MphrU* 1 IV alli.ti. 






f»6 



Drmocrilus to the Reader. 



with a brother." And "Christ's counsel concerning lawsuits, was never so fit to be 
inculcated as in this age : M Agree with thine adversary quickly," Stc. Matth. v, 25. 

1 could repeat many such particular grievances, which must disturb a body politic. 
To shut up all in brief, where good government is, prudent and wise princes, there 
all things thrive and prosper, peace and happiness is in that land : where it is othe 
wise, all things are ugly to behold, incult, barbarous, uncivil, a paradise is tun 
a wilderness. This island amongst the rest, onr next neighbours the French and 
Germane, may be a suflir.ient witness, that in a shorl lime by that prudent policy of 
the Romans, was brought from barbarism; see but what Caesar reports of u=, and 
Tacitus of those old Germans, they were once as uncivil as they in Virginia, yet by 
planting of colonies and good laws, they became from barbarous outlaws, "' to be full 
"rich ami populous cities, as now they are, and most nourishing kingdoms. Even 

might Virginia, and those wild Irish have been civilized long since, if that order 

' been heretofore taken, which now begins, of planting colonies, 6tc. I have read 
a "discourse, printed anno 1612. u Discovering the true causes why Ireland was 
never entirely subdued, or brought under obedience Lo the crown of England, until 
the beginning of his Majesty's happy reign." Yet if his reasons were thoroughlj 
scanned by a judicious politician, I am afraid he would not altogether be approve 
but ilia! il would turn ("the dishonour of our nation, to suffer it to lie so hmg was! 
Yea, and if some travellers should see (to come nearer home) those rich, united pn: 
vinos of Holland, Zealand, &.C., over against us; those neat cilies and populou 
towns, full of most industrious artificers, °so much laud recovered from the sea, am 
■0 painfully preserved hy those artificial inventions, so wonderfully approved, as iha 
of Bemstcr in Holland, ut nihil huic par ant simile inventus in tvto orbc, sailh Berth 
the geographer, all the world cannot match it, "so many navigable channels |>. 
place to pttM) made by men's hands, i*.c. and on the other side so many tttOMsl 
■ if our fens lie drowned, our cities thin, and those vile, poor, and ugly to brhol 
in respect of theirs, our trades decayed, our still running rivers stopped, and that ben* 
ficial use of transportation, wholly neglected, so many havens void of ships at) 
towns, so many parks and forests for pleasure, barren heaths, so many villages 
depopulated, &c. 1 think sure he would find some fault. 

I may not deny but that this nation of ours, doth bene audire apud extcrns, is a 
most noble, a most flourishing kingdom, by common consent of all "geographers, 
historians, politicians, 'tis un>>tt n hit arx,™ and which t^uiulius in Livy said of 
tbitanta of l'elopotuiesus, may be well applied to us, we are testudincs testa 
inclusi, like so many tortoises in our shells, safely defended hy an angry sea, as a 
wall i>n all sides. Our island hath many such honourable eulogiiims; and as 
harncd countryman of ours right well hath it, Wu Ever since the Normans lirst comb 
into England, this country both for military matters, and all other of civility, hat 
been paralleled with the most flourishing kingdoms of Europe and our (iin-ti. 
world," a blessed, a rich country, and one of the fortunate isles: and for sot 
things "preferred before other countries, for expert seamen, our laborious discov* 
ics, art of navigation, true merchants, they carry the bell away from all other nations, 
evun die Portugals and Hollanders themselves; 29u without all fear," saith llolertis, 
»* furrowing the ocean winter and summer, and two of their captains, with no less 
valour than fortune, have sailed round about the world." ■Wa have 1m sides many 
particular bteseinga, which our neighbours want, the Gospel truly preached, church 
line established, long peace and quietness free Iroin exactions, foreign fears, 
invasions, donnatical seditions, weU manured,* 1 fortified by art, and nature, and now 

most happy in that fortunate onion of England and Scotland, which our forc|atht*rs 
' ive laboured to effect, and desired lo see. But in which tre axed all others, a 



mm, 



>»S.. iniimM, and prearhrri b) "ur fUgiii« I 
"t, D. Prulraiu ; priiiird ,it Loadon by Kifli\ Km;- 

■Of wliich Tail i'.-tI |w " !• im...i 

i malaria cf»»al 

Sahetlicu* de Germanln, r*l Oer- 

innmnni iirbiliiiF (iodic excaltam, aoa dicerel in ••Inn 

i n.tr in cull ii, atp*run oafs, •••nun laltanMn. "Hy 

• tjfttjr's Attorney 'I r.ii tin'n\ *Aa /•-,)>'- 

'*//rf. //,„,.:,-, ,,, Ifollmn I "From Qa«M to 

.f'"""' Oom lira/fen to the H«n. 4*. ' 'rlrhin, 

tiotcrum, Altrcalar, Meleranat, 4c. •» " The clta- 



ili-l pir f-\cr'llt 'in i! " n Jam tnde non belli irlori! 

Mini .mi n. mini inirr flortnl 

i I ■ -ii ii|.riinl- Ibiruil, t .mil >n Hril 

NoriiiaiiiiN. •'Genra Kadtm 'Taai Men 

i|iiAin n',t:uc bitrepidt »iiii'.int Oeeannm. bi duo Hl« 

riiin rliicc* lion nJlMf* miliaria <|iiain Otttuitik l"lni 
"tbiiii Utttm riri-ninriavlfttriiiit. ASlPhlUMAItn BM< 
mi. "A .'"iid an, ICC 'In. I.r»d 

■v ' | Sriffmn, «lc. »'Tuia Untaniiia unica rein 

an Uuict. 



Dcmocritus to the Reader. 



57 



deuv. 



!, religious king, another Numa, a second Augustus, a true Josiah ; most 
senators, a learned clergy, an obedient commonalty, kc. Yet amongst many 
some thistles gr"W. s<>nie bad weeds and enormities, which much disturb the 
of this body politic, eclipse the honour and glory of it, fit to be rooted out, 
with all speed to be reformed. 

first is idleness, by reason of which we have many swarms of rogues, and 

«, drunkards, and discontent d persons (whom Lycurgus in Plutarch 

rfcas reljmblicct.^ the boils of the commonwealth), many poor people in all 

ritalrs ignnbileS) as "Polydore calls them, base-built cities, inglorious, 

LI, ran in sight, ruinous, and diin of inhabitants. Our land is fertile we may 

lull of all good tilings, and why doth it not then abound with rides, as well 

v, the Low Countries ? because their policy hath hern other- 

, and we are not so thrifty, circumspect, industrious. Idleness is the mains 

• >ur nntion. For as "Boterus justly argues, fertility of a country is not 

excrpt art and industry be joined unto it, according to Aristotle, riches are 

natural or artificial ; natural are good land, fair mines, fctc. artificial, an- manu- 

Many kingdoms are fertile, hut thin of inhabitants, as that 

meal En Italy, which Leander Albcrtus so much magnifies for mni. 

its, K' 'liing near so populous as those which are more barren. 

ui\\ he, u I/ondon only excepted, hath never a populous city, and yet 

country. I rind 40 cities and walled towns in Alsatia, a small province in 

•, 50 castles, an infinite number of villages, no ground idle, no not rock) 

«r tope of hills are untdled, as "Monster informcth us. In "Greichgea, a 

territory on the Necker, 84 Italian miles over, I read of 20 walled town-. 

le Tillages, each one containing 150 houses most part, besides castles and 

*s palaces. I observe in "Turinge in Dntchland (twelve miles over by 

ica^ 12 counties, and in them 144 citi«*s, 2**00 villages, 144 towns, 250 cas- 

In * Bavaria 34 cities, 46 towns, kc. "Portugallia interamnis, a small plot 

hath 1460 parishes, 130 monasteries, 200 bridges. Malm, a barn n i-lum 
W,000 inhabitants. But of all the rest, I admire Lues Guicciardim^s relations of 
- Holland hath 26 cities, 400 great villages. Zealand 10 e.itn s, 102 
Brabant 26 cities, 102 parishes. Flanders 28 cities, 90 towns, 1 154 villages, 
s, castles, fcse. The Low Countries generally have three cities at least 
of ours, and those far more populous and rich : and what is the cause, but their 
and excellency in all manner of trades ? Their commerce, which is inani- 
ty » multitude of tradesmen, so many excellent channel* made by art and oppOr- 
harena, to which they build their cities ; all which we have in like measure, or 
may haw. But their chieiest loadstone which draws all maimer of commerce 
merc ha ndise, which maintains their present estate, is not fertility of soil, but 
itry that enricheth them, the gold mines of Fern, or Nova Hispania may not 
pare v. neither gold nor silver of their own, wine DOT oil, 

nv corn growing in those united provinces, little or no wood, tin, h-ad, 
wool, any stuff almost, or metal ; and yet Hungary, Transylvania, that 
■rr mines, fertile England cannot compare with them. 1 dare b«.|<;i\ 
nrithcr France, Tarentuin, Apulia, Lombardy, or any part of Italy, Valetrua in 
•tuit pleasant Andalusia, with their excellent fruits, wine and oil, two har- 
no not any part of Europe is so flourishing, so rich, so populous, so full of 
. of well-built cities, so abounding with all things tie* ca a ary for the u»eof 
"Tin our Indies, an epitome of China, and all by reason of their industry, pood 
and commerce, hwo wtr y is a load-stone to draw all good things; that alone 
• ■oniric* fl< ies populous, * and will enforce by reason of much ma- 

follows, a barren soil to be fertde and good, as sheep, saith 
mend a had pasture. 

why is that fruitful Paleslina, noble Greece, Egypt, Asu 

h-t Mat urh. I. I. c. 9. »Ortcliu» I Vueo et Pet. de Medina ■MkW 

I cl»li»» Rteainn- dred reunite* In each. •fopuli muYUinAo 4ft\- 

t rente ciiiium foKundat •nlnm. Motei. \ «. < V 
>■ ouo m*mtmm. "Urst 35. Terr* ubl ove* ilabulnmui uMwv* *vV- 
<.c-t,.-». «<rt intuitu. *Chylrriii c.-/j* ub Mercu*. 

ttmmt mat "Mtgiaus Gevg. I 



fTOUnd. I 



1,> W 






Dt-mocrittu to the Reader. 

Minor, so much decayed, and (mere carcases now) fallen Irom that they were ? The 
round is the same, but the government is altered, the people are grown slothmi, 
idle, their good husbandry, policy, and industry is decayed. NomfatigCta "ul ejf'izt, 
h>tmu\ n "Columella veil informs Sylvinus, sed nostra fit inertia, fee. Hay a mai 
believe that which Arw.otle in his politics, Paunoiu, Stephanus, Sophianus, Gerbe- 
lius relate of old Greere ? I find heretofore 70 cities in Epims overthrown by Puulus 
iEiniliu?, a goodly province in times past, "now left desolate of good towns and 
most inhabitants. SixJv-two cities in Macedonia in Strabo's time. I rind 30 in Lac 
but now scarce so many villages, saith Gerbelius. If any man from Mount Ttiv g 
should view the country round about, aud see tot delicias, tot urbes per PeloptHM* 
■m tftffMTMf, BO many delicate ami brave built cities with such cost and exijuisjt 
ciiniiing, so neatly set out in Peloponnesus, "he should perceive them now ruinoi 
and OVWthrOWft, burin, wuste, desolate, and laid level with the ground. Incrcdibile. 
dicta) Slc. And as he laments, Quis talia ftmtlo Temperct a laehrymis? Quia tan 
durus nut frrre.us, (so he prosecutes it). 4 * Who is he that can sufficiently condol 
and commiserate these ruins? Where are those 40Q0 chips oi Egypt, those 100 
cities in Crete ? Are they now come to two ? What saith Pliny and .lElian of old 
r There were in former ages 11G0 cities : Blomhis and Machiavel, both grant 
them now nothing near so populous, and full of good towns as in the time of Au- 
gustus (for now Leandcr Alberlns can rind but 300 at most), and if we may giv 
credit in ^Livy, not then so strong aud puissant as of old: "They mustered 7 C 
Legions in former times, which now the known world will scarce yield, Alexande 
built . ii a short spare for his part, our Sultans and Turks demolish twice 

as many, and leave aL desolate. Many will not believe but that our island ol Great 
Britain is now more populous than ever it was ; yet let them read Rede, Leland ami 
others, they shall find it most flourished in the Saxon Heptarchy, and in the Cott- 
ipiinus time was far better inhabited, than at this present. See that Doomsday 
and show me those thousands of parishes, which are now decayed, cities 
lint d. \ iliagei depopulated, &.c. The lesser the territory is, commonly, the richer 
it is. Parvus sed bene cultus ager. As those Athenian, Lacedremonian, Arcadian, 
Aeliun, S\ cioniaii. Hessenian, Stc. commonwealths of Greece make ample proof, aa 
those imperial cities and free states of Germany may witness, those Cantons of Swit- 
zers, Rheti, Grisons, Walloons, Territories of Tuscany, Luke and Senes of old, Pied- 
mont, Mantua, Venice in Italy, Ragusa, Slc. 

That ptiitee ihercfore as, 47 BiUerus adviseth, that will have a rich country, and 
fair lilies, l<-t him get good trades, privileges, painful inhabitants, artificers, and suffer 
no rude mutter uu wrought, as tin, iron, wool, lead, Stc, to be transporter! out of his 
country, — 'a tiling in part seriously attempted amongst us, but not effected. And 
ecause industry of men, and multitude of trade so much avails to the ornament and 
diing of a kingdom; those ancient ^Massilians would admit no man into their 
City that had not some trade. Selvm ihe tir.st Turkish euiperer procured a thousand 
good artificers to bf b-otight from Tauris to Constant iuople. The Polanders indented 
with Henry Duke of Anjou, their new chosen king, to bring with him an hundred 
families of artificers into Poland. James the first in Scotland i^as u Buchanan writes) 
sent for the best artificers he could get in Europe, and gave them gieat reward* to 
tench his subjects tneir several trades. Edward the Thin!, our most renowned 
kine, to his eternal memory, brought clothing first jnlo tins bland, transporting 
some families of artificers from Gaunt hither. How many goodly eities could I 
reckon up, that, thrive wholly by trade, where thousands of inhabitants live singular 
well by their linkers' ends: As Florence in Italy by making cloth of gold ; great 
Aldan by silk, ami all curious works; Arras in Artois by those fair hangings; many 
ritii's in Spain, mat • in France, Germany, have none other maintenance, especially 
ihoM within the laud.. "Mecca, in Arabia Petraea, stands in a most unfruitful eoun- 



« n- n '"-t I 2. crip, i. The aoll I* not tired or 
izhnn**ed hut he- ii. ■..••- bar t*n tbUMIgb ow (tottl 
* II 'I ir, el nnfin tx pane inrrvlis 

■Mlliu i Hat d*M. Qraxte, lib. 6. «VI- 

ll trttMl, mil «nlo rqunlu, 
*"' ■" lai Gtrheliut. 

"£'" ' "'" '•'" kanfwl "four Tars conld hear, 
JVor ttera Uly, tet teU without a lear. 



"I.lti. 7. Srptnncinta ollia lerlfintm nrrlpm dicuntm ; 

3nu vtrti hndle, dec <" ruin, i 1 e B • Tor 

yetnf ofclolha, and drecilng, dec. I I & 

■ 1 ">Hi»l. Ken!, l.lh. to. Msgiu* prnattatUl 

prti'iiiiit, lit flrnlt kb li« rd"rrrenlnt M>ni-.t. 

OHM I :>. t a Arm omnlun Krutii info- iii 
aqun «nrtleon»e inlrt »*\«\a, im\j* \ato»w <lr^fttilhwl 
ma, oh OneviUa t\ejov»»vVcH»» «\Outa.«\ta. 



Dcmocritus to ilxe /?.;</./< r. 



wants water, amongst the rocks (as Vertoinamia describes it), and yet it is 

dentil and pleasant city, by rawoa "I tin.- traffic of the east and west. 

in Persia is a most famous mart-town, bath nought else but the op|iortuniiy 

'the haven to make it flourish. Corinth, a noble city | Lumen (irceia?. Tally Mill 

ibr Eye of Greece, by reason of Cenchreas and Lecheus, those excellent ports, 

f« all that traffic of the Ionian and .Aegean seas to it ; and rat die country about 

curt .i rt suy .13 **Strabo terms it, rugged ami harsh We may say 

*M of Athens, Actium, Thebes, Sparta, and most of those. l"v.ii< in lireece. 

turembrnr in Gci sited in a most hurrt-n soil, yel n noble imperial city, by 

istry of «rtiii<Ti>, and cunning trades, they draw the riches vi 

irtn, so expert in mauuliictures, that as Sal lust long since gave out of thelikc, 

drm trninuz in extremis digilis habent, their soul, or UUeUectlU agen$i was placed m 

finger^ end ; uud m we may aay of Basil, Spire, Cambray, Frankfort, kc. It is 

ible to speak what MOM "rile of Mexico and the cities adjoining to it, 

place in the world at their first discovery more populous, "Mat EUccilM, the 

it, end some others, relate of (he industry of the rhinnnci most popalou ttraia 

: a beggar or an idle person to be seen, and how by that means they prosper 

have the same means, able bodies, pliant wits, matter of aii sorts, 

4, llax, iron, tin, lead, wood, ^r., many excellent subjects to work upon, only 

anting. We send our best commodities beyond the - h ihey 

good use of to their necessities, set themselves a work about, and severally 

i nding the same |p M back at dear rati s, or else make |oy* and baubles 

■ i ihem, which they tell to as again, at as great a reckoning ai 

In ino-t of our cities, some few excepted, like 'Spanish loiterers, we live 

lippling-inns and ale-houses. .Malting are their best ploughs, their great- 

trstfir to sell ale. **Meteran and some others object to us, that we are no whit 

industrious as the Hollanders: ►'Manual trades saith he) which are more cu- 

-uuhlcsome, are wholly exercised by strangers : thev dwell in a sea full of 

they are so idle, they will not catch so much as shall serve their own turns, 

it of uVir neighbours. 1 ' Tuah " .Wnn \\h< rum, they pah wilder mir : 

it to us when they have done, at their own prices. 



m 

t it ia 



1 t'uili'l lire np|>rohrla nobii 



Et did polimn , el nun poiui«*e ref«-lli 

I ana ashamed to hear toil objected by stranger*, and know not how to answer it 

Anion. vns, there is only n I-< ndon that bears the face of a city, " Epitome 

tammi i><>riitm, second to HODS beyond seas, a noble mart: but sola 

'it. Hi nu aim i and yet, in my slender judgment, defective in many 

■<t ("some few excepted art- in mean estate, ruinous most part, poor, 

1 of beggars, by reason of their decai • A trades, neglected or bad policy, idle- 

itaata, riot, which had rather beg or loiter, and be ready to starve, 

work. 

that something may be said in defence of our cities, *°that they 

i licence of this kingdom {concerning bufld- 

-. Norman castles and religious houses,) so rich, thick 

, populous, ns iii some othi r countrii - ; besides the reasons Cardan gives, Subtil. 

mi wine and oil. their two harvests, we dwell in a colder air, and Ibr 

■t a little more liberally "feed of flesh, as all northern countries 

ire extend to the maintenance of so many -. yel notwith- 

rg we have matter of all sorts, an open sea fat traffic, as well as the rest. 

And how can we excuse our negli r riot, drunkenness, fce^ 



nh a>i»riim ilium 
..i.i 11*1* K. I»J« 

• i i 




fill*, el rvkifc genu: .*>aU/«r. 



• Lib. "Camden. ■York, RrWlnir, Nnrn ii li Wmii-trr,** . 

H ' fSnrd'a \r; ru B«t»u»e eenll. ».• n .l« .1! 

unlry villftrt-v our ettiei »'<" iff, to 
Irlg Hi. i iwibhii in Hip pnriKLi* : put iMm tomdrtd • 

■ i li'lliilf il v ill .. !l | >i'l<l » 

rra,e 
wliirh 
I d Ihlrkcr i .Vnd when: i 

luaiid. linn M*.uu\x\\\\». 

| \. uvi in i Ati\e <.uu»Vk'.U 
- ' d Lib. t. Mm. 



Dimocritus to the Reader. 



and such enormities that fallow it ? We have excellent laws enacted, you will say, 
severe statutes, houses of correction, &c, to imall purpose it seems ; it is not hou.-es 
will serve, but cities of correction ; "our lodes generally ought to be reformed, wants 
supplied. In other countries they have the same grievances, I confess, but that doth 
not excuse us, "wants, defects, enormities, idle drones, tumults, discords, contention, 
law-suits, many laws made against them to repress those innumerable brawls and 
law-suits, excess in apparel, diet, decay of tillage, depopulations, * especially against 
rogues, beggars, Egyptian vagabonds (so termed at least) which have "swarmed all 
over Germany, France, Italy, Poland, as you may read in ""Monster, Crauzius, and 
Aventinus ; as those Tartars and Arabians at this day tlo in the eastern countries : 
yet such has been the iniquity of all ages, as it seems to small purpose. .V | 

n-jslri ciriUitc. memluits MtO) .saith Plato: he will have them purged from a '"eom- 
monwe.dth, ou *' as a bad humour from the body," that are like so many ulcers and 
boils, aad must be cured More ilie melancholy body can lie easoA 

What Carolus tfagBOa, the Chinese, the Spaniards, the duke of Saxony and many 
other Males have decreed in this rase, read Arniseus, cap. 19; Boterus, libroS* cap. I ; 
thtfiut n*6 Ruhtiii!cxl. Etna7i. lib. 1 1. When a country is overstocked with people. 
as a pasture is ofi overlaid with cattle, they had wont in former limes to disburden 
thrmv Iv.-s, by sending out colonies, or bv wars, as those old Romans; or lv em- 
ploying them at home about some public buildings, as bridges, road-ways, foe which 
those Komans were famous in this island; as Augustus Cffisar did in Rome, the 
Spaniards ia their Indian mines, as at Potosi in Peru, where some 30,000 men are 
stdl at work, OiliMl furnaces ever boiling, fitc. w aqueducts, bridges, havens, those 
■tupend works of Trajan, Claudius, at 7I Ostium, Dioclesiani Thenna, Fucinus Lucus, 
that Pirsum in Athens, marie by Themislocles, ampillieatrums of curious marble, 
as al \ '« i' ina, Civiuis Philippi, and Kr-rarlca in Thrace, those Appian and Fla- 
mimati ways, prodigious works all may witness ; and rather than they should he 
™ idle, as those "Egyptian Pharaohs, Maris, and Scsoslris did, to task their lubJMU 
to build unnecessary pyramids, obelisks, labyrinths, channels, lakes, gigantic works 
all, to divert them from rebellion, riot, drunkenness, 7i Quo scilicet alanlur vi nr 
vagandn laborare dc sue scant. 

Another eye-sore is that want of conduct and navigable rivers, a great blemish as 
"BotaniSj ; llippulilus a CoUibtlS, and other politicians hold, if it be neglected in a 
commonwealth. Admirable cost and charge is bestowed in the LowCoimin 
this behalf, ia the dutchy of Milan, territory of Padua, in "France, Italy, China, 
and BO likewise about corrivalions of water to moisten and refresh barren grounds, 
to drain I , and moors. Massiuissa made many inward parts of Barbary 

and NiiiiiiJia in Africa, before his time incult and horrid, fruitful and bartable by this 
means. Great industry is generally used all over the eastern countries in this kind, 
especially in Egypt, about Babylon and Damascus, as Vertomannus and "Gotardus 
Arllui-i relate; about Barcelona, Segovia, Murcia, and many other places of Spain, 
Milan in Italy ; by reason of which, their soilis much impoverished, and infinite 
commoilities arise to the inhabitants. 

Th i late attempted to cut that Isthmus betwixt Africa and Asia, which ' 

"Srsoslris and Darius, and some Pharaohs of Egypt bad formerly undertaken, but 
with ill success, as "DiodoTOl Sicuius records, and Pliny, for that Red-sea being 
tree "cubits higher than Egypt, would have drowned all the country, cttpto ./. v- 






'II 'H-riMinlc moiiopnlii lirt-nli mi. piui:inr«» altnitiir 
oii», rnllnUirreiui aitrlcalaitn, lanlfiilutn iMMaateinr, 

Ul III k ■•IMIlll qiin M «• hit, p.lt <>tio«a ilia 

lur'i i S ll !ii- in Hi- "i . I ■• f il o r . I'm -on •IsrCdltl Ju«- 
tin mi M-T UiiMi. Lib. I. " MmripiU. loenpltM 

BfBt aria dappudoeuw r»x. I f- >r « ItfUK dii'iu- 

tiiu« bo i in m«ndic» 

■ .. »e.l careen* rue 

ekuto* ** Colin vies hominum mlrnhllaa 

i ■ . fj-ili villi, fiirti imprlmi, 

I ii>. 3 cap. 5. r '"Lc< 

no our II i '<•■ '.'u " "►Snoerft. Hand 

.•lirln, nu Am 

mnini ii ii - t liilctn a corpora 

til ii ii | | omBM «ult itxtarmtuarl. - I • 

• nn v.l. i. ii aun Runt, in I'l.uidio, et 

riiuiu., c. N T1 Ul egetuti annul el lgnaria oc- 



rurralur, opiftcia condiitcamur, tcnum MlblavVBlMr. 
Bndta I. fi. c. 8. niira. 8,7. "Am I nr<n 

Itfen promOlfBrtt, nt nmnn tubdili quoinni. 

mMwmI unde nvtrfnl. "Bu-mldnp di*> 

i ur-i! |Hiiii oip. 3. "whereby ihey are enppnn. 
do not become vagranla by being \**t ac< uatomod <u 
labour." aLn i taiitcrain Orb. cap. 6 

I ile in 'r.'in nrli Units flnmen, lacua. mil mure ullull 
" Inrretlibilion rninmoditnlem, veetura IMtclWHI 1MB 
flnvli navlgabilrt, &r. Ilntrrn* dc fi.illia II - 

r-iiluiiH, 'Mnd. Orlnnl. cap. J. Rmuu in medal 

rliimine eonetitnnnt, cut M pellibua anini ilium • OMtj - 

!■• .ip|i«-niliiiit, hi diini roia Baovatur, 
rti-r ran.ik-4, &i •*Onunn pedes Inn fntaa 30 

•'(•.•nlrary H IMI <>f Arrlio.. 
holds the lUperActe* of all water* even. 



Dcmocritua to the Rcarlrr. 



61 



aahgftM* 



off ; J same "Diodorus writes, Ptolemy renewal the 

after, and absolved in it a more opportune place. 

< brinlh was likewise undertaken to be made navigable by Dcme- 

Caisar, Nero, Domitian, Berodei \uicus, to make a speedy "passage, 

ifafajernnsj from the Ionian and A'lgean seas; but because it could DOl he 

Acted, the Pclopotincsiaris built a wall like our Picts 1 wall about 8 

mple stood, and in the shortest cut over the Isthmus, of 
■ 11 Herodotus, lib. 8. Vran. Our latter writers call it Hex* 
i Amurath the Turk demolished, the Venetians, anno 145."}, repaired 
i,fl00 men. Some, saith Acostn, would have a passage cut from 
to IS' ombre de Dios in America; but Thuanus and Serres the French 
spenk of a famous aqueduct in France, intended in Henry the Fourth's I 
the Loire to the Seine, and from Rhodanus to the Loire. The like to which 
forrwriy assayed by Domilian the emperor, "from Arar to Moselle, which 
speaks of in the 13 of his annals, after by Charles the Great and 
Much cost hath in former times hern bestowed in either new making or 
ohanie 1* of rivers, and their passages, (as Aurelianus did by Tiber to D 
; ; .in., t.. ... iv. v eoro from Egypt to the city, vadum nlrci turn 
«eith Vopiseus, et Tiberis ripa<i cxtruxit. he cut fords, made banks, hfl 
barrens, which Claudius the emperor with infinite pains and charges attempted 
a, its I hnve said, the Venetians at this day to preserve their city ; many ex- 
means to enrirli lheir territories, have been fostered, invented in most provin- 
as planting some Indian plants amongst us, Bdk-worms, ts thc very 
lnves in the plains of Granada yield 30,000 crowns per annum 10 the 
lin's r. i tiers, besides those many trades and artificers that are busied about 
in die kingdom of Granatin, Murcia, and all over Spain. In Frances great 
raised bj nh, ^. . whether these things might not be as happily attempted 
u*, and with li n, it may be controverted, silk-worms (I mean | \ 

Cardan exhorts Edward the Sixth to plant otfrtt, and is fully per- 
il they would prosper in this island. Willi us, navigable rivers are BKWl part 
U streams are not great, I confess, by reason of the narrowness of dir- 
ty nm smoothly and even, not headlong, swift, or unionist rocks, and 
Khodanus and Loire in France, Tigris in .Mesopotamia, violent 
- and whirlpools, as the Rhine, and Danubius, about 
langer navigators; or broad 
Palatinate, Tibris in Italy; but calm and fair as Arar in 
i'-niii. EurotM in Lieonia, they gently glide aloiii:. ami might 
as veil be repaired roam I mean Wye, Trent, One, Thamisis at Oxford, 

the drfr-ct in the mean time) as the river of liee from Ware to 

Lsadoo. old, or as some will Henry I. ""made a channel from Trent 

. ; which now, saith .Mr. Camden, is decayed, and much men- 
iwb w ttin liors, and such like monuments found about old r Verulamium, 

food ship* have !.: in. i! id manv such plan.-, whose channels, 

barms, ports are now barred and rejected. We contemn this hem fit of carriage h v 
wiirra, ami ar< upclled in the inner parts of this island, because pot> 

tar* i» *4» dear, to eat up our commodities ourselves, and live like so many boars in 

■ «y, tor want of vent and utterance. 

We hare mac i havens, royal havens, Falmouth. Portsmouth, Mill'ord. kc. 

rqurralral if u<< I to that Indian llavanua, old Rrundusium in Iudy, Auhs 

■ Greece, Ambi < Irete, which have lew ships in them, little or 
;t!e. which have scarce a village on them, able to bear great cities, xcd ri- 

poii>' i i justly tax many other neglects, abuses, errors, defects 

.mid in other countries, depopulations, riot, drunkenness. Etc. and many such* 
ta aurrm auxurrarr non libel. But I must take heed, tie quid graving diram, 



\.'< >•*, 




i-iglii. el V 

r*p. Jft. L'l brrvmr 

nim.K |».ri. .il<.,4 — Chariot the 

ami.* * ikannr 1 from die Rhine 

I D«nuW«. 0.1 t'likimrtu* cmripl. Uer. ibe 

M Jti •«•» about Vtencnbutg (torn Rciplcb to 



Altlmul Ft nairlf.l.illa Inlcr M OrMdentli el Sep- 
temrinnU llttora fierenl »Mi«iniii Sssrgi 

lertif de rep. llelvet. lib. 1. de». I "Cnniden 

in Linculnthife, Ko««edikr. ■ Near St. Mbkui, 

•• » men muit Dot now be, wb.ltpe.reii Vn Vb* w " 



82 



Dcmocritus to the Reader. 






that I (to not overshoot myself, Sus Minervam< I am forth of my element, as yon 
venture suppose; and sometimes Veritas odium parit, as lie said, "verjuice ami oat 
meal is good fof a parrot," For as Lucian said of an historian, I say of a politician. 
He thul will freely speak and write, must be for ever no subject, under no prince <>r 
law, but layout the matter truly as it 0, DOt earing what an yean, will, like or di>]>k< 

We have good laws, I deny not, to rectify such enormilies, and so in all otfM 
countries, but it mm nut always to good propose. We had need of some goner 
visitor in our age, that should reform K hat is amiss; a just army of Bosie-cross 
men, for they will amend all matters t^they say) religion, policy, maimers, with art: 
sciences, &.c. Another Attila, Tamerlane* Hercules, to strive with Acheluus, . : 
stabulum purgare, to subdue tyrants, as * he did Diomedes and Banna: to expel 
thieves, as he did Cacus and Lueiiuus: to vindicate poor captives, as he did Hi-sione 
to pass die torrid zone, the deserts of Lybia, and purge the world of monsters and 
Centaurs : or another Thehan Crates to reform our manners, to compose quarrel 
and controversies, as in his time he did, and was therefore adored for a god in Athens 
k4 As Hercules ** purged the world of monsters, and subdued them, so did he fight 
agninst envy, lust, anger, avarice, &.C. and all those feral vices and monsters of il 
mind." It were to be wished we had some such visitor, or if wishing would 
one had such a ring or rings, as Tiuiolaus desired in "Lttcian, by virtue of which lie 
should be as strong as lOyOOO men, or art army of giants. -m invisible, open ea:. 
castle doors, have what treasure be « OOld, transport himself in an instant to what plac 
he desired, alter affections, cure all manner of diseases, that he might range over the 
world, and reform all distressed states and persons, as he would himself. He might 
reduce those wandering Tartars in order, that intent China on the one side, Mast 
Poland* On the other; and tame the vagabond Arabians that rob and spoil those eatN 
cm countries, that they should never use more caravans, or janizaries to conduc 
them. He might root out barbarism out of America, and fully discover Terra Aut 
trails Incognita, find out the north-east and north-west passages, drain those might] 
Maeotian fens, cut down those vast llircinian woods, irrigate those barren Arabian 
deserts, Sic. cure us of our epidemical diseases, scorbutwn, plica, morbus JS'cii/nditn- 
■ii our idle controversies, cut oil* our tumultuous desires, inordinate 
lusts, root out atheism, impiety, heresy, schism and superstition, which now so cru- 
cify the world, catechise gross ignorance, purge Italy of luxury and riot, Spai 
superstition anil jealousy, Germany of drunkenness, all our northern country of grot* 
tuny and intemperance, castigate our hard-hearted parents, masters, tutors; Uah 
disobedient children, negligent servants, correct these .spendthrifts- and prodigal sons, 
enforce idle persons to work, drive drunkards olf the alehouse, repress thieves, visit 
corrupt and tynnuiz istrates, i<e. But as L. Liciiiins taxed Timolaus, you 

may us. These are vain, absurd ami ridiculous wishes not to be hoped : all must 
be as it is, 91 Hocchalinus may cite commonwealths to come before Apollo, and seek 
to reform the world itself by commissioners, but there is no remedy, it may not be 
redressed, desinent hoMUMtt turn demnm stultcsccre quando esse desinenty so long as 
they can wag their beards, they will play the knaves and fools. 

Because, therefore, il is a thing so difficult, impossible, and far beyond Hercules 
labours to be performed | let them be rude, slnpid, ignonnt, incull, Jcijiis .mprr lapi- 

dem sc.deatt and as the "apologist will, rttpx fasti, el grtMoientia luborci, immom 
Bttie, let them be barbarous as they are, let them "tyrannize, cpicuri/e, oppress, 
luxuriate, consume themselves with factions, superstitions, lawsuits, wars and con- 
tentions, live in riot, poverty, want, misery ; rebel, wallow as so many swine in their 
own dung, with Ulysses'* companions, ttttuorjvbeo esse librntrr. I will yet, to satisfy 
and please myself, make an Utopia of mine own, a new Atlantis, a poetical common- 
wealth of mine own, in which I will freely domineer, build cities, make iaws, sta- 

. as 1 list myself. And why may 1 not ? n Piclaribus at que portis. i«.c. 

You know what liberty poets ever hail, and besides, my predecessor Democritus 



■Llataa Qlt*M. Nat. mm*, ■ApaUlu, lik. i. 

Flor I.ir familiari* liner tinminei iron i« m I I iHm 

ft. liiium /nullum rl Jiirtrii.rum inter prnpinqunt nr- 

tiitn r . r ,jj. Hftiaior. At/irrsut irucunitiitm. invidmro, 

• r*r'ium. libidlaem, r.rtenq ; avian buinani viiu (I 



mnnsim phllooophu* lite Ilorcules full. P«stcs ru 
iiirniilnn t:\tfSl otnne*. fcc. » Vatil ir»»lf. 

" RaeenitUcii, part 8, cup. S. M put t, e. 17. n Ve- 

latt. fcndtee Apolog. maolp. *M. ""Qui 90nl1.hu 

en, «ordc»c»v *abuc. M \\ut. 



Di moeritus to tin Reader. 



63 



i:r.*n, n recorder of Abdera, a lnw maker as some say ; and why may not 
so much as he did ? Howsoever I will adventure. For the site, if you 
nertbi urge me to it, I am not fully resolved, it may be in Terra AtMtraH In- 
i'.a, there is room enough (fur of my knowledge neither that hungry Span iard,* 5 
Merrurius Britannicus, ivered half of it) or else one of these float- 

■buMS in Blare del Zur, which like the CyanJan isles in the Euxine sea, alter 
place, and are accessible only at set times, ami to some few persons ; or one 
the i ■ for who knows yet where, or which they are? there is room 

the inner pans of America, and northern coasts of Asia. But I wdl choose 
p, whow latitude shall be 45 degrees (I respect not minutes) in the midst of the 
ipcratr zone, or perhaps under the equator, that ** paradise of the world, ubi sem~ 
rtt laurus, &.C. where is a perpetual spring: the longitude far some reasons 
Vet "be il known to all men by these presents, 11 that if any honest 
send in so much money, as Cardan allows an astrologer fat m-uing a 
r, he shall be a sharer, I will acquaint him with my project, or if any worthy 
will stand for any temporal or spiritual office or dignity, (for as he said of bji 
" ibopvic of Utopia, 'tis sanctus ambitus, and not amiss to be sought after,) it 
"ly given without all intercessions, bribes, letters, &c. his own worth shall 
te best spokesman ; ami because we shall admit of no deputies or advowsons, 
be sufficiently qwalilicd, and as able as willing to execute the place himself, he 
have present possession. It shall be divided into 12 or 13 provinces, and those 
its, road-ways, or some more eminent limits exactly bounded. Each pro- 
have a metropolis, which shall be so placed as a centre almost in a cir- 
and the rest at equal distances, some I'Z Italian miles asunder, or there* 
,and in them shall be sold all things necessary for the use of man ; statin horis 
ebus, no market towns, markets or furs. I'or they do but beggar cities (no village 
•land above 6, 7, or 8 miles from a city) except those emporiums which are by 
, general staples, marts, as Antwerp, Venice, Bergen of old, London, kc. 
moat part shall be situated upon navigable rivers or lakes, creeks, havens ; and 
their t<>rm, regular, round, square, or long square, "with fair, broad, and straight 
jvs uniform, built of brick and stone, like Bruges, Brussels, Khcgiiim 
job, Berne iu .Switzerland, Milan, .Mantua. Cn-:na, Cunlialu IB Tarlaiy. ■ 1 • .-< i'>ed 
that Venetian pal ma. I will admit very few or no suburbs, and 
of baser building, walls only to keep out man and horse, except it be in some 
fruttUt-r to« ii-. or by the sea side, and those to be fortified -"after the latest manner 
of fortification, and situated upon convenient havens, or opportune places. In 
every so built city, I will have convenient churches, and separate places to bury the 
dew in, not in churchyards; a ciiadella (in some, not all) lo command it, prisons 
fre offender*, opportune mrkel places of all sorts, for corn, meat, cattle, fuel, fish, 

, public halls for all societies, b on rsi laces, 

•ill be kept engines for quenching of fire, artillery gardens, 
aabhe walks, theatres, and spacious fields allotted for all gymnastic sports, and 
meat recreations, hospitals of all kinds, for children, orphans, old folks, siek men, 
~.»\ ni»u, soldiers, pest-houses, Sic not built preearid, or by gouty benefactors, 
Whan by fJSlld and rapine they have extorted all their lives, op p r esse d whole 
.societies, &c. give something to pious uses, build a satisfactory alms-house, 
school or bridgi bear last end, or before perhaps, which is no otherwise than 

to ttral a goose, and slick down a feather, rob a thousand to relieve ten ; and ih 

limit ntul maintained, not by collections, benevolences, donarics, for a 

number. <as m ours. . just so many and no more at such a rate, but for all those 

more or less, and that ex publico &rnrio y and so Mill 

n nobis solum nati sumus. &c. I will have conduits of sweet and good 

i i ach town, common 'granaries, as at Dresden in Missis, Ste- 

» Pomcrlai Colleges ofmathematicians, musicians, and actors, 

old at Labedum in tonta,*alchy mists, physicians, artists, and philosophers: that 

ill*. »vm e Ar<wr»e.||ji..f ju>»«ji, f Pljn. rplfl. 42 1tb.l«lTtcn. A>T»Wl\.\V\W 

■Own. I.' <fV ln-til RnpuL I ' Vi,le Ilr l*.ifi|nm dc feeit'. rVtur. lib. 3. dr t\U «A V« 

» »» r " *y l "S^ t . An * t . P"'" e * p " <•*""»■. I"' 2 "P 3 <V \i,m>n*. > N<j\ v> ru*\* 

>i m,li. vreuth, 4c. gold, but fur mailers of phy*k. 





Demoerilus to the Reader, 

all arts am! tiriences may sooner be perfected and better learned ; and public Ul • 
luriographers, as amongst tliose ancient 'Persians, qui in commentarios rrferebanl 
qua. memorafu digna girebantur, informed and appointed by the state to register ail 
famous acts, and not by each insufficient scribbler, partial or parasitical pedant, as in 
our tiroes. I will provide public schools of all kinds, singing, dancing, fencing, Stc 
especially of grammar and languages, not to be taught by those tedious precepts ordi- 
narily used, but by use, example, conversation, 4 as travellers learn abroad, and nurses 
leach their children : as I will have all such places, so will I ordain * public govern- 
ors, lit officers to inch place, treasurers, fediles, questors, overseers of pupils, wid 
goods, ami all public houses, Su*. and tliose once a year to make strict accounts of all 
receipts, expenses, to avoid confusion, el sic fiel ul non absumant (as Pliny to Trajan,) 
quad pudt<it dicrrr. They shall be subordinate to those higher officers and govern- 
ors of each city, which shall not be poor tradesmen, and mean artificers, but BoUfr* 
men and gentlemen, which shall be tied to residence in those towns they dwell 
next, at such set limes and seasons : for I see no reason (which * Hippolitus com- 
plains of) ik that it should be more dishonourable for noblemen to govern the city 
than the country, or unseemly to dwell there now, than of old. T 1 will have no 
hogs, fens, marshes, vast woods, desert:*, heaths, commons, but all inclosed ; (yet 
pot depopulated, and therefore take heed you mistake me not) for that which is 
common, and every man's, is no man's ; the richest countries are still inclosed, as 
Essex, Kent, with us, But Spain, Italy; and where inclosures are least in quantity, 
ihey are best e husbanded, as about Florence in Italy, Damascus in Syria, &c which 
are liker gardens than fields. I will not have a barren acre in all my territories, not 
M much as the tops of mountains: where nature fails, it shall be supplied by art: 
* lakes and rivers shall not be left desolate. All common highways, bridges, banks, 
corrivations of waters, aqueducts, channels, public works, buildings, &c. out of a 
10 common stock, curiously maintained and kept in repair; no depopulations, engross- 
ings, alterations of wood, arable, but by the consent of some supervisors that shall 
be appointed for that purpose, to see what reformation ought to be had in all places, 
what is amiss, how to help it, el quid quceque fcrat regio, et quid quctque r< < 
what ground is aptest for wood, what for corn, what for cattle, gardens, orchards, 
Ishpofids, fee. with a charitable division in every village, (not one domineering 
house greedily to swallow up all, which is too common with ub) what for I 
" what for tenants; and became tiny shall be better encouraged to improve such 
hold, manure, plain NR, fence, Sec. they shall have long liases, a 

known rent, and known fine Ifl free litem from those intolerable exactions of tyran- 
nizing landlords. These supervisors skill likewise appoint what quantity of laud in 
each manor is fit for the lord's demesnes, ■ what for holding of tenant*, how it ought 
to be husbanded, ut '' imignr-iis r.(u.if,.\Hini<r %en» cogssfa rente, how to be manured, 
idled, rectified, u hic se gates veniunt, illic Jaiicius wets, arboeei Jalus alibi, nlquc 
m/wv wtti fJraWMUf, and what proportion is fit lor all callings, because private 

professors are many limes idiots, ill husbands, oppressors, covetous, and know not 
how to improve their own, or else wholly respect their own, and not public good. 

Utopian parity is a kind of government, to be wished for, ''rather than effected, 
/»' s)>ub. Christ ianapoltiana, Campauella's city of the. Sun, and that new Ada 
willy fictions, but mere chimeras ; and Plato's community in many things is impious, 






I Rresoniiii Josejihus. lib. II. antiquit. Jud. cap. 6. 

Iforod I'll 3 ' Ho l..id. Vives Hunk, liesl. C.ini. 

imiu>ii», niul others. * Plato 3. de lag. .lMilv* 

afaaui villi, i.ni I'T-i, fimte«, vl.ii, pnrlus. platens, el Id 
genus jllit prnfurenl. Vide lsaannn I'nnuiiuin de 
civ. Anistel. hive omnia, Ac (•'ninriliint et alios 
* De lncreiu utt>. cnp. 13. Ingenue Tulem me nun in- 
tellieeti' eai .'ii ■ Inliu* «il uibes bene niunilos roivie 
nunc Matin nlHii. till easie rustics' praUM <|uairi iirhi. 
Idem lliiriiifi I-'nlint, de Nenpoll. Nt nmtillurn 

auldefn tali in. iiltuni relinquitur, in voruni til M i--l- 
,>.iit innyri in lii« regtonlbM •IcrUem nut iiifai- 
rumlilm reperlrl. Marcus llrriilngins Aufustanui da 
re* no Cllli r. I. I. c I • M. drew. Id IiU survey 

thai .i.iinir, 

n drunk water, did eat little or 

• ; th.ir i/irurr/ was coarse, they 
* '"' bl,re /<VttW, their dwelling was correi pondeot ; 



butsince inrlnsure, they live decently, and have money 
t" ipend (fid. Vtii when tbeir field* were common, 
their wool was coarse, lornlsh hair; lull iimr Inrlo- 
aitre. It ia almnit a* good aa Cotswol, and their sol 
iiiorti mended. Tusser. rap. S3, of Ills hush indry, I* 
of his opinion, one acn- iMaoaaS, i« worth c ri r > 
inon, The country inclosed I praise ; the dUmi fle- 
liiihirth not hip, for noiliinif of wealth ii data rinse, &«. 
* Inrredihllij nav trim urn BOplk, nihilo pain 
aquis, quant In ccnlineiiit commoranlur. M. ' 
i-ipeilil. in Kiriat. I. I. c. 3. "To Ihls purpose, 

Arm. nolii. 5. c 6. allows a third pan of their reve- 
nues. Illppodarmi* half. " Ita lex Agrarla oln 
Rnnur. '■ Ihr khUi illic veniunt fielicius nra, 
Arborei fnus alitn, ai<) ; injussa virescunt Gramlna. 
Vim 1. Qeorff. amis, I. 6. "Vug 
13 Job. Valcnt. Andreas, Lord Verulaoi 



Drmoertiut to the Header. 



65 



tasnrd and ridiculous, it takes away all splendour and magnificence. T will have 
imral orders, degrees of nobility, and those hereditary, not rejecting younger bro- 
kers in the mom time, for they shall be sufficiently provided for by pensions, or so 
■■fifed, brought up in some honest calling, they shall be able to live of Uiemselvev 
I trill have Mich a proportion of ground belonging to every barony, he that buys 
Jtrbnu shall buy the barony, he that by riot consumes his patrimony, and anneal 
, shall forfeit his honours." As some dignities shall be hereditary, so some 
by election, or by gift (besides free officers, pensions, annuities,) like our 
roes, prebends, the Bassa's palaces in Turkey, the "procurator's houses and 
'h'etuee, which, like the golden apple, shall be given to the worthiest, and 
best deserving both in war and peace, as a reward of their worth and good sent' 
r> many goal* for all to aim at, (lionets aid arte*) and encouragements to others 
For ! hate these severe, unnatural, harsh, German, French, and Venetian decrees, 
shieh exclude plebeians from honours, be they never so wise, rich, virtuosi, valiant, 
indwell qualified, they must not be patricians, but keep their own rank, this is natu- 
r* hrllmm inferre. odious to God and men, I abhor it. My form of government 
shall be monarchical. 

»» " nimqiiam Itbtrta* grattor exiat, 

Hun ii> iob Re|« plo." Jlc. 

Few law*, but those severely kept, plainly put down, and in the mother tongue, 
that every man may understand. Every city shall have a peculiar trade or privilege, 
by which it shall be chiefly maintained : "and parents shall teach their children one 
of three- at least, bring up and instruct them in the mysteries of their own trade. In 
each tewn these several tradesmen shall be so aptly disposed, as they shall free the 
rest fan danger or offence : fire-trades, as smiths, forge-men, brewers, bakers, metal- 
•hall dwell apart by themselves : dyers, tanners, felmongers, and such as 
•nvenienl places by themselves : noisome or fulsome for bad smells, as 
»' slaughter- millers, curriers, in remote places, and some back NrniW 

and companies, I approve of, as merchants' bourses, colleges of drug- 
gists, physicians, musicians, 8tc, but all trades to be rated in the sale of wares, as 
our clerks of the market do bakers and brewers; corn itself, what scarcity soever 
shall romr, not to extend inch a price. 01 luen wares at ire tn mp oi te d or brought 
necessary, commodious, and such as nearly concern man's life, as corn, 
»nod» coal, lie-, ami such provision we cannot want, 1 will have little or no cu- 
past, no taxes; but for such things as are for pleasure, delight, or ornament, as 
*pire. tobacco, silk, velvet, cloth of gold, lace, jewels, &c, a greater impost. 
re certain ships sent out for new d ry year, "and some dis- 

nppoinii.-il to travel into all neighbouring kingdoms by land, which shall 
irtihcisJ inventions and good laws arc in oilier Countries, customs, 
ding war or peace, which may tend to the common 
c:d discipline, penes Episcopos^ subordinate as the other. No 
. no Uy patrons of church livings, or one private man, but common 
cnrporali' nd those rectors of benefices to be chosen out of the 

Jstveraitjes, examined and approved, as the literati in China. No parish to con- 
ks above a thoiisa ira, ]f it were possible, I would have such priest as 
imitate < le lawyers should love their neighbours as themselves, 
and modest physicians, politicians contemn the world, philosophers should 
themselves, noblemen live honestly, tradesmen leave lying and cozening, 
ruction, he., but this is impossible, 1 must get such as I may. J will 
have "of kwyent, judges, advocates, physicians, chirurgeons, 8tc, a set 
'and every man, if it be possible, to plead his own cause, to tell that tale 





i Naplet rind Trance 



< In 



i' 




IKuiumui, milium depend* Teeil«al, *■<:• * Plats 

14. dp Irjibii*. 40. anno* naloi vult, ut *l quid niemo- 
denal apud rxleios, hoc intuitu In rniipub 
reclplalur '-' Simlerut in Helvetia. 3 l-lo- 

pirtnen macldicn* excludunl, qui catunt callidr «| 
V3l>o Irarn-M rt diipuH'ni lniqui»»iinum remena 

I. inrii. nil it nbliftrl leilboa, quae nul Tiumt t«»t«\«;t 

• 1'iain in fieri' ut oWttrtoiea «v«».m 

ill d '(imria pn<«nit InlidtiRt. VoVtml UV imm (\.»^M\% 
■'Ifippril J NiMH ■rat, eimq ; referat Judici <\ti«nt u»u»v\n\j* 
to rum h),m 7 ,1- „.,. ,„• ni.nui eril anifaifum, «>\ XlTW** 

■'*" qiilliu* ctieie nun ' toctliut Slfcirtur. Hue VlOD ».l 

r2 



phi. 



iii. in 

4* WMir.ftj Mem ' 

. Jr finlt 

tn 



Drmocrltui to the Rradtr. 



in the judge which he doth to his advocate, as at Fez in Africa, Bantam, Alep 

-a, suam quisq ; causam dicere tenelur. Those advocates, ehirurgeons, 
•* physicians, which are allowed to be maintained out of the "common tn 
fees to be given or taken upon pain of losing their places ; or if they do, verv .si 
fees, and when the "cause is fully ended. "He that sues any man shall put in 
pledge, which if it be proved he hath wrongfully sued his adversary, rashly 
maliciously, he shall forfeit, and lose. Or else before any suit begin, the plainti 
shall have his complaint approved by a set delegacy to that purpose; If it be of 
moment lie shall ht- snhcrcd as More, to PTOCOOdi if otherwise they shall deterr 

it. All causes shall be pleaded suppress" nomine, the parties' nanus cone 
some circumstances do not otherwise require. Judges and oilier o ffi oMl shall 
aptly disposed in each province, villages, cities, as common arbitrators to hear cai 
and end all controversies, and those not single, but three at least on the bench at on 
lo determine or give sentence, and those again to sit by turns or lots, and not 
continue still in the same office. No controversy to depend above a year, but witlio 
all delays and further appeals to be speedily despatched, and finally concluded 
that time allotted. These and all other inferior magistrates to be chosen "u 
lirtr.iii in China, or by those exact suffrages of the B Venetians, ami such again not 
be eligible) or capable of magistracies, honours, offices, except they he su 
"qualified for learning) manners, and that by the strict approbation of deputed 
amitiers ; 3l firet scholars to take place, then soldiers | for 1 am of Vigclius his up 
ion, a scholar deserves better than a soldier, because Unius cctalis sunt quae fori 
fiunt, qua. vcro pro ulililate Rcipub. scril'iiutttr* at < run : a soldier's work lasts for an 
age, a scholar's for ever. If they "misbehave themselves, they shall be deposed, 

lingly punished, and whether their offices be annual M or otherwise, once ay 
they shall be called in question, and give an account ; for men are partial and 
sionate, merciless, covetous, corrupt, subject to love, hate, fear, favour, I 
sub Kgno grmion rvgnum ; like Solon's Areopagites, or those Roman Censors, 
sonic shall visit others, and J 'be visited inciccm themselves, 3 'they shall oversee that 
no prowling officer, under colour of authority, shall insult over his inferiors, as 80 
many wild beasts, oppress, domineer, Ilea, grind, or trample on, be partial or corrupt, 
but that there be otquabile jtix, justice equally done, live as friends and brethren 
together; and which "SeaelluU would have and so much desires in his kingdom of 
France, "a diapason and sweet harmony of kings, princes, nobles, and plebeians to 
mutually tied and involved in love, as well as laws and aulh that they nev-r 

disagree, insult, or encroach one upon another. 1 ' If any man deserve well in his 
office he shall be rewarded. 



or an 

1 



Prremia «i mllas I* 



■rail enim vir lutein amplectitur lpeam, 



Me that invents anything for public good in any art or science, writes a treatise, l * 
performs any noble exploit, at home or abroad, ""shall be accordingly enrich 
40 honoured, and preferred. ! sav whh Hannibal in rainius, Ilaxtrm qui ft rirt trit mihi 
Cur.'lin^i/fiisi.t, let him be of what condition he will, in all offices, actions, hi 
deserves best shall have best. 

Tilianus in Phiionius, out of a charitable mind no doubt, wished all his bool 
were gold and silver, jewels and precious stones, a to redeem captives, set 






** Medici ei publico victim •uniuiit. Holer. I. I. c. 5. 

I'liis. « lie hi* lege Patril I. 3. tit. 6. de 

rrip Inatit. *• Nihil & client Ibm patron! accipiant, 

nil li* fiiiila eji. liurcl. Aritcii. lib. 3. "Ml 

U ao In nio-i fi. .• i Itlfll in (ieluialiy. * Mill. Rlc. 

Wd in Sinai. I. I.e. .*>. de einminatione elec- 
llonuni cnpi<i*e nail, ic. . "Conlar. de repub. Ve- 
Ml. I I »0«or. I. 11. de reb. geal. Eman. Qui 

In Htafll mtxilDOl pr«gre*»un fercrlnt imiiluiU hono- 

rtbai :iin 1 1 u ntn r. eecundoa honor la giadm mtliitbuf 
mir, pnaireml nrdinia mechanic!*, lionoruni 
hoiniiiiKii Jiidieili in altinrera locum '| m^<i ; errcaertur, 
el qui :i pliiriini* apprnbaiur, ampttorei in rep. dignt- 
t&lee con«eqttllur Urn in hoc einmlnc prlmai babel, 
Inatpni tiltate inelznilur, marcblonl 

emiili*, nit dad apt) *' OedaaU anna t"c.r. 

"Aa In Heme, I.nrrrne, Frihtirge in Switzerland, a 

if any office i (f a 8 
taeiuutly derated, glralertu. ■ Not above three 



year", Ar'nl. pot it. 5. c.S. " Nam qui* CMtO 

todea I atcytreua in <• 

(I suullmi deaplclant IntVrlores, ner nl fiaetMa mw 
cent aibl enbdtine uuclorilulia Domini, (oiirUl. 
MSeaelliaa de rep. Gallnrum, lib. I at 1. 
who would cultivate viitue llaell*. if you were lo I 
away the reward 1" »8)o,ulaegreBiura 'ut t 

out pace perfecerit. 8e«el. 1. 1. I rrcrnd 

reiapntl noil literal! Biimilluiiliir. nrc I 
gratia luagleiratuum ain regie > 
rata ciilutq ; tclentla nl viriuie pend«nt. Rl. tin* I 
I. cap. J. » In defuncti loceni euui J null 

gari, qui inter mnjori-a Tirtute. nllqaal prnirci : BOB 
fult apud inortalee ullum eltccllentlui 

loria niagu r»»ei expetenda, noi 

1 1 mo, in m Inter robuatoi rolmaliaeimo, I 
■ Nullum n.l.ri* vel in bar vrl in vniiii, MSjaMll 
pauperem, nullum oberatum, ttc. 






Dmocrifus to the litadtr. 



67 



all poor distressed ««ul« thai wanted nitons; religiously done 
pose? Si trail dose, within a little 

rnl fi-iBsus 1 wealth to bestow, there would bfl ;i-< main 
beggnrs, rogues, vagabonds, or i<l|. p e wous at all 

ain themselves, II" ihev be nn- 
ficiently maintained I ho* 

trpese; if m i infirm, past work, og by inevitabli 

fortune cast behind, hy distribution of "corn, hotMi 

all be relieved, and highly rewarded tor thetrgoofl 

ly done; if able, they shall be enforced to work. ' •• For I 

a* *he said i why an epicure or idle drone, a rich glutton, a usurer, 

at ease, niiij do nothii honour, in all manner of pleasures, and 

en M in the meantime a poor lab" iith, a carpi, nr. 

dman that bath spent his time in continual labour, as an ass to carry bun 

• faith good, and without whom we cannot live, shall be left m 
Mold age to beg or starve, and lead a miserable life worse than a jument." As 
conditions shall be ■ br task, so none shall be overtired, but have thr-ir 

of recreations anil holidays, t'nrfi md merry mee 1 

oest artificer, or hi it, once a week to sing oar dance, thong 

) or do v iiall please; like **that Saccarum festvm an. 

■se Satumah in Rome, as well as his master. *If any be druu' 
no mnnv trong drmk in a twelvemonth after. A banknipt shall 

aetsmiatuM in Jlmj/hilhuitro, publicly shamed, am! he that BHttOl ]■• 

nee. lie have heen impoverished, shall be lor a i\m1\»- 

■s pr i ao ned, if in that space his creditors he not satii anged. 

H commits sacrilege shall lose his hands ; he that hears false witnes-. 

his tongue cut out, except he redeem it with his 

r, J ' adultery, shall be punished by death, w but not theft, except it he 

, or notorious offenders: otherwise they .-hall a 

he his slaves whom they havi iheir 

. and that durum Fersnrtm legem, us ""BnsoOBM 

calls it; or as ".•itnmianus, itnpendio formidatns <indus leges, per tpias ob 

aaossa mmtu. omnia propintjudas p6nl hard law that wife and children, friends and 

allies, should suffer lor the lather's offence. 

loan shall marry until I m> woman till she be 20, "nisi aliinr dis- 

i party shall not marry till six moi 
b o ra os e many families are compelled to live niggardly, exhaust and undone 

i at all, or very little, and that by supervisors 
• that are i e a greater portion; if fair, none at all, or very 

> exceed such a rate as those supervisors shall think lit. 
years, poverty shall hinder no moi 
or any other In, t all shull be rather enforced than hint 







li i »«no qunm 



1 Anli Ori.nl. 



(eplrni'lf pucr. I'ikiIh* Flruzncr Inner. ■ Atb«- 

Ti.TIH, I. li. 

" lli; Hint prc>ridc« 
r t « Ib.iii n Ihiof. I'nul 

: 

■81 qu ii> tiuiilam ►lM|ir4- 
culitur; •! miilitr, into' 

i qtn Ik . re pulmii J i 

l A f 






t, Bill >V- 

>« PH.. tut, 04> I 



Lmill. Ottl. ad rxlilim Romania uUxu • 



Democritus to (lie. Reader. 



th some 

lain, 
n to 

unt- 



cum 
1 for 

nun 



"except they be "dismembered, or grievously deformed, infirm, or visited with 
enormous hereditary disease, in body or mind; in such cases upon a great pain, 
-»r mulct, "man or woman shall not marry, other order shall be taken for them 
their content. If people overabound, they shall be eased by "colonies. 

"No man shall wear weapons in any city. The same attire shall be kept, 
that proper to several callings, by which they shall be distinguished. ^Luxtis fur 
rum shall be taken away, that intempestive expense moderated, and many others. 
Brokers, takers of pawns, biting usurers, I will not admit ; yet because hie cum 
hommibus non cum diis agitur, we converse here with men, not with gods, and fo 
the hardness of men's hearts 1 will tolerate some kind uf usury.''' If we were hone 
I confess, si probi essemus, we should have no use of it, but being as it is, we mi 
necessarily admit it. Howsoever most divines contradict it, dicimus inficias, Md 
ca sola reperta est, it must be winked at by politicians. And yet some great doctors 
approve of it, Calvin, Bucer, Zanchius, P. Martyr, because by so many grand law- 
yers, decrees of emperors, princes 1 statutes, customs of commonwealths, Huii-cnes' 
approbations it is permitted, &.c. I will therefore allow it. But to no private per- 
nor to every man that will, to orphans only, maids, widows, or such as by reason 
of their age, sex, education, ignorance of trading, know not otherwise how to em- 
ploy it ; and those so approved, not to let it out apart, but to bring their money to a 
"common bank which shall be allowed in every city, as in Genoa, Geneva, Nurem- 
berg, Venice, at Tl 5, 6, 7, not above 8 per centum, as the supervisors, or cerarii prct- 
fecti shall think fit. n And as it shall not be lawful for each man to be an usurer 
that will, so shall it not be lawful for alt to take up money at use, not to prodigals 
and spendthrifts, but to merchants, young tradesmen, such as stand in need, or know 
honestly how to employ it, whose necessity, cause and condition the said super- 
visors shall approve of. 

• i 1 will have no private monopolies, to enrich one man, and beggar a multitude, 
n multiplicity of offices, of supplying by deputies, weights and measures, the same 
throughout, and those rectified by the Primum mobile, and sun's motion, tbree- 
acore miles to a degree according to observation, 1 000 geometrical paces to a mile, 
five foot to a pace, twelve inches to a foot, &c. and from measures known it is an 
easy matter to rectify weights, &.c. to cast up all, and resolve bodies by algebra, 
Hlereometry. I hate ware tf they be not ad popnli saltttcm, upon urgent occasion, 
*•* rxlimu.s accipitrim, quia srmprr virit in armis," 7J offensive wars, except the cnuse 
be very just, I will not allow of. For I do highly magnify that saying of Hannibal 
to Sripio, in "Livy, u It had been a blessed thing for you and us, if God had given 
that mind to our predecessors, that you had been content with Italy, we with Africa. 
For neither Sicily nor Sardinia are worth such cost and pains, so many fleets a 
armies, or so many famous Captains' lives." Omnia prius tcntanda, fair means sh 
first be tried. " Pfra^it iranquilhi potrslas, Quod violenta nequit. I will have th 
proceed with all moderation : but hear you, Fabius my general, not Minutius, nam 
*qui Consilio nititur phis hostibus nocet, quam qui sini animi ralione, viribus : 
And in such wars to obstain as much as is possible from '"depopulations, burning of 
towns, massacreing of infants, &.c. For drlVnsive wars, I will have forces still ready 
at n small warning, by land and sea, a prepared navy, soldiers in procinctii, el quam 
"Bonfinius apud Hungaros suos vull, virgam ferrcum, and money, which is nerves 



ira. 

tall 
em 



• Mnrho InboTiira, qui In prolem facile dilTunditiir, 
ne fi'inu tiniiuiium fauU coniagione la>cJ*iur, Juven- 
loK 1 eMnm, mutierea tale* promt a conaortio virn- 
ruin iiili-iMNiur. fcr Hector llnrthim hi«i lib l.de 
• lorum aioribna. "Rpeelmuwimi j)urenea 

llborln d.ihunt opernm. Plato 5. de lecilma. "The 
Han.n. Hiclnrte dumb, blind. Icproua, unit ■ttcta llkn 
per ton* from all Inheritance, >a we do foola. *• tTl 
ni an I, lllapant hod in, ice. *> Riccitri lib. tl. 

rap I ill- ^iiiDriim. eiprdil lie lliapani coeunt Mail, 
rns nrrim di*poner«. Bo It It in nin*| Italian cities. 
♦" lib in Pinto l\! de legibua, U hnlli ever hem Imrnode- 
IdeQall. Btucklumantiq ccMivival. lib. Leap. 99. 
* I'lalo 9. de le»ibu». "" At lli<>»r Lombard! beyond 
Beaa, though with mmr reformation, ilium pirtmis.nr 
hank of charity, as Malinea irrmi ii. rap. 33. Lax 
torrent, pin % that lend money upon eaay pawna. or 
lake money iiponad»eii'urf I'nt /nen'a lirea. "That 
prop.uiion will nuke mercbandiae increase, land 



dearer, and better Improved, aa he hath Judicially 
prored in hit tract of usury, exhibited lo the I'ltlla 
inent anno 16? I. ''Hie fere Zanchlua com. in 

cap. ad Kphfa aHiuiaaiinain vwst ii aura in, ct charm 
Christlnure cnnnentanenm. mnrlo non exiettnt, 4c 
omnea dent nd f<rmi«, fed Ii qui in pecnuiia bona 
bent, et ob irliilciit. actum, arria alimjus icnornntla 
nnn [Mtaaunt mi. Net. onmibut, ted merratorihu* 
ha qui honeate Impendent, Ac. ^Idemapul IVr- 

sas o)im, ieee Rnaoiiitirii. N •' We Uuti 1 t Iif hrwvk, 

became be alwaya Urea In battle." ■ Id. in I'lalo 

de leitibus. '• Lib. 30. Optimum qiiidcn lurral 

•am patribiia noatri* ni-iiii-in n <lii« djitam oa»M 
II ilir. noa Afrior Impeoo contenti eaarrou". Nrqua 
nilm Mii-llia nut Sardinia aalia illpn.i p(mi.i ajajatf 
tot claaalbua. Ac. ,: Claudinn "Inui.'i 

'•A depopulutlone, atrorum kncandlla, et -;u»tn 
ractU iiumanlbua. Palo. ~ lluu H ar. dec 

lib. 9. 



I la- 
in 4 

1 




Demoeritus to the Readtr. 



in a readiness, and a sufficient revenue, a third part as in old "Rome and 
for the commonwealth ; to avoid those heavy taxes and impositions, 
well to defray this charge of ware, as also all other public defalcations, ex\ 
***. pw i i i on a, reparations, chaste sports, feasts, donaries, rewards, and entertaim: i 
Ail things in this nature especially 1 will have maturely done, and with great * J deli- 
b erat i o n : me quid m tcmcre, nr quid remisse ac (tains' fial ; Scd quo feror hospes f 
To pmercou the rest would require a volume. Mnnum de tabclja, 1 have been 
I this subject; I could have here willingly ranged, but these straits 
wherein I am included will not permit. 

From commonwealths and cities, I will descend to families, which have as many 
coram and molestations, as frequent discontents as the rest. Great affinity there 
m betwixt a political and economical body; they differ only in magnitude and pro- 
portion of business (so Scaliger* writes) as they have both likely the same period, an 
Bothn and *Peuctr bold, out of Plato, six or seven hundred years, so many times 
they base the same means of their vexation and overthrows ; as namely, riot, a cora- 
Bon nun of both, riot in building, riot in profuse spending, riot in apparel, Sec. be 
it in what kind soever, it produce th the same efintaV A " corographer of ours 
obtter of ancient families, why they are so frequent in the north, continue 



■o Ions;, are so soon extinguished in the south, and so few, gives no other reason 

than, bums omnia disupavit, riot hath consumed all, fine clothes and curious 

Cane into this island, as he notes in his annals, not so many years since ; 

mmt dispemdio hotpitalitatis, to the decay of hospitality. Howbeit many times 

word is mistaken, and under the name of bounty and hospitality, is shroud* d 

prodigality, and that which is commendable in itself well used, hath been 

i heretofore, is become by his abuse, the bane and utter ruin of many a noble 

Mime men hvi- like the rich glutton, consuming themselves and their 

by continual feasting and invitations, with "Axilon in Homer, keep open 

ul comers, giving entertainment to tach as visit them, "keeping a table 

end thnr means, and a company of idle servants (though not so frequent as of 

ire blown up on a sudden ; and as Arta?on was by his hounds, devoured by 

their km*mcti, friends, and multitude of followers. "It is a wonder that Paulus 

.'onus relates of our northern countries, what an infinite deal of meat we consume 

r tables ; that I nuv truly amy, 'tis not bounty, not hospitality, as it is often 

, but riot and lultonyand prodigality ; a mere vice ; it brings in debt, 

and beggary, hereditary diseases, consumes their fortunes, ami overthrows the 

(«a| tem pe ra ture of their bodies. To this I might here well add their inordinate 

in building, those fantastical houses, turrets, walks, parks, Sec. gaming, eseeni 



■ Mnnun. and that prodigious riot in apparel, by which means they are GOmpi led 
Weak up house, and creep into holes. Sesellius in his commonwealth of " France, 
■ . hy the French nobility were so frequently bankrupts: "First, 
they had so many law-suits and contentions one upon another, which were 
i and costly ; by which means it came to pass, that commonly lawyers bought 
i out of their possessions. A second cause was their riot, they lived beyond 
meit means, and were therefore swallowed up by merchants." (La Nove, a French 
r, yields five reasons of his countrymen's poverty, to the same effect almost, and 
the gentry of Prance were divided into ten parts, eight of them would 
m found much unpaired, by sales, mortgages, and debts, or wholly sunk in their 
ansae*/; u The last was immoderate excess in apparel, which consumed their n re- 
mm*.'* How tl us and agrees with our present suite, look you. But of this 

ekarvhera. As it is m a man's body, if either head, heart, stomach, liver, spleen, or any 
■sa» part be miaaflecird, all the rest sutler with it : so is it with this economical body 

lantoaUeanla aoatrorum tem|» - "Mirahlla 

dicttl ■«!, quantum opwml.iruni una itnmii* • 
die but aiMUniat, tirrnunlur menaat in ninnr« MM 
liorat calrnilhu* temper rdulua. Dearrip- Urimn. 
' l.iip. 1 de rep. Gallnrum i quod lot lilr» M can** 
I, alin Ceranlur ei aliis. In iinmcnaum prndu- 




• as 



•■•( In- 
Saa*f ptarict opiniontni aeoilii direr*, 
I •*>•" ,irar«avelt n I 

If— * lib X Iil.4)..i lib 1 — 

■ Jlrllum ner I urn tnlum ner prnvoeaaV 
ftort i "Lib. J. poet, canlur, el mainoa «umplu» rrqulrmni unde III injuria 

• tA ■: ■•PtHCcr. ladnilnxlfl plrrumque iiol.llium potacMMUonea adqul- 

mI. I rani, nun quod lumplunae vlvanl, tl 1 lUCtcaAOllbU* 
Tafa PctaaM Comuin. lloclenlum de pur- Ubeorbentiir el jplendmioi* vcsliauluc, fcc. 



70 



DrmocrUus to the Reader. 



If tlie head be naught, a spendthrift, a drunkard, a whorcmnster, a gamester, h 
shall llic family live at ease ? u Ipsa si cupiat salits scrvarr. prorms, wmpolrst h 
familiani, as Demea said in the comedy. Safety herself cannot save it. A good, ho 
i -.-.i, painful man many times hath a shrew to his wife, a sickly, dishonest] sloth'" 

.careless woman to his male, a proud, peevish fiirt, a liquorish, prodigal <pi 
and by that means all goes to ruin : or if they diller in nature, he is thrifty, ■ 
spends all, he wise, she sottish and soil; what agreement ean there be? what fric 
ship ? Like that of the thrush and swallow in K«op, instead of mutual love, ki 
competitions, whore and thief is heard, they fling stools ut one another's lira 
'"Qua intcmprms nm| funic ftimtfittm? All enforced marriages commonly pr 
i effects, or if on their behalfs it be well, as to live and agree loving 
: hey may have disobedient and unruly children, that take ill CO 
disquiet them,* 4 u their son is a thief, a spendthrift, their daughter a w! 
84 mother, or a daughter-in-law distempers all ;"* or else for want of means, mai 
torturers arise, debts, dues, fees, dowries, jointitres, legacies to be paid, annuih 

g out, by means of which, ihcy huve not wherewithal to maintain tl 
in thai pomp us their upBdeOfeSfeOH have done, bring up or bestow their children 

to their birth and quality,* 7 and will not descend lo their present Ibr- 
UliciHimes, too, to aggravate the rest, concur many other inconveniences, 
unthankful friends, decayed friends, bad neighbours, negligent servants "eenri j'u- 
races, J' eTBJN '/■ IS, rullidi, occlusa liM mif/r clavUms n arrant, furtimtfiic ; raplants 
eoannfiMit, Ugmrimmt; ceswlti . mulcts, chargeable offices, vain expenses, 

. loss of stock, enmities, emulations, fre q u e nt invitations, losses, surety- 
ship, sickness, death of friends, and thai which is the gulf of all, improvidence, ill 
husbandly, disorder and confusion, by which means they are drenched on a sudden 
in their estates, and at unawares precipitated insensibly into an inextricable labyrinth 
Of debts, cares, woes, want, grief, discontent anil melntirholy itsrtl. 

I have done with families, and will now briefly run over some few sorts and con- 
ditions of men. The most secure, huppv, jovial, ami merry in the world"- i - 
are princes and great men. free from melancholy : but for their cares, mist 
pieions, jealousies, discontents, folly and madness,! refer you to Xeuophou"-. TjTO. 
BBC, where king Hieron discoursed! at large with Simonides the poet, of tin- 
Of fell Others they are most troubled with perpetual fears, anxieties, insomuch, 
as he said in "Valerius, if thou knewesl with what OfeNt and miseries this tobfe we 
stulli il, thou wmildst not stoop to take it up. Or put ease they be secure and free 
from fears and discontents. \n they are voul n, ',>f reifeon too oft, and precipitate in 
their actions, read all our histories, quos de stultis prodiderc stulli, lliades, .Kneides, 
Annalcs, and what is the subject f 

"Swltoruiii return, et populorum contlntt ealua." 1 Tl"" *>**! tutnulta aud tbo f<x>li»h race 

Of king* and people- 

How mad they are, how furious, and upon small occasions, rash and inconsidera' 
in their proceedings, how they doal, every page almost will witness, 

"deliranl regea.plec.di.tur Ach.vi." I When drrtlnt. mnnnrch. .■«• ___ 

Viitnuml ietolvr«, tlifii »ii!ij<irl* fret the •rouria. 

Next in place, next in miseries and discontents, in all manner of hair-brain actions, 
are great men, procul a Jnrr, promt ii fulmin>\ the nearer the worse. If they live 
m ■ -"iirt, they are up and down, ebb ami flow w ilh their princes' 1 favours, In^rnium 
mint slatrprr caditqw. suo, now aloft, to-morrow down, as 'Polvbius describes (hem, 
u like so many casting counters, now of gold, to-morrow of silver, that vary in 
worth as the computaiit will; now they stand for units, to-morrow for thousands; 
now In I'. -re all, and anon behind.'" Beside, they torment one another with mutual 
factions, emulaii is ambitious, another enamoured, a third in debt, a prodigal, 

overruns his torinnes.a fourth solicitous with cares, gels nothing, &.C. But for these 
men's liiMimteuts, anxieties, I refer you to Luciaifs Tract, dr ntrrr; tl. COfldt 

«1>r. «Ani|i|iH l'lnii. •' Paling. Jollua *■ Haunn Autulnr. »l.lb. 7. cap. 6. •»Pet- 

■ >il fur. I in. nun iiiiin-. ilii" trnlll -irinil in In nr In lii-lln »n|>leul Ii, vijiriuir re*. Vrtm prover- 

mi iimiiiI line lies. Ihiiih. nm refi n niucl onortei 

1 It- . " When prt i a. baccaloium 

mlty. Ibey mir and howl, and mwr n» coflipotamb ftrMtrira, no40 ■relaunt, hh,Ij «uii 

many *' ' Slacoalenu, m (ire anil Mrawr, wbrni ad innuin rcfi* nunc beail aunt nunc lulserL 

Bbi \c tliund-:r-« laj>« in tbo aklea. , 




" 



Democritus to the Reader. 71 

Sylvius (liMuus ct stui -as, he calN Lhasa /, Agrippa, and many 

Of philosophers and scholars prisca sapirnlia- dicUitons, I have already spoken in 
* terms, those superintendents of wit and learning, men shove men, tin,.-, refined 
micro of the muses, 

t "menlcmquo hibrre quAlt licnarn 
El m«» corrulu Jjium c»i." 

subtih- sopluslers, SO n.in h honoured, have as nnu-h med of 

as uther*. *0 mi diet medium perhindite venom. Read Lucian's 

il how he esteemed tin in - Agrippa's Tract <4 the vanity ol 

read their own works, ilnir absurd tenets, prodigious paradoxes, Uri 

amir i ' Y<>u shall find that of Aristotle true, nullum magnum ingenimm sine 

mentis they have a worm as well as others; you shall find a fantastical 

a fustian, a bombast, a vain-glorious humour, an affected style, ivc-., like a 

ineven woven cloth, nm parallel ihr< m^lmut their work*. And 

thai tew- 1 1 wisdom, paiii nee, meekness, are the Veriest ih/nrds, hairbiam-. 

•• In the multitude "I wisdom is grief, ami hi thai mcna.-.th wis- 

,sfc rmm.i li ad not quote mine author; they thai laugh ami eoatesai 

roiwlrmn the world of folly, d< serve to l» mocked, are as giddy-headed, and 

'Demoeritns, that common lloutcr offoHy, WBS ridirulous 

If. ti .: oiling Lihian. satirical LuciUus, Petromus, Varro, Per- 

uuiy be ceii.-nri u with the rest, Loripeder* rectus derideal, .1. m al- 

.i), Vivos, Kemnisius, explode as a va- I obs 

kjI*. school divinity. "A labyrinth of intricable questions, unprofitable canton- 

■ /•in ill Utatunu in. one calls it. If school divinity be ao censured, sub- 

^ Scot us /■ Occam irrefrt^ aigentum vdera oaudt 

tB&rertit, Itc. Baconthrope, Dr. Resolutus, and Corcuhtm Thi-nlgta-, Thomas 

rlf. Doctor " Sernphicus, cut dictavii Jhigt /«.■>. 8tc What shall 4 hu- 

\r\ xlultu. she plead? what can her folloarari -a\ lor ilnn.- 

'e-thminuit-bnim, liath cracked their sconce, and taken such root, 
tribu* i caput insanatkle, hellebore itself ran do no good, nor tl 

J UuiiJi"rn ol Kpictetus, by which il any man Studied, he should be as wise 
was. But all ■ rve ; ihfitiiririiinii, iii oiuismrfnafsi loewtsriiatis muha 

tf\!n*t. inn of their volubilit) of tongue, will talk much to no pmpoi 
ota pJT-nsJi- other men what the\ will, quo vohau\ wnit tokatt, move, pacify, kc^ 
bat rannot »eti! what saitfa Tully? Jtfois turn ■ tan, 

fasat lt*jmncrm xtultitiam ; and as "Seneca seconds him, a wise man's oration should 
ant be polite oj is. ' J Fahius esteems ao better of most of them, either in 

lira as men beside themselves, insanos dttlamatort* j so 
totli Grrgorv, Jfltm MttJW tapii fid H rmotir, ted ffM factSi stijut, .Make the best of 
Loo, a good orator is a turncoat, an evil man, bonus orator prsiimns rir, his tongue 

a set u> sale, he is a mei ol a nightingale, dot nm m ate soaem, 

ia b> il liar, a flatterer, a parasite, and as "Ammianus Marcellinus will, a 

<orruptinL Oth more mischief by his fair speeches, than he that 

for a mint may with more facility avoid him that rinuinv, nis by 
i&norv.ih.-u him the - with glozing terms; which made "Socrates so much 

then. Tmeastorias, b famous poet, freely grants all | 

and who doth not ? jiut insunit homo, out versus J'acil 1 1< •< 
car staking verses), Hot. Sat. vii. I. y. Insanire lul" •'. > in reus csmjN m rt. Virg 
,j eo Sen it, all poets are mad, a company of bitter sat 

• !«r pnnmitical applauilcrs r and what is poetry itself, but as Austin 
Vismm rrroris ab ebri bus jirojiinutum * You may give that ceoaun 



X Dc Diwi. curia- •iplentlnm ndiptrrcluf. 



I, 



U 



««■ »»i »Olr «lMfeMU* 0U» tapU; studfru h,i» ' 



>«EpiM It. 1. lit 
• Hoe ■•]> mi »sriifiili< e»»r|>nliliitn ii 1 

mnrtalr* '• Mb. 3. rap. 13. mullo inlirlitu JicUl' 
la- [mi in., i'i nnti in • ■ fenu ■, *«. i 

'■■ mi,,, prrirria nihil. IT Mb. JO. |iln- 

qiiftm <\\\\ [,r..'ii' qilBiavtf n>r- 
runipll : imni.kf "In f .' • • r c I I •'• In 

«r wm i •' BetllflM | mm Si furor til lit f 

■ smsss, iiibvnt, «i I'ocu, *^t 



:i> »ii inn 




72 Dtmocnlus to the Reader. 

of them in general, which Sir Thomas More once did of Germanus Brixiua* poem* 
in jjarticular. 

" vehunlur 

In rite iiultitic oylvam habitant Furic"» 

Burlxus, in an epistle of his to Lupsetus, will have civil law to be the tnv 

in ; another honours physic, the quintessence of nature ; a third tumbles them 
both down, and sets up the flag of his own peculiar science. Your supercilious 
critics, grammatical triflers, note-makers, curious antiquaries, find out all the ruins 
of wit, inepliarum dclicias, amongst the rubbish of old writers ; n Pro slultis habent 
nisi aliquid sujficiant imrnire, quod in aliontm scriptis verttmt viiio, all fools with 
them that cannot find fault; they correct others, and are hot in a cold cause, puzzle 
themselves to find out how many sin els in Rome, houses, gales, towers, Homer's 
country, iEiieas's mother, Niobe's daughters, an Sappho puMica fucrit ? ovum °priua 
Bxtittrit an gallina! &.c. et alia qua dediscenda assent scire, si scires, as ^Seneca 
holds. What clothes the senators did wear in Rome, what shoes, how they sat, 
where they went to the closestool, how many dishes in a mess, what same, u Inch 
tor the present for an historian lo n late, "according to Lodovic. Vives. is very 
ridiculous, is to them most precit m elaborate stuff, they admired for it, and as proud, 
as triumphant in the meantime for ibis discovery, as if they had won a city, or con- 
quered a province; as rich as if they had found a mine of gold ore. Quosvis aucto- 
rts absurdis commentis suis percacant et slercorant, one saith, they bewray and daub 
a company of books and good aulhors, with their absurd comments, correctontm slcr- 
quiliniu Scaliger calls them, and show their wit in censuring others, a company of 
foolish note-inakcrs, bumble-bees, dors, or beedles, inter stercora utplurimum rersan- 
tur, tliey rake over all those rubbish and dunghills, and prefer a manuscript many 
before the Gospel itself, " thesaurum criticum, before any treasure, and with their 
drhahirs, nlii Irgunt sic, mevs codex sic habet, wild their postrema- rditinnes, anno- 
tations, citsiigattons, ike. make books clear, themselves ridiculous, and do nobody 
good, yet if any DMO dare oppose or contradiei, they are mad, up in arms on a sud- 
den, how many sheets are written in defence, how hitter invectives, what apologies? 
u Epiphilledes ha stmt vt mine mtg<r. But I dare say no more of, for, with, or 
against tit em, because I am liable to their lash as well as others. Of these and die 
rest of our artists and philosophers, I will generally conclude they are a kind of 
madmen, as ""Seneca esteems of them, to make doubts and scruples, bow to read 
them truly, to mend old authors, but will not mend their own lives, or leach us ingrvia 
snn/irr, mnnoriam ojiciorum ingerere, ac fuirm in rebus humanis rrlinrre, to keep 
our wits in order, or rectify our manners. JVumquid tibi demens videtur, si istis 
operam impendent? Is not he mad that draws lines with Archimedes, whilst his 
house is ransacked, and his city besieged, when the whole world is in combustion, 
or we whilst our souls are in danger, {mors sttjuitur^ vitafugit) to spend our lime 
in toys, idle questions, and things of no worth ? 

That "loVBM are mad, I think no man will deny, Jlmare simul et sapcre, ipsi Jovi 
non datur, Jupiter himself cannot intend both at once. 

*»" Non bene eon venimit, nee in unfc acde moranlur 
Majeaiaa el aniur." 

Tully, when he was invited to a second marriage, replied, he could not simul amort 
et sop'-rr hi' wise and love both together. "Est orcus Me, vis est immedicabilis, est 
rrrl'irs insana, love is madness, a hell, an incurable disease •, inpolenlem el insanam 
libidinrni ll St:neea rails it, an impotent and raging lust. I shall dilate this sub- 
ject apart ; in the meantime hi lovers sigh out the rest. 

** Nevisauus the lawyer holds it for an axiom, u most women are fools," K consilium 
fceminis invalidum ; Seneca, men, be th* y vouujr or old ; who doubts it, vouth is 
mad as Elius in Tully, Slulli adolescentulu old age little better, ilrltri stun, &.c. 
Thinphrastes, in the 107th year of his age, *said he then began to be to wise, turn 



•• ••Thry are borne in the bark of Mir, and dwell 
in the prove of mariueu." ■ Morui If top. lib. II. 

afcUcrob. rinmr T. M. wEnim. 18. "Lib. 

< cornip. artimn. "Lib. 2. in Amonium, 

cap. I'J el 31. ■ Edit. 7. vnlnm. Jano (intern 

* Ari.tr phani* ttartii "Lib. de beneficna. 

••Pcliru* et (n»u dicatur merit. Hoc Seneca. 



*' Ovid. Met. ■ Majeity and l.ove do nnt'arree well, 
nnr dwell mceiuer." "Plutarch. Aniatnrm eat 

■ mor insanm. » Rpuu. 3U. »<8)Iv.t nupti- 

al", I. 1. num. 11. Omnca mtillerei ut plurimurn 
■tuEin. oAriitotle. "Dolere »e tttxll 

turn vita egiederetur. 



I 



Dtmocritus to the Reader. 

tmpU, and therefore lamented his departure. If wisdom come so late, where 
ww find a wise man ? Our old ones doat at threescore-eml-ten. 1 would cite 
and a better author, but for the present, let one fool point at another, 
hath as hard an opinion of "rich men, ••<■ wealth and wisdom cannot 
togrther,-' stultitiam patiuntur opes,, "and they do commonly *°infatuare cor 
as, besot men ; and as we see it, ** fools have fortune :" "Sapuntta non invr- 
im terra tuaviter vicentium. For beside a natural contempt of learning, which 
sach kind of men, innate idleness (for they will take no pains), and 
'Aristotle observes, ubi mens plurima, ibi minima fortuna, ubi pluritim for- 
K mens pcrerigua, great wealth and little wit go commonly together : they have 
b brains some of them in their heads as in their heels ; besides this inbred 
of liberal sciences, and all arts, which should excolere mentem, polish the 
they have most part some gullish humour or other, by which they are led ; 
is an Fpicure, an Atheist, a second a gamester, a third a whore-master (lit sub- 
all for a satirist to work, upon) ; 

to MWArmm inaanlt amaribu*. hli puerorum." 1 ° ne 0,lr,,, 10 n>»«'n*«» for the w«dded dame ; 

Unnatural luiti another'* heart inflame. 

mad of hawking, hunting, cocking ; another of carousing, horse-riding, 

: ; a fourth of building, fighting, &.c, Insanit veteres st at tuts Damasippus 

Damasippus hath an humour of his own, to be talked of: "Ileliodoru- tht 

another. In a word, as Scaliger concludes of them all, they a, 

stmltititz, the very statutes or pillars of folly. Choose out of all stories 

i that hath been most admired, you shall still find, multa ad laudtm, multa ad 

tkmem magnijica, as **Berosus of Semiramis ; omnes mortales militia tnum- 

■iin.'iif, Stc, turn tt luxu, cade, caUcrisyue vitiis antcccssiU as she had some 

had she many bad parts. 

r, a worthy man, but furious in his anger, overtaken in drink : Caesar and 
Srifio valiant and wise,- but vain-glorious, ambitious : Vespasian a worthy prince, 
bat covetous : c Hannibal, as he had mighty virtues, so had he many vices ; unam 
i lie vitia comitantur, as Machiavel of Cosmo de Medici, he had two dis- 
pcTBons in him. I will determine of them all, they are like these double or 
tores; stand before which you see a fair maid, on the one side an ape, 
the other an owl ; look upon them at the first sight, all is well, but farther ex- 
you shall find them wise on the one side, and fools on the other ; in some 
thing* praiseworthy, in the rest incomparably faulty. I will say nothing of 
emulations, discontents, wants, and such miseries : let poverty plead 
riest in Aristophanes' Plutus. 

CovrtnttJi men, amongst others, are most mad, ■ they have all the symptoms of 
Jy, fear, sadness, suspicion, &c, as shall be proved in its proper place, 



WMK 



l Ml tfcttrtcrl aiulto para maxima ararti." 



Miaera make Anllcyra their own ; 
Its hellebore retervrd for thrrn aloni. 



And yet raethinks pnxligals are much madder than they, be of what condition 

hat bear a public or private purse ; as a ° Dutch writer censured Richard 

«Wnrh duke of Cornwall, suing to be emperor, for his profuse spending, qui ejfudit 

ante pedes principium Eltctorum strut aquam, that scattered money like 

, I do censure them, Stttlta Anglia (saith he) qua tot denariis sponte est pri- 

' prmcipes Alemania, qui nobile jus suum pro pecunid vendiderunt ; spend- 

hnhers, and bribe-takers are fools, and so are M all they that cannot keep, dis- 

.rnd their moneys well. 

mithi say tiie like of angry, peevish, envious, ambitious •, "Anlicyras melior 

•ieures, Atheists, Schismatics, Heretics; hi omnes fiabent imagina~ 



I. mb*. It. tapiontu rt dlvlti* vti •Imiil poa- hie J„««i condler, el at ridercm an quia Inaaninr ad m 
•They |«t tbelr wUdom by e— 

■ 

• unt amentia. The- au»i^^i». - wtji .u^vmiv* *u. ■«.«-• ...»».-... . 

oiuium que,., foTet. nullum " "'" °.ulaqnii ambition* mala aut «r«eni. pallet 

■ Bba-WBD • .'■ ! ,: "" r ' .'<■'";"■- i"* 1 "- '. " •'■;"" -" lerMitl'ine It. 

»t. 4. » In.ana aula, In- " l ' ,onlc » ' , '" »' M nd *»■»■»>*"• «•• <«J"« r»2* 

.«•„,. Jaminrredihiliadixerunl. *• A fool and hi 



i •apu>mw pi iiitiiiz vix •imiii poa- me jm««i conoier, ei at viaercm an quia waaninr au on 
•The} fet Ibebr wttdoin by eat- Ti.rhduui tuque ad bee loca penelrarel. Orl 
lajjaarra :i > •Tsj\- yiitrm Cad. *Mf it be hi* work, which Gaapri 

l«a>s« a ul<rmmr.naltbi<*>unikmrntia The- iMpNa « Uvy. Inaenlea rirtutea »'!?»"; 




nir'H i'iii.iumi ti'»[' r- ' «a #» - j i 

-Ball lhll g UJ are anon parted. " Oral, de IBM*,- ami 

o*W.»mrcopaa«rol«alamenloBi»!»'»« l »J M*ifel AnUcyraa. 






/« 



DemoerUus to the Reader. 



tntnrm Icesam. (sailh Nymonnus) "and their madness shall he evident.'"' 2 Tim. iii. 9. 
"Fabatus, an Italian, holds seafaring men nil mad; u the ship is mad. for it never 
stnndB still; the mariners are mad, to expose themselves to such imminent dangers: 
the waters are raging mad, in perpetual motion : the winds are as mad as the 
they know not whence they come, whiiher they would go: and those men a 
maddest of all that go to sea; for one fool at home, they find forty abroad." He 
was a madman that said it, and thou peradventure a* mud to read it. "Faelix Plater 
is of opinion all alchemists are mad, out of their wits; M Alheneus saiih M much of 
tiddlers, et musarum luscinins, M Musicians, omnes tibicines insaniunt, ubi sctnel effiat 
avolat illico mens, in comes music at OM | ;ir, out goes wit at another. Proud and 
vain-glorious persons are certainly mad ; and so are ** lascivious; I can feel 
]inl>es heat hither; horn-mad some of them, to let others lie with their wives, and 
wink at it. 

To insist" in all particulars, were an Herculean task, to ^ reckon up '' inxnnos 
subst rue Hones, imanos labores. QMMBOO ti/iwiK mad labours, mail books, endeavours, 
carriages, gross ignorance, ridiculous actions, absurd gestures ; insanam gulam, insa- 
niam villarum, insana jurgia, as Tulty terms them, madness of villages, stupend 
structures; as those ./Egyptian Pyramids, Labyrinths and Sphinxes, winch a com- 
piny of crowned asses, ad nslmlntioiirm op/ui, vainly built, when neither the archi- 
tect nor king that made them, or to what use and purpose, are yet known : to 
in their hy p ocr isy, inconstancy, blindness, ilrfilHH, dementem temeritatrm, fraud, 
cozenage, malice, an^er, impnilrnre, ingratitude, ambition, gross superstition, ^tcm- 
portt infecta et adulatione sordida, as in Tiberius' times, such base flattery, stupend, 
pansitical fawning and eoQogviag, Stc. brawls, conflicts, desires, contentions, it would 
ask an expert Vesalius to anatomise every member. Shall I say ? Jupiter himself, 
Apollo, Mars, fee, doalcd; and monsler-compiering Hercules that subdued the world, 
and helped others, could not relieve himself in this, but, mad he was at last. And where 
shall a man walk, converse with whom, in what province, city, and not meet with 
Signior Deliro, or Hercules Furens. Mnumd eSj an>l CoryLaifM r Their speeches say 
no less. *'Efungis nati hnminrs, or else they fetched their pedigree from those that 
were struck by Samson with the jaw-hone of an ass. Or from Deucalion and Pyrrha's 
stones, for durum genus sumus, "marnwrei sumus, we are stony-hearted, and savour 
too Bnich of the stock, as if they had all heard that enchanted horn of Aslolpho, that 
English duke in Ariosto, which never founded but all his auditors were mad, and for 
fear ready to make away with themselves;" or landed in the mad haven in the 
Enxine sea of Daphnis insana, which had u secret quality to dementate; they are a 
company of .giddy-headB, afternoon men, it is Midsummer moon still, and the dog- 
days last all the year long, they are all mad. Whom shall 1 then except ? l.dricus 
lluttenus "nemo, nam, nemo omnibus horis sapit, Nemo nascitur sine, vitiis, Crimine 
.Vi wr, rnr'i, Nemo sorte sua vivit contentvs, Nemo in amore snjpft, Nrmo bonus, 
> sapiens, JVrmo, est ex muni parti beaius, &c.' J and therefore Nicholas Nemo, 
00 Monsieur No-body shall go free, Quid ualcat mma. Nemo refcrre potest? But 
whom shall I except in the second place ? such as are silent, i?ir sapit qui pauea 
loquitur; "'no better way to avoid folly and madness, than by taciturnity. Whom 
in a third ? all senators, magistrates; for all fortunate men are wise, and conquerors 
valiant, and so are all great men, non est bmuim liulcre cum diis, they are trim hy 
authority, good by their office and place, his licet impune pessitnos esse, (BORM •&] \ 
we must not speak of them, neither is it fit; per me sint omnia protinus albn, I will 
not think amiss of them. Whom next ? Stoics ? Sapiens Sloicus, and he alone is 






"Navii •liilla, quo* contimio movetur nrnitir slulll 
| ill »e pertrutla cinnniinl, aqua tatann qua? ale !>■•- 
r»it. fci\ nCr ) irtnlnr, ifcr. qui marl M cnnmiii lit rlnli- 
<luni ii nil in teiia fueien*, <<'■ n\nri tuvenii BsapM 
Eb«. M"f« 'up. <ie alien, menu.. w Dip- 

i '-'t'llitc tiirt mi nil- I'npti F.rn.iii 

( In ii ■ ' ProT. 30. Inaana lihul" I 

r i.*1, n^'ii Ml hire lui-iituln denims. Mntl. 

rp. 7ii3. lit patllaraoi «i puaromin aaUlc 

juror** > I'tir f »t nm»niiir liniiiiii lliir 0»ld, 

Vlr|. PI1n. "I'lln tll>. 36. *Ticllii» 3 Au- 

nal "n.| 7 tnet. V.. funiria Dan hr.inlnei ut 

eliui Corinthl pnmevi illiua loci secular, quia ilo- 



liili et fjtni funei« nntl illre hantur, idem el alibi 
ilima. nFajnlan. Strode de Imjulis. de niormor* 

«i iiw.rnlpil. « A mn us priipln aaarii I mini pnr- 

|oa ejua meminii, et Gilllua, I. 3. de Boapher, Thra- 
liii el laurna innmia q«a* allata in I nriva 

duium Inaanla affrf It- Cutlet . BtuecMm tOMl— ut, tu 
■' l.epirlum puenia nic inscriptiiin. " V> one i 

v,-|»e nl nil Iniiir*.— no one born wllbnut f.mltv— r 
t rhta ' rfnt i Bt»i i « nh »i» ' n t.- 

no one In love wi»*,— no enod, or wl»e man ?er|i 
h*pp] " •"Staliltiam nmularc non pole* ^t 

ucuufinlate. 



Dcmocriiua to the Reader. 75 

perturbation*, as "Plutarch scofls at liim. u he is nol vexed with tor- 
it with fire, foiled by lus adversary. sold of his enemy: the 

•thless, »' <1; yet lie is mo?t beam iful, and like a 

■■-. \m -rlh a groat. He never mad. 

, drunk, beeaure virtue cannot be taken aoo of 

rrhension. v but he wm ram; ■ ■. m J&mticynet etdc hmt raj oci 

■ haul need to be bored, end so had all bit fallows, a.< wise u they would 
%ippus himat If liberally grants them i" be fbola aa well aa o 
on some oec&aionfl, amitli rirttttrm ait per tbrittatrnu tad a.'ritn- 

BorieaBV, it may lie lost by drunkenness <>r melancholy, he may be ic t uolim ee 

as well as the rest : w ad mtnmum sapiens jiisi arum pifuita molest a. i should 

icept aonn Cynics, Mrnippus, Diogenes, that Theban Crates; or to descend 

itmr- rnniecton, only rai fraternity w of the B cairniei ana; those 

iciane, philosophers, physicians, philologers, artists, tm of 

Igrt, Albns Joncchimus, Leicenbergius, and such divine spirits have pro- 

and made premise to the world, if at least there be any such (Hen. T *'Neu- 

makes a doubt of it, "Valetttmus Andreas and others'! or an Ekaf artilex Uicir 

Smart inn mast though Lthavius and many deride and carp ai. 

have to be u Ike "' renewi r of all arts and sc i e n ce s, " reformer of the world, 
»w living, for - es Montanus Strigoniensis, that great patron of Para- 

- a most divine man, 1 ' and the quint 
»r he is ; for he, his fraternity, friends, itc. are all Wkt betrothed to 
ir disciples and followers, 1 must needs except 
and the Pope, and expunge their name out of the catalogue of fools 
that parasitical testimony of Dousa, 

"A Sole e\orl*til» Mcrnllilna nmpir (xiliidfi, 
Nemo •?•! qui )n»lo »e »qiil|>ararr ipicat." n 

if himself, that he w a m pfrihigngus voce rt stylo, 

signior. a master, a tutoi of us all, and for thirteen years he brays h.>w he 

Low Countries, asAmmoahls the philosopher sometimes did 

""eton humanitatr tiUrtU el sttpirnliam cum prudent ia : antistes *■•■, 

lie shall be Sapirnium Octane*. The Pope is more than a man, as w his parats 

make him. a d - Ins holiness cannot err, in Cathedra 1 

•:nc of them !i III relics, Atheists, children, and as Pla- 

2'2, Et a vir hit ralus, multa sto/ulUatem et h< 

tolidict socordis vir ingniii, a scholar sutlieient, yet many things he 

I pay no more than in particular, but in general terms to 

ire all mad, their wits arc evaporated, and, as Arioslo feigns, 1. 31, kept 

•hove the moon. 

,-.r wiu wail love, tnmr n lih nmtnlioa, A 

Hon. 

J 

mill, 
nil ifi»l liis number*! ml,l." J 

- they are, madmen upon record ; and I am afraid past cure many of 
"errpmnl iagK/'/t./, it, they are all of Gotam parish; 

. ;um fumr hmd diii.iu,. <iu«in ill maniiV«ni phrenefia," 
' modnrM i* lii.lUpumhle, (Ince frenzy 1* ol.vt.ius. 

nan--. r Lorarios. those officers to carry litem all to- 

Kabelais to be their physirian. 
\i am man shall ask in the meantime, who I am that so boldly censure others, 











non Inlitur. 
I 111 all 

I'HlIlM, 



vlmi« ill-- vir iiirmr nourunv In epUt 
tf. HUBftOT. lflflri. "Suptenll* 

""Fromihe Ruing Boa la tbi Mb •■! il 
wit« im ilii fairly be pul In 

..•in " Balm lilc c»l - 

■ii.rr. ' 1m '■■,< 

niii . nl» ad Pnmvi 



1.111) UUUriKI!. 
IH- I 



j.. ma. 






78 



Democritus to the Reader. 




tu nullane habes vilia ? have I no faults ? K Yes, more than thou hast, whatsoever 
thou art. JVbs numerus svmus, I confess it again, I am as foolish, as mad as any one. 

■ •* loianui vobia videor. ron deprecor lpi«. 
Quo minus inaanua," 

1 do not deny it, demens de populo demalur. My comfort is, I have more fellows, 
and tnose of excelleut note. And though 1 be not so right or so discreet as 1 rdiould 
t not so mad, so bad neither, as thou perhaps lakest me lo be. 

To conclude, this being granted, thai all the world is melancholy, or mad, duals, 
and every member of it, 1 have ended my task, and sufficiently illustrated that which 
I look upon me to demonstrate at first. At this present 1 have no more to say ; His 
sanavi mentem Democritus, I can but wish myself and them a good physician, and 
all of us a better mind. 

And although for the abovenamed reasons, I had a just cause to undertake this 
subject, to point at these particular species of dotage, that so men might acknow- 
ledge their imperfections, and seek to reform what is amiss; yet I have a more 
Berious intent at this time ; and to omit all impertinent digressions, to say no more of 
such as are improperly melancholy, or metaphorically mad, lightly mad, or in dispo- 
sition, as stupid, angry, drunken, silly, sottish, sullen, proud, vain-glorious, ridicu- 
lous, beastly, peevish, obstinate, impudent, extravagant, dry, doaling, dull, desperate, 
harehrain, &c. mad, frantic, foolish, heteroclites, which no new K hospital can hold, 
BO physic help; my purpose and endeavour is, in the following discourse to anato- 
mize ihis humour of melancholy, through all its parts and species, as it is an habit, 
or an ordinary disease, and that philosophically, medicinally, to show the causes, 
symptoms, and several cures of it, that it may be the better avoided Moved there- 
unto for the generality of it, and lo do good, it being a disease so frequent, as 
*Mercurialis observes, u in these our days; so often happening," saith "Laurentius, 
u in our miserable times," as few there, are that feel not the smart of it. Of the same 
mind is ./Elian Montalius, n Melancthon, and others; BI Julius Csesar Claudinus calls it 
die u fountain of all other diseases, and so common in this crazed age of ours, that 
scarce one of a thousand is free from it ;" and that splenetic hypochondriacal wind 
especially, which proceeds from the spleen and short ribs. fifing then a disease so 
grievous, so common, I know not wherein lo do a more general service, and spend my 
lime belter, than to prescribe means how lo prevent and cure so universal a malady, 
an epidemical disease, that BO often, bo much crucifies the body and mind. 

If I have overshot myself in this which hath been hitherto said, or that it is, which 
I am sure some will object, too fantastical, " too light and comical for a Divine, 
too satirical for one of my profession, I will presume to answer with "Erasmus, in 
like case, 'tis not I, but Democritus, Democritus dixit : you must consider what it 
is lo speak in one's own or another's person, an assumed habit and name ; a differ- 
ence betwixt him that affects or acts a prince's, a philosopher's, a magistrate's, a 
fool's part, and him that is so indeed ; and what liberty those old satirists have had ; 
it is a cento collected from others ; not I, but they that say it. 



' IMioro al quid f'iri* jocoeijj, hoc miiil Jjrii 
Cudi vi'iili dntpj*" 



Yet aocio Indulgence I may jujtly claim. 
If too familiar will) another'! fume. 



Take heed you mistake me not. If I do a little forget myself, 1 hope you will par- 
don it. And to say truth, why should any man be offended, or take exceptions at it? 

"I.icuit, aemperque licfbil. It lawful wn of old, and itlll i» H 

Pa/cere peraonii, dicere de Tlliia." To (peak of vice, Imt let the name go free. 

I hate their vices, not their persons. If any be displeased, or take aught unto him- 
self, let him not expostulate or cavil with him that said it (so did *" Erasmus excuse 
himself to Dorpius, si parva licet componere magnis) and bo do I ; M but let him 
be angry with himself, that so betrayed and opened his own faults in applying it 
to himself: w if he be guilty and deserve it, let him amend, whoever he is, and not 



»Allf|nantiilnin lomnn Jnde me eolnbnr, quod una, 
cum mum* el aapienlibui el celeberrimia viria Ipso 
latrpfeai •nn, qimrt f Menlppua I.ncinni In Necyn- 
maritla. » I'etroniiia In Cmalert. "That I 

■lean of An.tr Vale. Spoloz. Marup I 1 et 26. Apol. 
•" llrr .ilTr. tin IK.al nlim l'r<-.|iii-iili«- iinfi. 

•Cap. 15 de Mel. •> Oe a mum Nn«tn> bo 
DV'tt'it, fieqiK-ntinimua. " ("nnmilt. W adeo 

noatrii lempofilia* frequenter infrutt ul nulliia fere 
Mb eju labe inimunis rvpenuiui ot omnium fere mor- 



hoTum nrcaain exlctat. " Mor . Encom *i quia ca- 

liiiniiicliir levin* e»»e qtiam drrei Theolocuin, aul 
ii.i.riiiititin tjunm decent Chriatiaiiuin. ■ Hnr. Sal. 

4. I. I. •< F.pi. ad Dnrniutn de Moria. «l qutaplam 

oflVndatur et «lhi Tindicet, non hahet n'i»d • \p"«tulet 
rum en qui aerlMU, lp»*< *l vnlet, eemm agat iiijilrlain, 
utf.nii.nui pioditnr. qui deilaravit hoc ad re propria* 
perllncrs. M 8I quia ae la-*um clnmahil. am con- 

aclentiam prodit main, aul eerie iucturu, I'lirdr lib 
3. JUtop. Fab. 



Democrihu to the Reader. 



77 



W angry. '* He thai hateth correction is a fool," Prov. xii. 1 H" he be not guilty 
i concerns him not ; it is not. my freeness of speech, but a guilty conscience, a 
plied back of his own that makes him wince. 



'Suspicions li quia errrubli sua, 
Kl raplei ad se, quod crit commune omnium, 
fliuhi nudabu anlnn conscientiam."** 



I day not this which I have said savours a little of Democritus; "Quamtus rid'-r- 
ka iietrt verum quid velat ; one may speak in jest, and yet speak truth. It is 
MMwhat tart, I grant it; acriora orexim excitant embammata, as he said, sharp 
mart* increase appetite, m nec cibus ipse, juvat morsu fraudalus aceli. Object then 
uiiraul what thou wilt, I ward all with Thmocritus's buckler, his medicine shall 
strike where thou wilt, and when : Democritus dixit, Democritus will 
taiwer il It was written by an idle fellow, at idle times, about our Saturnaliaii of 
Dyonisian feasts, when as he said, nullum iibertati periculum est, servants in old 
Ram had liberty to say and do what them list. When our countrymen sacrificed 
to their goddess '* Vacuna, and sat tippling by their Vaeunal fires. I writ this, and 
published this ovrt< k*7»*i it is neminis nihil. The time, place, persons, and all 
drramslanrre apologise for rne, and why may not I then be idle with others ? apeak 
•f mind freely ? If you deny me this liberty, upon these presumptions I will take 
it: I say again, I will take it. 

1 "81 quit hi qui dictum In se Inclcmcntiua 
Elistimavlt ease, ale eilslluiel." 

Ban take exceptions, let him tum the buckle of his girdle, I care not. I owe 
ibet nothing (Reader), I look for no favour at thy hands, 1 am independent, 1 fear not. 

No, I recant, I will not, I care, I fear, 1 confess my fault, acknowledge a great 
ofcice, 

• raoto* prrtt.it componere ductus. " 1 Ict'i Aral assuage ike troubled ware* 

J hive overshot myself, I have spoken foolishly, rashly, unadvisedly, absurdly, 1 Im-e. 
Matonized mine own folly. And now met h inks upon a sudden 1 am awaked as 
*trr out of a dream ; 1 have had a raving tit, a fantastical tit, ranged up and down, 
ta tad out, I have insulted over the most kind of men, abused some, oflen ded others, 
vUNigvd myself; and now being recovered, and perceiving mine error, cry with 
s tie me, pardon (o boni) that which is past, and 1 will make you amends 
■ thai which is to come ; 1 promise you a more sober discourse in my following 
traatur. 

r"iiL_')i weakness, folly, passion, 'discontent, ignorance, I have said amiss, let 
£ he torsoUen and forgiven. I acknowledge that of 'Tacitus to be true, Jlspcra 
'runrr. acrtm Sui rnrnioriam rvliiKftwnt, a bitter jest leaves 
tattng behind it : and as an honourable man observes, &u They fear a .satirist's wit, 
■t tbeu memories." I may justly suspect the worst; ami though I hope I have 
WNaged no man, yet in Medea's words 1 will crave pardon. 




, irema peto, 
• iluilu dolor, 
no verba, sed mellor lib) 
Imk Ire data 



And In my laat word* this 1 do desire. 
Thai what tn passion I have salil. >>r ire. 
May be forgotten, nnrl a better mind. 
Be had of us, hereafter as you find. 



Iy request every private man, as Scaliger did Cardan, not to take offence. 
Iwill conclude in his lint>.«, Si me cognilum haberes, rum solum donares nobis has 
ftutias nostras, sed etiam indignum duceres, lam humunum aninum, lene ingrnium, 
tel mntmam suspicionem deprecari oportere. If thou knewest my 'modesty and 
aitjpliriiv. i.'m.ij wouldst easily pardon and forgive what is here amiss, or by thee 
■sMinki in d If hereafter anatomizing this surly humour, my hand slip, as an 
tinkn/ul 'prentice I lance too deep, and cut through skin and all at unawares, make 
it smart, or cut awry, 'pardon a rude hand, an unskilful knife, His a most dif- 



Ter.prol. Eunuch. ' Arlosl. I. W. 

* til until) ei aludiis gaudium sir aiudla 



I a«M shall err laroiif h hw own suspicion, | Roalnus, 
»;> r to himself what la common to all, , Btaf. S8. 

MsaJsly u-tt*, a consciousness of Milt, rt hilaiilale prnvcniuni. Plinuii Mm IBeS r|>- 

•Dl lubet friial, | lib. b. • Annal. 15. » Sir Francis Dai 

thsatarlMa Democrat pharmaci*. ""Rus-ihla Essay*, now Viscount St. Albans. * Quod 

(•• ri/r.i» <i'jMiini« •! olios)* putabaiur, Probus I'enii j?ir)»*»4c virginal! vsrecundil 

• scoficahat. Plin- I. 3 c. 11. fulaae diclt, ego, ate. ' ((un tin incurla 

at quoque cum Aunt antique sacra . aut bumana parum catIi Datura, llor. 
gust* Varamlts slsclqur sedcuique focus. | 

09 






78 JJemoeritMS to the Reader. 

ficult thing to keep an even tone, a perpetual tenor, and not sometimes to lash out ; 
difficile est Satyram rum scribere, there be so many .objects to divert, inward pertur- 
bations to molest, and the very best may sometimes err ; aliquando bonus dormitat 
Homerus (some times that excellent Homer takes a nap), it is impossible not in so 

much to overshoot ; opere in longo fas est obrepere sumnum. But what needs 

all this ? I hope there will no such cause of offence be given ; if there be, " Nemo 
aliquid rtcognoscat, nos mentimur omnia. I'll deny all (my last refuge), recant all, 
renounce all I have said, if any man except, and with as much facility excuse, as he 
can accuse ; but I presume of thy good favour, and gracious acceptance (gentle rea- 
der). Out of an assured hope and confidence thereof, I will begin. 

* Frol. quer. Plant. "Let not any one tana thews tilings to himself, they are all but fletloaa." 




LECTORI MALE FERIATO. 



Tt two earesia edico quisquis es, ne temere sugilles Auctorem hujuace operis, aut 
aTilklor irrideas. Imo ne vel ex aliorum censura tacile obloquaris (vis dicam ver- 
bo) iwquid naautulus im-ph. niipn.hes, aut f.ilso lingaa. Nam si tali9 revera sit, qua- 
(npne m fart Junior Dtmocrilus, sen iori Dtmacrilo saltern affirm, aut ejus Gcnium 
rri tintilhim sapiut ; actum de te, censorem acque ae delatorera 'aget econtra (petu- 
Uati tpltae orm sit) sutflabit te in jocos, com minuet in sales, addo cvuiu ct dco risui 
ti aerificabit. 

Itrmiu moneo, ne quid cavdlere, ne dum Dcmocrilum Juniorem conviciis infnmes, 
vtignominiose vituperes, de te non male sentienlem, tu idem audius ab amico cor- 
ato, quod olim vulgus Abdcritanum ub l Hippocratc, concivem bene rneritum et po- 
palutin aumn Democritum, pro insano habens. JVe iti Democrite sapis, stulli atfcm 
tttuani Abdtrita. 

» ** Abdrrltana? pectora plebti habci." 



Bcc te paucis admonitum volo (male feriate Lector) abi. 




TO THE READER AT LEISURE. 



ifta you may be, I caution you against rashly defaming the anthor of this 
*ork, r.r cavilling in jest against him. Nay, do not silently reproach him in MO- 
meptsxt of others' censure, nor employ your wit in foolish disapproval, or false 
actuation. For, should Democritus Junior prove to be what he professes, even a 
inanan of hit elder namesake, or be ever so little of die same kidney, it is all over 
»rth you : lie will become both accuser and judge of you in your spleen, wdl dissi- 
ptk you in jests, pulverise you into salt, and sacrifice you, I can promise you, to 
the God or Mirth. 

I further advise you, not to asperse, or calumniate, or slander, Democritus Junior, 
*ho p«>*«ibly does not think ill of you, lest you may hear from some discreet friend, 
Ike same remark the people of Abdera did from Hippocrates, of their meritorious and 
popular feUow-eitiicn, whom they had looked on as a madman -, " It is not tliat you, 
Dmucntua, that art wise, but that the people of Abdera are fools and madmen." 
*Toa havr yourself an Abderitian soul;" and having just given you, gentle reader, 
these few words of admonition, farewell. 



aa* m m m t t I t. m«ll«n dob tanfere clnmo. Ilor. 

tumifftu, arcorcitii* fum ul Dcmo- 

Inaanani lurmrrtu. »«d poatquamcon- 

JoTt*>dMi»tcBii» neg otium. aed rerun 




omnium receptaculum deprehrmll, rjiuqne Inscnioai 

uiium. Abdcruarioa vcro lanquam nonaanoa 

acruaavi, verain pollono ipso* pvllua eguitae dicent. 

•Mart. 




(») 



Heraclite fleas, misero sic convenit aero, 

Nil nisi turpe Tides, nil nisi triste rides. 
Ride etiam, quantumque lubet, Democrite ride 

Non nisi vana vides, non nisi stulta rides. 
Is fletu, his risu modd gaudeat, unus utrique 

Sit licet usque labor, sit licet usque dolor. 
Nunc opes est (nam totus eheu jam desipit orbis) 

Mille Heraclitis, milleque Democritis. 
Nunc opus est (tanta est insania) transeat omnia 

Mundus in Anticyras, gramen in Helleborum. 



Weep, O Heraclitus, it suits the age, 

Unless you see nothing base, nothing sad. 
Laugh, O Democritus, as much as you please, 

Unless you see nothing either vain or foolish. 
Let one rejoice in smiles, the other in tears ; 

Let the same labour or pain be the office of both. 
Now (for alas ! how foolish the world has become), 

A thousand Heraclitus', a thousand Democritus' are required. 
Now (so much does madness prevail), all the world must be 

Bent to Anticyra, to graze on Hellebore. 



83 



Synopsis of the First Partition. 



A. 

Serf. 8. 
Causes of 
Melancholy 
are either 



Sups*, 
natural. 



(Asfron 
Or from 
of sp 
Or med 



i from God immediately, or by second causes. Suit. ' 
• from the devil immediately, with a digression of the 
spirits and devils. Subs. 2. 
I Or mediately, by magicians, witches. Subt. 8. 

'Primary, as stars, proved by aphorisms, signs from j 
gnomy, tnetoposcopy, chiromancy. Subs. 4. 



Or 



f Congenita, 
inward 
I from 



Natural 



Or 



Or 



Outward 
or adven- 
titious, 
which are 



f Old age, temperament, Subt. 6. 

< Parents, it being an hereditary < 

I Sub. 9 

N e c essa ry, see ft. 

Nurses, Subt. 1. 
Education, <Suo* 
Terrors, affright! 
Subt. 3. 
Evident, ■* Scoffs, calumnies 

outward, < ;» jests, Subt. 4. 
remote, ad- . , Loss of liberty, 
ventiuous, | tude, impriso 

Bubt. 6. 
Poverty and wa 

Subt. 6. 

A heap of othe 

dents, death of I 

Or Ifc [ loss, dec Subt 

In which the body 

on the mind, an 

malady is cans 

Contingent, precedent diseaa 

inward, an- agues, pox, A 

tecedent, temperature inn 

nearest. Subt. 1. 

Memb. 5. Or by particular pa 

Sect. 2. tempered, as brain 

spleen, liver, mes 

pylorus, stomact 

Subt. 2. 



Particular to the three species. See EL 



Inward 



Of head 

Melancholy 

mSubt.8. 



U 
Particular 
causes. 

Memb. 6. 



, Of hypo- 
chondriacal, 
or windy 
melancholy 
are, 



Over all the 
body are, 
> Suit. 6. 



Outward 



'Inward 



Outward 




Outward. 



'Innate humour, or from diatemperature adust. 
A hot brain, corrupted blood in the brain. 
Excess of venery, or defect. 
Agues, or some precedent disease. 
Fumes arising from the stomach, dec. 

Heat of the sun immoderate. 

A blow on the head. 

Overmuch use of hot wines, spices, garlick, i 

hot baths, overmuch waking, dec. 
Idleness, solitariness, or overmuch study, vel 

labour, dec 
Passions, perturbations, dec. 

Default of spleen, belly, bowels, stomacn, mea 

miseraic veins, liver, dec 
Months or hemorrhoids stopped, or any oth< 

nary evacuation. 
v Those six non-natural things abused. 

Liver distempered, stopped, over-hot, apt to en 
melancholy, temperature innate. 

Bed diet, suppression of hemorrhoids, dec ant 
evacuation*, passions, cares, dec those si: 
% natural things abused. 




Synapsis of the First Partition. 

Dread ; coarse anil black, dec. 
Drink ; (hick, thin, »our, dec. 
Water unclean, milk, oil, vinegar, wine, spices. Arc. 

' Pari* ; bead*, feel, entrails, fat, bacon, blood, dec. 
Flesh i Kim], J® e *'' I""*' * er >'son, bares, goal*, pigeon*, 



Herb*, 
Fish, 

Idee. 



Quan- 
lllty 






1 cock*, fen-fowl, dec 
Of fish ; all shell-fish, hard and slimy fish, Ac. 
Of herbs ; pulse, cabbage, melons, garlick, onion*, dec. 
All roots, raw fruits, hard and windy meats. 

{Preparing, dressing, sharp sauce*, salt meats, indurate, soused, fried, 
broiled, or made-dishes, dec 

{Disorder in eating, immoderate eating, or at unseasonable times, eke. 
Subt. 2. 
Custom; delight, appetite, altered, dec Subs. 3. 
Retention and era- f Costiveness, hot baths, sweating, issues stopped, Venus in excess, or 
citation, Subt. 4. \ in defect, phlebotomy, purging, die 
Air ; hot, cold, tempestuous, dark, thick, foggy, moorish, dec Sub). 5. 
Exercise, J Unseasonable, excessive, or defective, of body or mind, solitariness, idleness, 
Sttb.6. \ a life oat of sction, dec. 
8sMp and waking, unseasonable, inordinate, overmuch, overliltle, dec Subi. 7. 

Sorrow, cause and symptom, Subi. 4. Fear, causa) 
and symptom. Subs. 5. Shame, repulse, disgrace, 
dec. Subi. 6. Envy and malice, Subs. 7. Emula- 
tion, hatred, faction, desire of revenge, Subs. 8. Anger 
s cause, Subs. 9. Discontents, carta, miseries, dec 
Subs. 10. 



Mtmb. 3. Sect. 2. 
Passions and 
perturbations of 
the nind, 
Skids, *. With 
a digression of 
toe smcc of 
imagination. 
Subt. 2. snd divi- 
sion of passions 
into Subt. 3. 



Body, as 




Irascible 



conrupis 
cible. 



Vehement desires, ambition, Subs. 11. Covetousnees, 
^Oopyvpuu', Sub*. 12, Love of pleasures, gaming in 
excess, dec. Subt. 13. Desire of praise, priJe, vain- 
glory, dec Subs. 14. Love of learning, study in 
excess, with s digression, of the misery of scholars, 
and why the Muses are melancholy, Subs. IS. 

digestion, crudity, wind, dry brain*, hard belly, thick blood, much 
waking, heaviness, and palpiiati.ui of heart, leaping in many places, dec, Subs. I. 
Common f Fear and sorrow without a just cause, suspicion, jealousy, discon- 
tent, solitariness, irksomeness, continual cogitations, restless 
thoughts, vain imaginations, dec Subt. 2. 
Celestial influences, as h % cf, dec. parts of the body, heart, brain, 
liver, spleen, stomach, dec. 

Sanguine are merry still, laughing, pleasant, meditating 

on plays, women, music, dec 
Phlegmatic, slothful, dull, heavy, dec. 
Choleric, furious, impatient, subject to bear and aea 

strange apparitions, dec 
Black, solitary, sad ; they think they are bewitched, 
desd, dec 
Or mitrj of these four humours adust, or not adust, infinitely 
varied. 

Ambitious, thinks himself a king, a lord 5 ea» 
us, runs on hi* money; lascivious on hi* 
mistress ; religious, bath revelations, visions, is 
• prophet, or troubled in mind ; a scholar on bis 
book, ice. 
Pleasant st first, hardly discerned; afterwards harsh 
and intolerable, if inveterate. 

„ . fl. Falsa eogitatin. 

Hence some make J, . 

three degree., J fc g^J fcJLhsa* 

By fits, or continuale, aa the object vanes, \>\e**uv*,, 

or Jisp/easi ng. 

apoplexies, goat, eaninua appelllua, c*.c. w> 



Hu- 
mours 



< Their several 
customs, con- 
ditions, incli- 

cipline, dec 

Continu- 
ance of time 
aa the hu- 
mour is ia- 

i or re- 
mittod, dtc. 



_. or a* it it mixed with other di 
I Urn pymptaam tie n/wut 



* 



Synopsis of tte IV* Partition. 



Headme- 
lancholy. 
Subs. 1. 



In body 



Or 



In mind. 





Hypo- 
chondria* 


• In body 


52 
Particular 


cal, or 
windy 
melan- 


Or 


ay mptonw to 
the throe dis- 


choly, 
Subi.i. 


In mind. 


tinct species. 
■Serf. 3. 
Jfcmo.S. 


Overall 


Inbody 


„, 


the body. 
Subt.8. 


Or 

In mind. 



Headaeb, binding and heaviness, vertigo, tightness, 
singing of the earn, mach waking, fixed eyes, 
high colour, red eyes, hard belly, dry body j no 
great sign of melancholy in the other parts. 

Continual fear, sorrow, suspicion, discontent, super- 
fiaoos cares, solicitude, anxiety, perpetual cogita- 
tion of such toys they are possessed with, thoughts 
Ufce dreams, dec. 

Wind, rumbling in the guts, belly-aeh, heat in 
the bowels, convulsions, crudities, short wind, 
sour and sharp belching*, cold sweat, pain in 
the left side, suffocation, palpitation, heaviness of 
the heart, singing in the ears, much spittle, and 
moist, dec. 

(Fearful, sad, suspicious, discontent, anxiety, dee. 
Lesdvioos by reason of much wind, troublesome 
dreams, affected by file, dec. 

f Black, most part lean, broad veins, gross, thick blood, 
1| their hemorrhoids commonly stopped, dee. 



f Fearful, sad, solitary, hate light, ev 
\ pany, fearful dreams, dec. 



from 



Symptoms of none, maids, and widows melancholy, in body and mind, dec. 



A reason 
of these 
symp- 
toms. 
Memb. 8. 



"Why they are so fearful, sad, suspicious without a cause, why 
solitary, why melancholy men are witty, why they suppose they 
hear and see strange voices, visions, apparitions. 

Why they prophesy, and speak strange languages; whence comes 
their crudity, rumbling, convulsions, cold sweat, heaviness of 
heart, palpitation, cardiacs, fearful dreams, much waking, pro- 
digious fantasies. 



C. 

Prognostics 
of melancholy 
Ad. 4. 



Tending to good, aa 



I Tending to evil, as 

I 

i 



Corollaries and question*. • 



Morphew, scabs, itch, breaking out, dec. 
Black jaundice. 

If the hemorrhoids voluntarily open. 
If varices appear. 

Leanness, dryness, hollow-eyed, dee. 

Inveterate melancholy is incurable. 

If cold, it degenerates often into epilepsy, apoplexy, 

dotage, or into blindness. 
If hot, into madness, despair, and violent death. 

The grievousness of mis above all other diseases. 
The d is e ases of the mind are more grievous than 

those of the body. 
Whether it be lawful, in this ease of melancholy, flr 

a man to offer violence to himself. Neg. 
How a melancholy or mad man offering violence to 

himself, is to be censured. 




(85) 



THE FIRST PARTITION. 




THE FIRST SECTION, MEMBER, SUBSECTION. 



Ct Excellency, Fall, Miseries, Infirmities ; The causes of litem. 

I F ltr 1 TVf AN, the most excellent and noble creature of the worhl, 
*"■' ^^ "the principal and mighty work of God, wonder Of 
Jfweit,* 1 a* Zoroaster calls htm \ ewfigoil natuTiT mirarulum, ■ the ' marvel of mar- 
•sk" as Plato; **the 'abridgment and epitome of the world," as Pliny; KeroOOO- 
mv.t little world, a model of the world, * sovereign lord of the earth, viceroy of dm 
•mid. sole commander and governor of all the creatures in it ; to whose empire tiny 
s» sobjert in particular, and yield obedience; far surpassing all the rest, not in body 
wiy, but in soul ; 'Imaginis imago, 'created to God's own ' image, to that immortal 
tad nvnrpnrcal substance, willi all the faculties and powers belonging unto it; was 
M first parci divuir, perfect, happy, Tu created after God in true holiness and right- 
•«•««;" Deo congruent, free from all manner of infirmities, and put in Paradise, 
Is know God, to praise and glorify him, to do his will, lit diis consimilea parturiat 
itn , a* an old poet saith ) in p rnpngak i the church. 

Msn't Fall and Misery.] But this most noble creature, lieu tristis* et lackry- 
■■w cmsmmtatio ('one exclaims) O pitiful change! is fallen from that he was, and 
mwned his estate, become m ■ cant-away, a caitiff, one of the 

■sst miserable creature* of tfai world, if lie lie considered in his own nsittire, an 
■numerate man. and so rnurh obscured by his fall that (some few reliques excepted) 
sen tnirnat to a beast, '" Man in honour tli.it iiiulerstaiuleth not, is like unto beasts 
[•■ems htm: a monster by stupend metamorphoses, "'a fox, 
Iflsf. a bog. wliat not ? Quan'um mutalus ab illo? How much altered from that lie 
•w. bel ow Messed h . now miserable and accursed ; " " He must eat his BUM 

a mtv»," subject to death and all manner of infirmities, all kind of calamities. 

Inscription of Melancholy. \ ■** Great travail is created for all men, and an 
mwy yoke on of Adam, from the day that they go out of their mother's 

toavtk, onto that day they return to the mother of all things. Namely, their thoughts, 
mi ir%r vf their hrarts, and their imagination of things they wait for, and the day 
sfesath. From him that silteth in the glorious throne, to him that sitteth beneath 
■ the earth and ashes; from him thui is clothed in blue silk and wearelh a Growth 
is lum that is clothed in simple linen. Wrath, envy, trouble, and unqun tin at, and 
fcvof death, and rigour, and strife, and such things come to both man and beast, 
wt srsrafbhl U ilv.' 1 All this befalls him in this life, and peradveiiture 

asraal misery in the lite to come. 

hwafiisi Caw I Misery and Infirmities.] The impulsive cause of these 

thi* privation or destruction of God's image, the cause of death and 



in 



«»r-.«» Mnnlas. iMondl rpUnme. n»- | r.l in Iraajln* purri. ' Epb. ir. «. »P»Vu\ 

«•• ». rlTaSfrsr— iiwiiIiim. i ni mllii loriiu » Pm|. illz. 10. »UaK\<o»,«uip:tkV 

taiMiiMi Scsivt tffi v,: .r. J V»lr«. da , rqimm. ImpudenliS canem, a»lu vu\p«ii\, (uiot* \««»- 
•W f<» -n..m*lf O-nrf \i«*i». arm. I hr>» .S3. Oen. U Gen. t». W. ««*- 

■ kbWMftW 'O** I '/magaauadl, eUu. Ir. J. J, JL 4, 5,8 

h i iji ii. «w aw amltm KjampJuatqur del quiaque I 

H 



Diseases in General. 



[Part. 1. Sect. 1. 



diseases, of all temporal and eternal punishments, was the sin of our first parent 
Adam, " in eating of the forbidden fruit, by the devil's instigation and allurement 
Ilia disobedience, pride, ambition, intemperance, incredulity, curiosity; from wh' 
proceeded origins] sin, and that general corruption of mankind, as from a fountain 
flowed all bad inclinations ami actual transgressions wbich cause our several calami- 
ties inflicted upon us for our sins. And this belike is that wbich our fabulous poets 
have shadowed unto us in the tide of " Pandora's box, which being opened through 
her curiosity, filled die world full of all manner of diseases. It is not curiositv 
■lone, but those, other crying sins of ours, which pull these several plagues an 
miseries HMD our heads. For Ubi premium, Hi procella^ as 1S Chrysosiom wel 
observes. ,s " Fools by reason of their transgression, and because of their iniquitiu 
are afflicted." IT " Fear Cometh like sudden desolation, and destruction like a whirl- 
wind, affliction and anguish," because they did not fear God. " M Are you shake 
With wars ?" as Cyprian well urgeth to Demetrius, »' are you molested with dearth and 
famine ? is your health crushed with raginy dim ates ? ie mankind generally tormented 
with epidemical maladies? 'tis all for your sins," Hag. i. 9, 10; Amos i.; Jer. vii 
God is angrv, pniiisluih and thrcaienclli, because of their obstinacy and stubborn- 
ness, tliey "ill not tarn unto him. "" If the earth be barren then for want of rain, 
if dry and squalid, it yield no fruit, if your fountains be dried up, your wine, corn, 
and oil blasted, if die air be corrupted, and men troubled with diseases, 'tis by rea- 
son of their sins :" which like the blood of Abel cry loud to heaven fur vengeanc 
linm. v. 15. •* Thai wc have sinned, therefore our hearts are heavy," Isa. lix. I I, I: 
u \\e mar like' hears, and mourn like doves, and want health, &c. for our una 

sps.' 1 But this we cannot endure to hear or to take notice of, Jer. ii. 3( 
" We are smitten in vain and receive no correction;" and cap. v. 3. "Thou ha 
stricken them, but they hnve not sorrowed ; they have refused to receive correction; 
they have not returned. Pestilence he hath sent, but they have not turned to him, r 
Amos iv. * Herod could DOt abide John Baptist, nor ai Domitian endure Apollonii 
to tell the censes of the plague at Ephesus, his injustice, incest, adultery, and the like 
To punish therefore this blindness and obstinacy of ours as a coneoniitant cause 
and principal agent, is God's just judgment in bringing these calamities upon us, 
chastise us, 1 say. for our sins, and to satisfy God's wrath. For the law requirr? 
obedience or punishment, as you may read at large, Deut. xxviii. 15. u If they wili 
not obey the Lord, and keep his commandments and ordinances, then all these curses 
shall come upon them." ** u Cursed in the town and in the field, &c." "i* Cursed in 
the fruit of the body, &c\" **"The Lord shall send thee trouble and shame, because 
of thy wickedness." And a little after, ""The Lord shall smite thee with the botch 
of Egypt, and with ernrods, and scab, and itch, and thou canst not be healed ; "with 
madness, blindness, and astonishing of heart." This Paul seconds, Rom. ii. 9. ''Tri- 
bulation and anguish on the soul of every man lhat doelh evil." Or else these chas- 
tisementg MPS inflicted upon us for our humiliation, to exercise and try our patience 
here in this life to bring us home, to make us to know God ourselves, to inform am 
teach us uisdoiu. " " Therefore is my people gone into captivity, because they had 
to knowledge; therefore is the wrath of the Lord kindled against his people, and 

hath stretched out bis hand upon them." He is desirous of our snlvatio 
m Nostra> saint is avidtts, saith Lemnius, and for that cause pulls us by the ear man 
times, to put us in niiiid of ( .nr duties ; "That they which erred might have unde 
standing, (as Isaiah speaks x.vix. 24) and so to be reformed."" *' 1 am afflicted, and 
it the point of death," so David confesscth of himself, Psal. Ixxrviii. v. 15, v. 9. 
- Uine 'yes are sorrowful through mine affliction :" and that mude him turn unto 
God. Great Alexander in the midst of all his prosperity, by a company of parasi 



■QML ill. 17. "Ilia rndrm lesnien manihiii 

drciunl. cl lint [M'rniiliiii iiiiiiu-U nn.cnn niorlnlllmi 
tram. II.-. i... I | optr. "Horn. i. ad pi»|»- An- 

lloch. '• Paal. cvlt. 17. "Pro. i. *7. "Quid 

• utem erefcrloa brlla rnncoiianl. quod alrrltllaa el 
MHW •■'lir uudinrm riiirniti'nl, quod •rvirnlihu* mnr- 
> > almid" frfirgilur, qui'd huinaniilii jrr nun luu jwipu- 
t vaetulur ; ol> premium omnia, lypr "> Hi 

deauper pluvn <WctTid.it. *1 [«rra siiu pulvarii 
•quallrai, >i »ix jejuna* et pallida* beibai itexilii 



glrba prndutat, at ltirbo vlneam debititri, a. 

"Mdl Ilv 3. i> HillrmiriUU". III. .8 vil t| 

In)u»lllliim rJiTH, el srrliTitm mipllaa. rl ca-lria qua 

pr^-ipf tal mucin fecerat, mnrbnruiu cnuui dliil. m l&. 

»]8- MSO. "Ver»«I7. »«8 *)<■ 

diliirit, eMttjM. *ln. t. 13. Verae IS. 

(nt salmis avtilua conlinenter aurea vi-llii ml. ac cala- 

niilatr fiilmialc nni rierccu Levinua l.onn I 

de occult nat. inir. »Vciailo dal iiilrllrciuav 

laa. uvill. 1». 



Dmaaet in General. 



87 



■nd now made a god, when he saw one of his wounds bleed, remembe 
ha was but a roan. In norbo recall' uimtf,' 

In ■irVllW the mind reflects upon itself, with jut! 
* former courses;" insomuch that he concludes la 
Man' bat il were the period of all philosophy, if we could so continue 

it a part of that which we promised to do, being sick- Whoso 
k, wUl consider these things," as David did (Psal. cxliv.. i 
fortune befall him, make use of it. If he be in sorrow, need, 

■ recount with himself, why this or that malady, 
I or that incurable inflicted upon him; n may be Mr his good, 

iit, as Peter said of his daughter's ague. Bodily sickness is for bis 
Ith, p* iisset, had he not been visited, he had utterly perished; for 

i!i htm whom he loveth, even as a lather doth his child in whom 
li he be safe and sound on the other side, aud free from all manuei 
•a* cut 



, vol«tu.|<> (onllPfil »h»n(J# 



"And that hr hare gracv, brainy, rirour, health. 
A c leu iily diet, sod abound in wealth." 



Ml 



roeperity, let him remember that caveat of Most -, '■' •■ Beware 

forget iln- Lord DM 6od; n that he be not pulled up, but acknowledge 

to be bis good and J7 " the more he halh, to be more thank- 

iw Aga, th) and use them aright 

huttrumtntal Causes of our Infirmities.] Now the instrumental causes of these 

=i, are ns diverse as the iniirmities trt einao lTeo; stars, heavens, ele- 

< id all those creatures which God hath made, are armed against si 

Tbey were indeed once good in themselves, and that they are now many 

■ us, is not in their nature, but our corruption, which hath imius 

■ >r first parent Adam, they have been changed, the ea 

ace of stars altered, the four elements, beasts, birds, plants, are 

"The principal things for the use of man, are water, tire, 

salt, meal, wheat, honey, milk, oil. wine, clothing, (food Lo the godly, to the 

rs turned to evil, 1 ' Ecclus. xxxix. 26. " Fire, and huil, and famine, mid dearth, 

ibase are created for vengeance," Ecclus. xxxix. 90. The heavens threaten u-> 

acts, stars, planets, with their great eonjuneuona, eclipses, oppositions, 

tearulc*, and such anfri ir with hit -. thunder and 

i cold, mighty winds, tempests, unseasonable weather; 
no which proceed dearth, famine, plague, and all sorts of epidemical diseases, con- 
iads of men. At Cairo in Egypt, every third year, (as it is re- 
nted and others i 300,000 die of the plague; and 200,000, in I 
•aniuiikple, every film or seventh at the utmost. How doth the earth terrify and 
us with trmhlr earthquakes, which are most frequent in "China, Japan, and 
-asirm dunes, s times six cities at oncer How d"th tfaa 
ragi with his inundations, trrupuons, flinging down towns, cities, villages, 
artdfea, N.c, besides hole islands are sometimes suddenly overwhelmed 
•no all th'-ir inhabitant* in "> Zealand, Holland, and many parts of the continent 
bowiicd, a* the *' lake Erne in Ireland ? u .Yt/tiI<]u< yr m rndnr,ra pi 
awaaatas jrelo. In the fens of Friesland 1230, by reason of tempests, "the 
tbownrd multa hvminum millia, et jumenta sine numero y all the country aim 
and esiitr in iL How doth the tire rage, that merciless element, consuming m 
tartar. 'iat town of any antiquity or not'- hath not l> 
tad again is merciless clement, defaced, ruinated, and left desolate? 
be v 



1111 



... .u.ih ri.-t(ii,>!iii 
Vu s> i -"iiu nfcat. 

ft.li- . if ..r.:.. . :■ motbu |"-nl " 



"Whom Ar« »par«», ««« doth drown ; whom ■«•, 
lV.tllrni »lr dfilh •rinl 10 

■ war 'aeapea, i>can«M tukea awajr." 




) »Qr. t'JM m^ilini tin jut .. ii il, 
• pfcilu»vpli 

ir.i.Jk »«rim i« is. »H»f 

i ii. k<i> aul vldcal no cadat. 



r Quanto iiinjnrlbui b*nr- 
r r m to debit 

'uoetas ad an i' 
" Mun.i.r I. J. C o». t*f. Vi%. •» UutVi; 









88 



Diseases in General. 



[Part. 1. Sec. 



To descend to more particulars, how many creatures are at deadly feud with men i 

Lions, wolves, bears, 8tc. Some with hoofs, horns, tusks, teeth, nails : How many 

devious serpents and venemous creatures, ready to offend us with stings, breath, 

Mjjlit, or quite kill us? How many pernicious fishes, plants, gums, fruits, seeds, 

flowers, Etc. could I reckon up on a Budden, which by their very smell many of 

them, touch, taste, cause some grievous malady, if not death itself? Some make 

mention of a thousand several poisons : but these are but trifles in respect. The 

greatest enemy to man, is man, who by the devil's instigation is still ready to do 

mischief, his own executioner, a wolf, a devil to himself, and others. 4 * We are 

brethren in Christ, or at least should be, members of one body, servants of one Lord, 

and yet no fiend ran so torment, insult over, tyrannize* vex, as one man doth another. 

Let me not fall therefore (saith David, when wars, plague, famine were offered) int 

the hands of men, merciless and wicked men : 

• '• Vix mini homlne-f ho* nomine dlgnl, 

Quainque lupi, aevn plug feritulU tmhenl." 

We can most part foresee these epidemical diseases, and likely avoid them; 
Dearths, tempests, plagues, our astrologers forte! us; Earthquakes, inundations, 
ruins of houses, consuming fires, come by little and little, or make some noise be- 
forehand ; but the knaveries, impostures, injuries and villanies of men no art can 
avoid. We can keep our professed enemies from our cities, by gates, walls and 
towers, defend ourselves from thieves and robbers by watchfulness and weapons ; 
but this malire of men, and their pernicious endeavours, no caution can divert, 
no vigilancy foresee, we have so many Becret plots and devices to mischief one 
another. 

Sometimes by the devil's help as magicians, "witches : sometimes by impostures, 
mixtures, poisons, stratagems, single combats, wars, we hack and hew, as if we were 
ad internrcionem nati, like Cadmus' soldiers born to consume one another. 'Tis an 
ordinary tiling to read of a hundred and two hundred thousand men slain in a battle. 
Besides all manner of tortures, brazen bulls, racks, wheels, strappadoes, guns, en- 
gines, Stc. a Ad unum corpus humaitum supjilicia plum, quam membra : We ha 
invented more torturing instruments, than there he several members in a man's I 

Cyprian well observes. To come nearer yet, our own parents by their oSa 
indiscretion and intemperance, are our mortal enemies. **" The fathers have eaten 
sour grapes, and the children's teeth are set on edge." They cause our grief many 
times, and put upon us hereditary diseases, inevitable infirmities : they torment us, 
and we are ready to injure our posterity; 

» "mox daiurl progenlem vttioiforera." 



an 

le. 
n- 



. 



| " And yet tvilh crimes to til unknown. 

Our ton* thai) mark the coming age their own;" 

and the latter end of the world, as 5I Paul foretold, is still like to be the worst, We 
are tints bad by nature, bad by kind, but far worse by art, every man the greatest 
enemy unto himself. We study many times to undo ourselves, abusing those good 
gifts which God hath bestowed upon us, health, wealth, strength, wit, learning, art, 
memory to our own destruction, "Perditio lua ex te. As M Judas Mm died 

Apollonius with his own weapons, we arm ourselves to our own overthrows ; and 
use reason, art, judgment, all that should help us, as so many instruments to undo 
us. Hector gave Ajax a sword, which so long as he fought against enemies, served 
for hiB help and defence; but after he bpgan to hurt harmless creatures with it, turn- 
ed to his own h unless bowels. Those excellent means God hath bestowed on 
us, well employed, cannot but much avail us; but if otherwise perverted, they ruin 
ami confound us: and so by reason of our indiscretion and weakness they com- 
jonly do, we have too many instances. This St. Austin acknowledged! of hini- 
bIT in his humble confessions, 4 * promptness of wit, memory, elotpience, they were 
God's good gifts, but he did not use them to his glory." If you will particularly 
know how, and by what means, consult physicians, and they will tell you, that it is 
in offending in some of those six non-natural things, of which 1 shall * dilate mor 
at large ; they arc the causes of our infirmities, our surfeiting, and drunkenness, ou 

' It I ti-inin Input, homo bomini demon. I rvill. 9. *>IIor. I. 3. Od. 6. m S Tim. ill. S. 

> ii.nl Je Trut I. 5. lUrf. 8. « Mucenl acontta •> Em. xriil. Jl. Thy destruction l» rrow ibyttit 

■orerc*. «Ub.lEpUi.l.«dDooaiunj. »£m. [ "11 Mace. ill. 19, *Pwt. I. S«c. a. Meaib S, 



Subs. 2] 



Dtf. Aum. Div. of Diseases. 



«9 

insatiable lust, and prodigious riot Plurts crapula, quam gladius, is a 
the board consumes more than the sword. Our intemperance it is, that 
many several incurable diseases upon mir heads, that hastens ^old age, per- 
Ustnperatnre, and brings upon us sudden death. And last of all, thru which 
i most, is our own folly, madness [quos Jupiter perdU, demented ; by subtrac- 
' hi* assisting grace God permits it) weakness, want of government, our facility 
prontneaa in yielding to several lusts, in giving way to every passion and pertur- 
t muni : by which means we metamorphose ourselves and degenerate into 
All which that prince of "poets observed of Agamemnon, that wheu he was 
Pt raa cd, and could moderate his passion, he was — os oculosque Jovi par : like 
in feature, Mars in valour, Pallas in wisdom, another god ; but when he be- 
angry, he was a lion, a tiger, a dog, &.C., there appeared no sign or likeness of 
, so we, as long as we are ruled by reason, correct our inordinate ap- 
and conform ourselves to God's word, are as so many saints : but if we give 
lo lust, anger, ambition, pride, and follow our own ways, we degenerate into 
transform ourselves, overthrow our constitutions, *' provoke God to anger, 
•nap upon us this of melancholy, and all kinds of incurable diseases, as a jusl 
vt& 0(-»rrn«i punishment of our sin?. 

Srastc. II. — The Dejinitioru, Number, Division of Diseases. 

W a at a disease is, almost every physician defines. Ternelius calleth it an 

of the body contrary to nature." "Fusrhius and Crato, » an liinderance, 

hart, or alteration of any action of the body, or part of it." a Tholosanus, " a dis- 

i>( that league which is between body and soul, and a perturbation of it ; as 

perfection, and makes to the preservation of it" " Labeo in Agellius, " an 

I habit of the body, opposite to nature, hindering the use of it" Others otherwise, 

d id thin rflrrt. 

Diseases.] How many diseases there are, is a question not yet deter- 

iv reckons up 300 from the crown of the head to the sole of the foot : 

•uith, morborum infinite multiludo, their number is infinite, llowso- 

it was tn those tunes, it boots not ; in our days I am sure the number is much 



ilrd: 



» " nuclei, el no»» Obnum 

Tern* Incubil cohort." 



besides many epidemical diseases unheard of, and altogether unknown to Galen 
Hippocrates, as scorbutum, small-pox, plica, sweating sickness, morbus Gallicus, 
«r have many proper and peculiar almost to every part. 

from some Disease or other.] No man amongst us so sound, of so 
I hath not some impediment of body or mind. Quisquc suos 
nanrs, we have all our infirmities, first or last, more or less. There will 
Hen lure in an age, or one of a thousand, like Zenophilus the musician in 
uiv ' yi'ily live 105 years without any manner of impediment; a Pol- 
-erve himself Mu with wine and oil;" a man as fortunate 
rius so much brags; a man as healthy as Otto llerwsr- 
a «<natnr of Augsburg in Germany, whom "Leovilius the astrologer brings in 
a rtamplr and instance of certainty in his art ; who because he had the sign* 
• ! I'orti , and free from the hostile aspects of Saturn and Mars, 
Id man, " u could not remember Uiat ever he was sick." "Paracel- 
aay brig that he could make a man live 400 years or more, if he might bring 
diet him as he list; and some physicians hold, that 
h no certain ; nan's life; but it may still by temperance and physic 



>n«*ciiia cat vm 



te r>i.i> ilitot ei*« wiiem. 

lll\ll«, injlu- 
* luijut«i.. !i (Ijiiiu. . ( iiT rilTinea ponai 
I Mor. 
- f. ■ : 1 1 contra. tialNMin COfBSlI ISStSta 

III villi- 
~ [liWtlllllO ftlMjvi '!< <«- 

Ik 4 r«p 1 M.,fl..i. 
naiuram, qui u>uui c|u», fc.c 

n2 



"Cup, It. lib 7. "Hnmi. lib. J.odea "Em. 

cimirin, and n now cohort of fovrrs hrrmd* oter lb* 
t-arlti." T Centum et .iiiini|ue 

villi anno* »Uie ollii mrnirimoi'o *• ln!U« muliO, 

f«r»§ oleo. ■Exempli* een it ur. pra-fm- nphemer. 
M0.6a innrmltil. ■ Qui. «] n ...» .1 paeillia uliniian 

inrinniiaiii recurdurl point nun tuvniinit te ajfotuo 
u.'cuuuiMC. • Lib. de »na Ionia 



LANL LIBRARY. STANFORD UU^tiCSftl 



90 



Div. of the Diseases of the Head. 



[Part. I. Sect 



'Tli' earth'* full of maladin, anil full the tea, 
Which tec upon uj belli by night and day." 



be prolonged. We find in the meantime, by common experience, that no man can 
escape, but that of w Hesiod is true : 

Ns:ir»/J" ari(t*Til in is' ipiq>; 'J 'Ti MTI 

Division of Diseases.] If you require a more exact division of those ordinary 
disease? which are incident to nun, 1 refer you to physicians; 70 they will tell y>u 
of acute and chronic, first and secondary, lethalcs, sal marcs, errant, fixed, mi 
compound, connexed, or consequent, belonging to parti or the whole, in habit, or 
in disposition, &c. My division at this tune (as most befitting my porpuee) shall 
be into those of the body and mind. For them of the body, a brief catalogue of 
which Fuscbius hath made, Institut. lib. 3, sect. 1, cap. 11. I refer you to the vo- 
luminous tomes of Galen, Areteus, Rhasis, Avicenna, Alexander, Paulus jKtius, G<>r- 
Jonerius : ami those exact Neolerics, Savanarola, Copivaccius, Donalus Altomarus, 
Hercules de Saxonia, Mcrcurialis, Victorius Fpwnlinua. Wecker, Piso, 8tc, that have 
methodically and elaborately written of thein all. Those of the mind and head I 
will briefly handle, and apart. 

Subsect. III.— Division of live Diseases of the Head. 

Tiii-.se diaaaaaa of the mind, forasmuch as they have their chief seat and organs 
in the bead, which are commonly repeated amongst the diseases of the head which 
arc divers, and vary much according to their site. For in the head, as there be 
several parts, so there be divers grievances, which according to that division of 
''Heurnius, ' v which he takes out of Arculanus,) are inward or outward (to omit all 
others which pertain to eyes and ears, nostrils, gums, teeth, mouth, pal 
tongue, uesi 1, chops, face, &c.) belonging properly to the brain, as bal da B8; (ailing 
of hair, liuikire, lice, &.c. T2 Inwnrd belonging to the skins next to the brain, called 
dura and iiia mater, as all head-aches, Stc, or to the ventricles, caules, kels, tunicles, 
creeks, and parts of it, and their passions, us caro, vertigo, incubus, apoplexy, falling 
sickness. The diseases of the nerves, cramps, stupor, convulsion, tremor, pal-y 
or belonging to the excrements of the brain, catarrhs, sneezing, rheums, distillate 
or else those that pertain lo the substance of the brain itself, in which are conceived 
phrensy, lethargy, melancholy, madness, weak memory, sopor, or CotnQ Vigilia tl 
vigil Coma. Out of these again I will single such as properly belong to the phan- 
tasy, or imagination, or reason itself, which 73 Laurentius calls the disease of the 
mind; and llildesheim, morbos imaginationis* aut rationis Iccsa, (diseases of the 
imagination, or of injured reason,} which are three or four in number, pbn 
madness, melancholy, dotage, and their kinds : aB liydrophohia, lycanihropia. Chorus 
$<ut<-!i titif morlri da-moniaci, {Si. Vitus's dance, possession of devils,) which I will 
briefly touch and point at, insisting especially in this of melancholy, as more eminent 
than the rest, and that through all his kinds, causes, symptoms, protfnosii* 
as Lonicerus hath done dc apoplexia^ and many other of such particular diseases. 
Not that 1 find fault with those which have written at this subject before, aa ' 
Fralensis, LfturentitM, Montahus, T. Bright, Slc, they have done Aery well in their 
heveral kinds and methods; yet lhal which one omits, another may haply see; that 
vhii h one contracts, another may enlarge. To conclude with "Seribaniua, H that 
which they had neglected, or profunctorily handled, we may more thoroughly ex- 
amine; that which (s obscurely delivered in them, may be perspicuously dilated anil 
amplified by us f and so made more familiar and easy for every man's capacity, and 
the common good, which is the chief end of my discourse. 

Si BIBOT. IV". — Dotage, Phrensy, Madness, Hydrophobia, Lycanthropia, Chorus 

sancti lili, Extasis. 

Delirium, Dotage.] Dotage, fatuity, or folly, is a common name to all the fol- 
lowing species, as some will have it. "Laurentius and "Altomarus comprehende 



*>Oper. et rllee. » Be« FtTMlfel Pntll. lib. 1.1 

in. 0. In, ll, it. Futchlm Inatll, 1 3. »fn I a. f, 
fy m. >>Pm(te.di norMa eaattte. fn 

capim hi Yarir habitant part**, J1B vnnir quiMi-lr ilii 
■ reiilunt. "«Of which read Ileurnlu*, Mi.nUI- 



lim, IliliWhpim. QiiTciian, Jaann Pi ii< i.-i«. 
n Cap. 4. de niehtnebol. T <Cup.a de Phiaiolog 

itifarum : Qiinri «ln minus rrclr (tin«i« ■: 
no* eiamlnnrc. mi>liu« diJudiCare, Mrrltert elude 
Biue. " Cap. 4. de tout. "Art. lied. T, 



I. Sub.. 4.] 



Diseases nf (he Mind. 






m 

melancholy, and the rest under this name, and call it the summum genus 
alt. If it be distinguished from tlieui, it is natural or ingenite, which comes 
aoaae drfeel of the organs, and over-much brain, as we see in our common fools; 
is for the moat part intended or remitted in particular men, and thereupon 

IT than others: or else it is acquisite, an appendix or symptom of soma Other 
which comes or goes; or if it continue, a sign of melancholy 
i] Pkrcnii*, which the Greeks derive from the word tp?>'; is a disease of 
mind, with s continual madness or dotage, which hath an acute fever annexed, 
an intlammatioti of the brain, or the membranes or kels of it, witli an acute 
Badness sad dotage. It differs from melancholy and madness, 
thnr is without an ague: this continual, with waking) 

red, kv-. Melancholy is most part silent, this clamorous-, and many such like 
are assigned by physicians. 

Madneas, phrensy, and melancholy are confounded by Celsus, and 

writ' ^ leave out phrensy, and make madness and melancholy but one 

\ "Jason Pratensis especially labours, and that they differ only sccun- 

majus or minus, in quantity alone, the one being a degree to the other, and both 

ling from one cause. They dilier Mienso et remism gradu, saiih "GofdflOhUj 

humour is intended or remitted. Of the same mind is "Arelcus, Alexander 

1 ■>. Savonarola, Heurnius; and Galen himself writes pro* 

m both by reason of their affinity: but most of our ncoterics do 

■art, when I will follow in this treat i-c Madness is therefore defined 

emeot dotage; or raring without a fever, fur more violent than melan- 

.', full of anger and clamour, horrible looks, actions, gestures, troubling the 

its with far greater Tc heman ey both of body and mind, without all fear and 

>w, with such impetuous force and boldness, that sometimes three or four men 

ill them. Differing only in this from phrensy, that it is without a fever, 

most part better. It hath the same causes as the other, as cluli r 

><l incensed, brains inllained. &.C. "Tnicastorius adds, "a due time, 

- definition, to distinguish it from children, and will have it con- 

o separate it Gram such as accidentally come and <j_ is by 

••trie, nightshade, wine, 8lc. Of this fury there be divers kind-; "ecstasy, 

> is fai.iih.ir with some persons, as Cardan sailh of himself, he could be in one 

he li»t; in which the Indian priests deliver their oracles, and the witches in 

as Olaus Magnus writeth, 1. 3, cap. 18. Evlasi omnia pradic- 

question* in an extasis you will ask ; what your friends do, where they ar> , ln>w 

ibis lurv are enthusiasms, revelations, and 

n mentioned by Gregory and Bedn in their works; obsession or pos- 

of devils, sibylline prophets, and poetical furies; such as come by eating 

herbs, tarantulas stinging, &c, which some reduce to this. The most known 

are the thropia, hydrophobia, chorus sancti viti. 

Lycimlkropin.) Lycanlhropia, which Avicenna calls Cucubuth, others Luptnam 
frsauam. hen men run howling about graves and fields in the 

webcam! i be persuaded but that they are wolves, or some such beasts. 

Pastas call Ua kind of melancholy; but I should rather refer it to 
medof, as most do. Some make a doubt of it whether there be any such disease 
"Dooat ab Altomari saitli, that he saw two of them in his time: "Wierus tells a 
sler. Padua 1541, that would not believe to the Contrary, bul that 

he was a wolf. He hath another instance of a Spaniard, who thought himself a 
hear; "Fotteetua ftffllfirmi as much by many examph •- ; OM amongst the re-t nt 
whsch he was an eye-witness, at Alcmaer in Holland, a poor husbandman that still 
heated about graves, and kept in churchyards, of a pale, black, ugly, and fearful 
boh. Such belike, or little better, were king Pnetus 1 "daughters, that thought 



so 




•Iringiint ho» 

I 
Mod 

• IssSJMI SSI, r|ui 

."Uni, l))'iu)>ini, aedcon- 



flrmatam hahrt Impolenliam b«?rie nprnntli rirra In- 

lelt . luui lib 2 de hllelleclinne. - Of will 

Folix Plater, cap. 3. de inenll* alienations 

6. cap. 11. ■' I.e.. 3. cap Id. 

mrd «De pneitif D»mnnum. I. i 

" Oberrmt. lib. 10. d« morbU cerebri, cap. 1 J. ' 

poeralea lib de InMnUl. 



li H . 



n 



Diseases of the Mind, 



[Part L Sec. 



themselves kine. And Nebuchadnezzar in Daniel, as some interpreters hold, 
only troubled with this kind of madness. This disease perhaps gave occasion 
that bold assertion of "Pliny, "some men were turned into wolves in his lime, ant] 
from wolves to men again :" and to that fable of Pausanias, of a man thai was 
years a wolf, and afterwards turned to his former shape ; to *° Ovid's tale of Lycaor 
&c. lie that is desirous to hear of this disease, or more examples, let him 
Austin in his 1 8th book de Civitate Dei, cap. 5. Mizaldus, cent. 5. 77. Sckenkuu, 
lib. 1. Hildesheim, spicel. 2. de Mania. Forrestus lib. I0.de morbis cerebri. Ola 
Magnus, I'iuccnfitis' Bellaviccnsis, spec. met. lib. 31. c. 122. Pierius, Bodine 
Zuinger. Zeilger, Peucer, Wierus, Spranger, &c. This malady, saith Avicenna, inn 

bletli i ni'isi iu 1'ehruarv, and is now-a-days frequent in Bohemia and Hungary, 

according to "Heurnius. Schemitzius will have it common in Livonia. They lie 
hid most part all day, and go abroad in the night, barking, howling, at graves 
deserts; B ' u ihey have usually hollow eyes, scabbed legs and thighs, very dry an<: 
pale," "saith Altomarus; he gives a reason there of all the symptoms, and 
down | briil cure of them. 

Hij<!>ii}>)inl>iii is a kind of madness, well known in every village, which cornea by 
the biting of a mad dog, or scratching, saith w Aurelianus; touching, or smelling 
alone soni<tiii;es as 9, Sckenkius proves, and is incident to many other creature* 
well as men : so called because the parties affected cannot endure the sight of water, 
or any liquor, supposing still they see a mad dog in it. And which is more wonder 
ful; though they be very dry, (as in this malady they are) they will rather die lha 
drink : ' Cx-lius Aureliauus, an ancient writer, makes a doubt whether this Hydro- 
phobia be a passion of the body or the mind, The pari afleclcd is the brain : the 
cause, poison that comes from the mad dotj, which is so hot and dry, that it con- 
sumes all the moisture in the body. "Hildesheim relates of some that died so mad; 
and being cut up, had no water, scarce blood, or any moisture left in ihem. To 
such as are 6o aMecled. the fear of water begins at fourteen days after they are bitten, 
to some again not till forty or sixty days after: commonly saith Hetiniius, thej 
begin to rave, fly water and glasses, to look red, and swell in the face, about twenty 
days after i if some remedy M not taken in tin* meantime) to lie awake, to be pet 
m, ndj to see strange visions, to bark and howl, to fall into a swoon, and ofter 
times lits of the falling sickness. r Sutne sa\% little things like whelps will be se 
in their urine. If any of these signs appear, they are past recovery. Many times 
these symptoms will not appear till six or seven months after, saith ""Codronchus; 
and sometimes not till seven or eight years, as Guianerius; twelve as Albertus ; six 
or eight months after, as Galen holds. Baldus the great lawyer died of it: an Au- 
gustine friar, and ■ woman in Delft, that were "Forrestus patients, were miserably 
consumed with it. The common cure in the country (for such at least as dwell 
near the sea-side) is to duck them over head and ears in sea water ; some use charms : 
every good wife can prescribe medicines. But the best cure to be had in such cases, 
is Rom the most approved physicians; they that will read of them, may consult 
with Dioscorides, lib. 6. c. 37, Heurnius, Hildeshcim,Capivacrius, Forrestus. Seken- 
kiu>. and before all others Codronchus an Italian, who hath lately written two ex- 
quisite hooks on the subject. 

i " i ttmeti i i>i, or St. Vitus** dance ; the lascivious dance, '""Paracelsus calls it, 
because they that are taken from it, can do nothing but dance till they be dead, or 
cured. It is so called, for that the parlies so troubled were wont to go to St. Vitus 
for help, and alter they had danced there awhile, they were 'certainly freed. Tis 
■tmgt to hear how long they will dance, and in what manner, over stools, lorms, 
tables; even great bellied women sometimes (and yet never hurl their children) will 
dance so long that they can stir neither hand nor foot, but seem to be quite dead. 
One in red clothes they cannot abide. Music above all things they love, and there- 
ire magistrates in Germany will hire musicians to play to them, and some lustj 
inly companions to dance with them. This disease hath been very common 





! I. lb. S cap 2S Hnminea inti-rdum lupoi On; el 

im'ra. "Mm. lib. I. - Cup. de Man. 

HfHI cr in V »||U i|>»l« nde«t linwodica, pnlljdl, Imjn.i 

■kca. >'( *p. 0. art. Hydrnpbobis. *Llb. 1. 

up 9 "Lit. 7. da Veneiila. K Lib. 3. cap. 



13. de tnnrbis oculta. "Spicel. », « Sckrnkiuf, 

7 hl>. dr Venenka. f|,ih de llydii'plmbi i <*Ob> 

pi-ivjiL. lib IU. 4J. "» L.T»Livnin 1 lnurnm To. 4. 

de iikvIil. .iinrmium, Tract. I, ' Kvcntu u< pl*» 

rlnium rem ip«a<n coniprobame. 



1. Sobs. 5.] 



Melancholy in Disposition. 



93 



r, a* appears by those relations of * Sckcnkius, and Paracelsus in his book 

who brags how many several persons he hath cured of it. Felix 

•Jr mentis aliened, cap. 3, reports of a woman in Basil whom he saw, that 

rbole month together. The Arabians call it a kind of palsy. Bodim- in 

5th book <U Repub. cap. 1, speaks of this infirmity; Monavius in his last epistl* 

i Sroltixms. and in another to Dudithus, where you may read more of it 

Tbe last kind of madness or melancholy, is that demonaical (if I may so call it) 

or possession of devils, which Platerus and others would have to be pre- 

: stupend things are said of them, their actions, gestures, contortions, 

j, pmphtsying, speaking languages they were never taught, 6lc. Many strange 

are related of them, which because some will not allow, (for Deacon and 

hove wnu>n large volumes on this subject pro and con.) 1 voluntarily omit. 

1 Fiachios, Institut. lib. 3. sec. 1. cap. 1 1, Felix Plater, *Laurentius, add to theoe 

v that proceeds from love, and another from study, another divine or re 

fttry ; but these more properly belong to melancholy ; of all which I will 

, * apart, intending to write a whole book of them. 

Scatter. V. — Melancholy in Disposition, improperly so called, Equivocations. 

Mkla^ciiolv, the subject of our present discourse, is either in disposition or 

In disposition, is that transitory melancholy which goes and comes upon 

moll occasion of sorrow, need, sickness, trouble, fear, grief, passion, or per- 

tubatioa of the mind, any manner of care, discontent, or thought, which causeth 

dulness, heaviness and vexation of spirit, any ways opposite to pleasure, 

, joy, delight, causing frowardness in us, or a dislike. In which equivocal and 

sense, we call him nu-lancholy that M dull, sad, sour, lumpish, ill disposed, 

r, any way moved, or displeased. And from these melancholy dispositions, 

living is free, no stoic, none so wise, none so happy, none so patient, so 

godly, so divine, that can vindicate himself; so well composed, but 

or 1m*, some time or other hi- fall the smart of it. Melancholy in this sense 

tbe character of mortality. T|,4 Man that is bom of a woman, is of short con- 

, aad full of trouble." Zeno, Cato, Socrates himself, whom *;Eliuu so highly 

i moderate temper, that M nothing could disturb him, but going out, 

i coating in, still Socrates kept the same serenity of countenance, what misery 

befrl him,' 1 , if we may believe Plato his disciple) was much tormented with 

whom 'Valerius gives instance of all happiness, "the most for- 

•i. 4, born in that most flourishing city of Rome, of noble parentage, 

ai II qualified, healthful, rich, honourable, a senator, a coo- 

•L happv ippy in his children," kc. yet this man was not void of 

. he had sorrow. '"Polycrates Samiua, that flung his ring 

Ota the sen, because he would participate of discontent with others, and had it 

atnrulou-lv restored to him again shortly after, by a fish Liken as he angled, was 

M free from melancholy dispositions. No man can cure himself; the very gods 

pangs, and frequent passions, as their own "poets put upon them. In 

0a *s the heaven, so is our life, sometimes fair, sometimes overcast, tnii- 

and serene; as in a rose, flowers and prickles; in the year itself, a tempo- 

-. n hard winter, a drought, and then again pleasant showers : 

is our bfe intermixed with joys, hopes, fears, sorrows, calumnies : Invicem cvdui** 

et voluplas, there is a succession of pleasure and pain. 

" "medio it f»nlr lepdrum 

Surg II smart aliqui.l, in I rum riiiribut a rural." 

■ Eva in the midst of laughing there is sorrow," (as M Solomon holds) : even in the 



*. Mmn 

« d» 



■WD l»rfl*»l, • 



•Cap. 3. dr ni«nti« 
M'ART. 3. 



i MSm nits rtdert, 
yrvdcreiur. - L H. . 

umIm srt»M i 

• buil «t rarta- 
' ■ m, pudican, 



IVHcea lib«rn«, coniularr decua, lequTjlri trnimphn«, 
*c. ••Allan. 'i ilimier Iliad. ' I l(i«lu«L 

rml 3 ep. 45, ul cflr>lum, ale n<>« lioin'neaffimiia : Ulna 
n intrrralio nuhihui obWurunr et nb>rtirunir la 
ri>tarln AWei iplnlc Intt rml in. Vila annilui ai>r 
BSSJS nvutn, ludum, lempeataa, acrenllaa : 11a *le« 
renim fiint, pnrmia gaudua. rt teqtiaces turw 1 1 >i 

I 4. 1194. "Pro*, xiv. 13. Extr 

gaudii luclu ocenpu. 



Melanclioly in Disposition. 



[Part. l.Sec 1 



midst of all our feasting and jollity, as "Austin infers in his Cora, on the 4 1st Psalm, 
Chare is grief and discontent. Inter delicias semper aliquid secvi nos strangiilat, for 
a pint of" honey thou shall here likely find a gallon of gall, for a dram of pleasure a 
pound of paid) for an inch of mirth an til of moan ; as ivy doth an oak, these mise- 
ries encompass our life. And it is most absurd and ridiculous for any mortal man 
to look for a perpetual tenure of happiness in his life. Nothing so prosperous and 
pleasant, but it hnlh '•some bitterness in it, some complaining, some grudging; it is 
all yfefxirtucpor, a mixed passion, and like a chequer table black and white : men. fami- 
lies., cities, have their fulls and wanes; now trines, sextiles, then quartiles and opp»i- 
sitions. We are not here as those angels, celestial powers and bodies, sun and moon, 
to finish ourconr.se without all offence, with such constancy, to continue for so many 
ages : but subject to infirmities, miseries, interrupted, tossed and tumbled up and 
down, carried about with every small blast, often molested and disquieted upon each 
slender occasion, "uncertain, brittle, and so is all. that we trust unto. ""And he 
that knows not this is not armed to endure it, is not fit to live in this world (as oM 
condoles our time), he knows not the condition of it, where with a reciproc 
pleasure and pain are still united, and succeed one another in a ring." Exi e mutitlo, 
get thee gone hence if thou canst not brook it; there is no way to EVOtd it, but to 
ami thyself with patience, with magnanimity, to ls oppose thyself unto it, to suffer 
affliction as a good soldier of Christ; as "Paul adviseth constantly to bear it. But 
forasmuch as so few can embrace this good council of his, or use it aright, but 
rather as so many brute beasts give away to their passion, voluntary subject and 
precipitate themselves into a labyrinth of cares, woes, miseries, and suffer thei] ■oak 
to be overcome by them, cannot arm themselves with that patience as they ought 10 
do, it falleth out oftentimes that these dispositions become habits, and "many a 
Contemned (as* 1 Seneca notes) make a disease. Even as one distillation, not yet 
grown to custom, makes a cough; but continual and inveterate causclh a consump- 
tion of the lungs;' 1 so i!o these OUT melancholy provocations : and according U 
humour itself is intended, or remitted in men, as their temperature of body, or ra- 
tional soul is better able to make resistance; so are they more or less affected. For 
that which is but a flea-biting to one, caused) insufferable torment to another ; and 
which one by his singular moderation, and well-composed carriage can happily over- 
come, u MCond is no whit able to sustainJmt upon every small occasion of miscon- 
ceived abuse, injury, grief, disgrace, loss, cross, humour, &.c. (if solitary, or idle) 
yields so far to passion, that his complexion is altered, his digestion hindered, his 
sleep gone, his spirits obscured, and his heart heavy, his hypochondries misaffectf d ; 
wind, crudity, on a sudden overtake him, and he himself overcome with melancholy. 
As it is with a man imprisoned for debt, if once in the gaol, every creditor will 
bring his action against him, and there likely hold him. If any discontent seize 
Dpon n patient; ID an instant all other perturbations (for — qitd data porta ruunl) will 
set upon him, and then like a lame dog or broken-winged goose he droops and pinea 
away, and is brought at last to that ill habit or malady of melancholy itself. So that 
as the philosophers make "eight degrees of heat and cold, we may make eighty- 
eight of melancholy, as the parts ulleeted are diversely seized with it, or have been 
plunged more or less into this infernal gulf, or waded deeper into it. But all these 
melancholy fits, howsoever pleasing at first, or displeasing, violent and tyrannizing 
over those whom they seize on for the time; yet these fits 1 say, or men affected, 
are but improperly so called, because they cmiiinue not, but come and go, as by 
some objects they are moved. This melancholy of which we are to treat, is a habit, 
nwjlnix snnticus, or chronictis, a chronic or continual" disease, a settled humour, as 



"Natatilia inqull relebranliir, nuplis lilr aunt ; at 
Ibl quid celebrntiir n.und nnn dole l. quod nnn uonalt 1 
" ApulriiiH I ImUi Nihil i| nncjiitd rtouitnl t»m prim- 
pi-rum Alvimtil* daiiim, quni r\ aniiililuni >|| illiquid 
diflkiiltatie "it 01 i ii in ani|ili»*ima quuqua IzliliU, sulmll 
quft'plniu vet parva qurrlrnonU eoiijujalione quadam 
Bnellla, et frlllt. ' l.iiliiQ nimlruni el fruRili.i, el 

purnliliuK cnn>cnUrei> crepundii* cunt i-ttt qun- vires 
: 1 11 in -i me vnraniur. nrtliniiil • iitnlti. repcnlede- 
labiiulur, nullo In loco, nulla In poraona, alAbiliuu* 
nlxa radicibui consilium, >r-d iiicrrtimmo flaiu fut- 
uae quoa In iublime exiulecum improvUo recumu 



desiinno* Id profundi) tnl»eriarum valle raiaer 
tSkBtrfllDL Vulrrliis, lib. 6. cap. II. '* lluie 

■eculn pnrum aptua c*, nut pontia omnium nostrorura 
cnndillonem irjnoraa. qulbus reciprm quodaMD nnn, 
&f Lnrrhanu* Oollobclgicua, lib. 3. ad annum IMS. 
'» llonum omnia studia diriei debeiit. ut human* Ibr- 
tlt.-r nramua. »2Tim. II. 3. •' Kpiat. Ud lib. IS 
Aflerlii* frequentei rnntemptique ninrlium I 
lllaiillnlin una ner ndliuc In niorem til 
facil, anaidua el violent* plbiaim. lum ad 

oelo: frigidum ad oclo. Una htrundo nun tacit 
calatem. 






. 2.] Digression of Anatomy. 95 

and "others call it. not errant, but fixed ; and as it was long increase 
»g (pleasant, or painful) grown to an habit, it will hardly be removed. 



SECT. I. MEMB. II. 

Subject. I. — Digression of Anatomy. 

Bcroitc I proceed i<> define the disease of melancholy, what it is, or to discourse 

of ii, I hold it not impertinent to make a brief digression of the anatomy of 

body and faculties of the soul, for the better understanding of that which is to 

because many hard words will often occur, as myrache, hvpoeondries, 

imagination, reason, humours, spirits, vital, natural, animal, nerves, 

arteries, rhvlus pituita; which by die vulgar will not so easily be pert-rived, 

• cited, and to what end they serve. And besides, it may perad- 

gi?e occasion to s..me men to examine more accurately, search further into 

■osrt excellent subject, am! thereupon with that royal ^prophet to praise God, 

a man is fearfully and wonderfully made, and curiously wrought") that have 

rand leisure enough, and are sufficiently informed in all otherworldly businesses, 

make a good bargain, boy and sell, to keep and make choice of a fair hawk, 

-se, &.c But for such matters as concern the knowledge of themselves, 

arc wholly ignorant and careless; they know not what this body and soul are, 

, of wh.it parts and faculties they consist, or how a man differs from a 

And what can be more ignominious and filthy (as "Melancthon well inveighs) 

nan not lo know the structure and composition of his own body, espe- 

owledge of it tends so much to the preservation of hit 1 health, and 

f In- ; ' To stir them up therefore to this study, to peruse 

rkl of •"'Galen, Bauhines, Plater, Vesalius, FalopfOR, Laurentius, 

. which have written copiously in Latin; or that which some of our 

countrymen have done in our mother tongue, not long since, as that 

of "Columbus and "Microcosmographia, in thirteen hooks, I have made 

nef digression. Also because "Wecker, '.Mi'lainthun, *-'Fernclius, "Fuschius, 

liiim/r (which have more compendiously handled and 

of this matter, i are not at all times ready to be had, to give them some small 

or noli'*- of flu ret, lei this epitome suffice. 

~*ect. II. — Division of the Body, Humours^ Spirits. 

the parts of the body there may be many divisions j the most approved is that 
■f u Lattfrottus, • ■ T of Hippocrates : which is, into parts contained, or containing. 
0— isiiml, are either humours or spirits. 

\ humour is a liquid or fluent part of the body, comprehended in 
the preservation of it; and is either innate or born with us, or adventitious 
<J aequisittr. The radical or innate, is daily supplied by nourishment, which 
call . and make those secondary humours of ros and gluten to inain- 

. to maintain these four first primary humours, coming and pro- 
oction in the liver, by which means chylus is excluded. 
»d* th irootable and excrementilious. But *Crato out of Hippo- 

liavo all lour to be juice, and not excrements without which no living 
ran I*? sustained : which four, though they he comprehended in the mass 
their several affections, by which they are distinguished 
« another, and from those adventitious, peccant, or * diseased humours, as 
ioo calls them. 
W.l Blood is a hot, sweet, temperate, red humour, prepared in the mHcraie 
ana made of the most temperate parts of the chylus in the liver, whoee office 




"FoKhtui, I J. »*c. 1. cup. 7. 

1». "I'ttl. mil 13. *I)e 

■!■ wl hooiuii ieDorme tui rncponit 

i vrfituiurn. prcMHim cum ad vilciuili- 

iwii —w «fnWk> ptarlamm cotnlacat. *> ]>e 



mo pirt. »Hi«tary of man. ■ 0. « 

ntUj. "Ue Annua. "Iii«i. 

» Physiol. I. I, 8. MiLMLI. 1. C t8. » 

Minn, lucent, its* quibm animal aualeulari nun \ 
Ml. • Mortioiui tiumotu. 



98 Similar Parts, [Part t. See. . 

is to nourish the whole body, to five it strength and colour, being dispersed by the 
veins through every part of it And from it spirits are first begotten in the heart, 
which afterwards by the arteries are communicated to the other parts. 

Pituita, or phlegm, is a cold and moist humour, begotten of the colder part of 
the chylus (or white juice coming out of the meat digested in the stomach,) in the 
liver ; his office is to nourish and moisten the members of the body, which as the 
tongue are moved, that they be not over dry. 

Choler, is hot and dry, bitter, begotten of the hotter parts of the chylus, and 
gathered to the gall : it helps the natural heat and senses, and serves to the expelling 
of excrements. 

Melancholy] Melancholy, cold and dry, thick, black, and sour, begotten of the 
more feculent part of nourishment, and purged from the spleen, is a bridle to the 
other two hot humours, blood and choler, preserving them in the blood, and nourish- 
ing the bones. These four humours have some analogy with the four elements, and 
to the four ages in man. 

Serum, Sweat, Tears] To these humours you may add serum, which is the 
matter of urine, and those excrementitioua humours of the third concoction, sweat 
and tears. 

Spirits.] Spirit is a most subtile vapour, which is expressed from the blood, and 
the instrument of the soul, to perform all his actions ; a common tie or medium 
between the body and the soul, as some will have it ; or as " Paracelsus, a fourth 
soul of itself. Melancthon holds the fountain of those spirits to be the heart, be- 
gotten there ; and afterward conveyed to the brain, they take another nature to 
them. Of these spirits there be three kinds, according to the three principal parts, 
brain, heart, liver ; natural, vital, animal. The natural are begotten in the liver, and 
thence dispersed through the veins, to perform those natural actions. The vital 
spirits are made in the heart of the natural, which by the arteries are transported to 
all the other parts : if the spirits cease, then life ceaseth, as in a syncope or swoon- 
ing. The animal spirits formed of the vital, brought up to the brain, and diffused by 
the nerves, to the subordinate members, give sense and motion to them all. 

Sobsect. llls-rSimilar Parts. 

Similar Paris.] Containing parts, by reason of their more solid substance, are 
either homogeneal or heterogeneal, similar ot dissimilar ; so Aristotle divides them, 
lib. 1, cap. 1, de Hist. Animal.; Laurentius, cap. 20, lib. 1. Similar, or homogeneal, 
are such as, if they be divided, are still severed into parts of the same nature, as 
water into water. Of these some be spermatical, some fleshy or carnal. M Spermati- 
cal are such as are immediately begotten of the seed, which are bones, gristles, liga- 
ments, membranes, nerves, arteries, veins, skins, fibres or strings, fat 

Bones.] The bones are dry and hard, begotten of the thickest of the seed, to 
strengthen and sustain other parts: some say there be 304, some 307, or 313 in 
man's body. They have no nerves in them, and are therefore without sense. 

A gristle is a substance softer than bone, and harder than the rest, flexible, and 
serves to maintain the parts of motion. 

Ligaments are they that tie the bones together, and other parts to the bones, with 
their subserving tendons : membranes' office is to cover the rest 

Nerves, or sinews, are membranes without, and full of marrow within ; they pro- 
ceed from the brain, and carry the animal spirits for sense and motion. Of these 
some be harder, some softer ; the softer serve the senses, and there be seven pair of 
them. The first be the optic nerves, by which we see ; the second move the eyes ; 
the third pair serve for the tongue to taste; the fourth pair for the taste in the 
folate ; the fifth belong to the ears ; the sixth pair is most ample, and runs almost 
over ill the bowels ; the seventh pair moves the tongue. The harder sinews serve 
for the motion of the inner parts, proceeding from the marrow in the back, of whom 
there be thirty combinations, seven of the neck, twelve of the breast, &c 

Arteries.] Arteries are long and hollow, with a double skin to convey the vital 
spirit ; to discern which the better, they say that Vesalius the anatomist was wont 

" Spirtuli* uim. ■Lammtfaa.cap.D.bk. 1. Aaafc 




Dissimilar Parts. 



97 



fruts\d Vma 

. i 
W*k 



to tot op rorn alive. "They arise in the left side of the heart, and are principally 
two, from which the rest are derived, aorta and venosa : aorta is the root of all the 
'. which »erve the whole body, the other goes to the lungs, to fetch air to 
the heart. 

• ; I < • w and round, like pipes, arising from thp liver, carrying 
■taral sp . feed all the parts. Of these there be two chut, \ "vna 

.!. Thai I'rna p<irt<i is a vein 

of the liver, and receiving th< by wl i 

stomach and guts, and conveys it to thr liver. The 
liver to nourish all the other dispersed members. The 
tnsehea of that Venn porta are the meseraical and haemorrhoids*. The brunches 
of the rata are inward or outward. Inward, seminal or eimilgent. Outward, in the 
bud, arm«. feet, flic . ami have several names. 

fiwir. Fat, Fltxh.) Kibra? are strings, white and solid, dispersed through the 

view member, and right, oblique, transverse, all which have their several uses. 

» similar part, moist, without blood, composed of the most thick, and mo 

tattsnatti >od. The 4 °skin covers the rest, and hath cuticulum, ora little 

it Flesh is soft und ruddy, composed of the congealing of blood, kc. 

ScnsECT. IV. — Dissimilar Paris. 

LiR part* are those which we call organical, or instrumental, and they be 

" or ootward. Tin iQtward parts an- situate forward or baokward : — 

the erOWfl rind fon-top of the head, skull, face, forehead, temples, rJiin, eyes,. 

. npjHT and lower part of the belly, hypooood 

. flank, J*c. ; backward, the hinder part of the head, back, shoulders, f^'tiici., 

rnr«, on samim, buttocks, he Or joints, arms, hands, feet, legs, throbs, 

>th, which, because they are obvious and well known, 

rardesaly n ; racijma cl grandiota tantum ; quod reliqmm ex 

if anfia t ircipial. 

I parts, which cannot be seen, are divers in number, am? have 
and divisions ; but that of ''I^aurentius is most notable, into 
a. Of the noble there be three principal parts, to which all the 
lerve — brain, heart, liver; according to whosvefte, three 
:vi lull! division, is made of the whole body. As lirst of the head, ut 
ed, and brain itself, which by his nerves give 
rest, and is, as it were, a privy counsellor and chancellor 
*6e heart, ind region is the chest, or middle belly, in which the heart 

••king keeps his court, and by his arteries communicates life to the whole body. 
- the lower belly, in which the liver resides as a Lrgnl a latere^ 
vsa the rot of those natural organs, serving for concoction, nourishment, expelling 
•feirrrnvnt* Tl '.niched from the upper by the inninii; <>r 

fcfbragma* and is tobdivid is into three concavities or n 

The upper of the hypocondries, in whose right side is 
the spleen; from which is denominated hypochondriacal melan- 
lecotn m-I ami tlnnks. divided from the first by the rim. The 

livided into three other jwiri -*. The Ara- 
H pan 'gion, Epigastrium ami ffypegattrhtm* upper or lower. 

i comes Mirachialis Melancholia, *orne- 
iuned of tl ■• several regions I will treat in brief apart; und 

^rans are contained. 
wrf.- i, .Yatural Oman*.} But you that are readers in 

nghl into some sacred temple, or n 
palace »•» ** >! i matter only, but the singular 

•••rknian»hip. a nut Creator. And it is a pleasant and 

speculation, if it i • ed ju iltIi t /' The parts of this region, vchich 



Mlbe]ang,and err. 
the ■ 



taasMk* 

QfiftMtmm 







I'UlM. 
. hi !M"inm 
il III) I 



Unlcn nr.il oilicri. o Von Tcio vlnll In I 

ludilam to* duel [>u\ti\», 4.' . 
cl tilllu tOgSi 



*u°J 



r Part. I. Sec. 



present themselves to your consideration and view, ire such as serve to nutrition 

Mil. Those of nutrition serve to the first or second cODCOCtion; as 
esophagus or gullet, which brim:* meal :wi<l drink into the stomach. The vent 
cle or stomach, which is seated in the midst of that par" ol' the belly beneath 
midriff, the kitchen, as it were, of the. first concoction, and which turns our me 
into chylus. It hath tWO mouths, ofM above, motto beneath. The upper | 

ken for the stomach itself; the* lower and nether door (u Wicker calk it) 
nnm< d IMorus. This stomach is sustained by a large kell or kaull, called oinentur 
which MiiM' will have the same willi peritoneum, or run of the belly. From the 
Stomach to the verv tinnlauient are produced the <ruts,or inlcslina, which serve a little 

t and distribute the chylus, and convey auny the excrements. Tliev mi 
vided into small and great, by reason of their site and substance, slender or thicker: 
the slender is duodenum, or whole ffiK, which is next lo the stomach, some twi he 
mi bi- lontr, sailh 4i Fuschius. Jejunum, or empty ntj eontinuate to the other, which 
hath many meseraic veins annexed to it, which take part of the chylus to the liver 
from it. Ilion the third, which consists of many crinkles, which serves with the rest 
. keep, and distribute the chylus from the stomach. The thick guts are 
three, tiie blind gut, colon, and right gWt, The blind is a thick and short got, having 
one mouth, in which the ilion and colon meet: it receives the excrements, and con- 
ibeia lo the colon. This colon hath many windings, that tlie excrements pas* 
not away too fast : the right gut is straight, and conveys the excrements to the funda- 
ment, whQM louer put is bound up with certain muscles called sphincters, that the 
i •xcreinents may he the better contained, until such time as a man be willing to go to 
the stool. In the midst of these guts is situated ihe mesentenum or niiilrill'. compoJed 
of many veins, arteries, and much fat, serving chiefly to sustain the guts. All these 
parts serve the first concoction. To the second, which is busied either in refining tlw 
good nourishment or expelling the bad, is chiefly belonging the Uver, like in colour 
i. i .tiirealed blood, the shop of blo*xl, situate in I lit- right hypercondry, in fig 
like lo a hall-moon — Otnerotttm wrmhrnni Ueltncthon styles it, a (eoeroufl part; 
serves lo turn the chylus to blood, lor the nourishment of the bo<ly. The exc 
of it are either choleric or watery, which the other subordinate pails couvt 
The gall placed in the concave i £ the liver, extracts choler to it : the spleen. melu 
iholy ; which is situate on the left side, over against the liver, a spungy matter, tli 
draws this black choler to it by a secret virtue, and feeds upon it, conveying the 
lest to the bottom of the stoinach, to stir up appetite, or else to the guts as an ex- 
crement. That watery matter the two kidneys expurgate by lho.se emulgciit vein* 
and ureters. Tlie cniulgeiitdraw this superfluous moisture from the blood; the U 
ureters convey it to the bladder, which, by reason of his site in the lower belly, 
apt lo receive it, having two parts, neck and bottom : the bottom holds the wat 
the in tatrJBgeu with a muscle, which, us a porter, keeps the water 

ning out against our will. 

~tl • a id icrs of generation are common to both sexes, or peculiar to one; which, 

use they are impertinent to my purpose, 1 do voluntarily omit. 
Middle Region.] Next in order is the middle region, or chest, which compre- 
hends the vital faculties and parts; which (as I have said) is separated from 
lower belly by the diaphragmu or midriff, which is a skin consisting of manv Bi 
ntembrani - ; and amongst other uses it hath, is the instrument of laughinc. There is 
also a certain thin membrane, full of sinews, which covereth the whole chest within, 
and is called pleura, the seat of the disease called pleurisy, when it is inflamed ; 
add ■ third skin, which is termed Mediaslinus, which divides the cheat into two 
parts, ritrlit ami left; of tins region the principal part is the heart, which is ih 
and fountain of life, of heat, of spirits, of pulse and respiration — the sun of "u 
body, the king and sole commander of it — the seat and organ "I all paei 
aheciions. Primum pt'pens, ultinuim morkns, it lives first, dies last in all i 
Of a pyramidical form, and not much unlike to a pine-apple; a part worthy of ^i 
nitration, that can yield such variety of affections, by whose motion it is dilated 
contracted, to stir and command the humours in the body. As in sorrow, mela 




SJDJ 

ma- 
tch, 

pre- 

rr> i« 



•"Lib. I. cap. 11 »ect. 5. 
putdigna udniiri 'lone, quod la' 



«Ilcr rn etl prrri- I ri<-mr cor, qmxl mniiei retrUlei el leUc iniiiin cord* 
•mm validate leriv.nl et movent. 






•.] 



Anatomy of the Soul. 



in j'\v, to send ili<- blood outwardly ; ia sorrow, la rail it 
ijr the humours, as horses do a chariot. Tin* heart, though it I 

may be divided into two creeks right and left. The ri<rhi w like the 
inrrrastng, bigger than the other part, and receives blood from Pi n.i c 
omt- of n to die limps to nourish them; the rest to die left til • 
spirits. The left creek hath the form of a cone, and is the seat of life, 
as a torch doth oil, draws blood unto it, begetting of it spirits and fin 
r in a ■ are spirits in die blood; and by that great artery called an 

vital spirits ov< 'y, and lakes air from the lungs by that arterv which 

Istd thkiws; so that both creek* have their i right two veins, the left 

arterie*, betides Utose two common and fracluous ears, wliich serve them both ; 
. the "ther air. for several uses. The lungs is a thin si 
ui ox hoof, (sailh *Fernelius) the town-clerk or crier, ("one terms tl 
of voice, as an orator to a king; annexed to the heart, to express their 
• •ice. That it is the instrument of voice, is manifest, in th 
can speak, or utter any voice, which wauteth these lights, It is, bt 

respiration, or breathing-, and its office istocr.nl the heart, by sending 
the venosal artery, which vein comes to the lungs by thai 
which consists of many grisdes, membranes, nerves, taking in air at the 
and mouth, and by it likewise exhales the fumes of i. 

1 the animal faculties, the chief organ is the br 

tttit, marrow lsIi. and white substance, engendered of the purest pan of seed and 

', by many skins, and seated within the skull or brain | it is 

mo*t noble organ under heaven, the dwelling-house and seat of the aonl, the 

11 of wisd<>: nt, reason, and in which man is most like 

nature hath covered it with a skull of hard I two 

.' mines, whereof the one is called dura mater, or meninx, the other pin 

The dura mater is next to the skull, above the other, which includes and 

itn this is taken away, the pia mater is to he seen, a tin 11 

ie, the next and immediate cover of the brain, and not eorering only, hat 
into it. T is divided into two parts, [ha (ore and binder part; 

r part i» much bitter than the other, which is called the little brain in rt 
This fore part i ncavities distinguished by certain \ 

«pr s, brought hither by the arteries from 

and are there refined to a ivi nly nature, to perforin the actions of 

there are ihree — right, left, and middle. The right and 
i on** site, and beget animal spirits; if they be anv way hurt, sense 

. moreover, are held to be the seat of the 
osasBuo sense. The middle ventricle is a common COttCOUoe and cavity of them 
both, soil hath two passages— the one to receive pituita, and tin- other extends i 
his they place imagination and cogitation, and so the I 
•tattvW of the fore part of the brain are used. The fourth creek behind the 
the cerebe] or little brain, and marrow of the back-hone, the 1. 
. of all the rest, which receives the animal spirits from the Other ventri 

to the marrow in the back, and is die place where they say the 
at sealed. 

i >kct. V. — Of Ihc Soul and her Facui 

m*o to "Aristotle, the soul is defined to be iyttxiztm, perfrctin ei actus 

m ptilentia : the perfection or first act of an 
sjrsural bodv, having power of life, which most "philosophers approve. But many 

uon, and subordinate faculties 
>.* the essence and particular knowledge, of all other things it is most hard | 
mi. as "AristoUe himself, "Tully, Ticus Mirandul 
■pliers confess : — M " We can understand all things 






or»mr rr«i ik pulnio | »' Tu«<-iil. qua*al. " t.ib. 6. Docl. Va <:■ Mil ' 13 

Itflo. -Ariatat. «A»lm» qua>qu« i 

JiT Tol-l in n>iliriiin»», el Uuwd que ait iy** VuV»VV\ % e,» 
■ 1 De anlaia. cap. 1. ) raJrmui. 



100 Anatomy of the Soul [Part 1. Sec. I 

by her, but what she is we cannot apprehend." Some therefore make one soul, 
divided into three principal faculties ; others, three distinct souls. Which qui 
of late hath been much contru verted by Picolomineus and Zabarel. "Paracelsus wdl 
have four sends, adding to the three grand faculties a spiritual soul : which opinion of 
his, Campanula, in Ins book de sensu rerum* much labours to demonstrate and 
prove, because carcasses bleed at the sight of the murderer; with many such argu- 
ment* : And "some again, one sold of all creatures whatsoever, differing only in 
organs ; and that beasts have reason as well as men, though, for some delect of 
organs, not in such measure. Others make a doubt whether it be all in all, and all 
ni every part; which is amply discussed in Zabarel amongst the rest. The **c>iu- 
nion division of the soul is into three principal faculties — vegetal, miMliliim, and 
rational, which make three distinct kinds of living creatures — vegetol plants, m 
He boasts, rational men. How these three principal faculties are distinguished and 
connected; Ifumano ingenio inaccesswn rithtur, is beyond human capacity, as ^Tau- 
rellus, Philip, Flavius, and others suppose. The inferior may be alone, but the 
superior cannot subsist without the Other; BO sensible btctudcfl ve g etal ) niiional 
both ; which an contained in it (saith Aristotle) ut trigonus in tetragono, as a tri- 
ple. 
''// Soul.] Vegetal, the first of the three distinct faculties, is defined to be u i 
substantial act of an organical body, by which it is nourished, augmented, and beget 
another like unto itself." In which definition, three several operations are spectrin 1- 
;tlirix. uiiiMrix, proerealrix ; the lirst is "nutrition, whose object is nourishment, meal, 
drink, and the like; his organ the liver in sensible creatures; in plants, the root or 
sap. His office is to turn the nutriment into the substance of the body nourished) 
which be perforate by natural heat. This nutr i t i ve operation hath four other eubof 
ilimitr (unctions or powers belonging to it — attraction, retention, digestion, expulsion 

.i/itac/iim.] ''Attraction is a ministering faculty, which, as u loadstone doth iron, 
draws meat into the stomach, or as a lamp doth oil ; and this attractive power is 
very in plants, which suck up moisture by the root, as another mouth, 

into the sap, as a like stomach. 

Retention.] Retention keeps it, being attracted unto the stomach, until such lun# 
concocted', for if it should pass away straight) the body could not be nourished. 

IJ!^'i'>tiii)n.] Digestion is performed by natural heat; lor as the flame of a torch 
consume! oil, wax, tallow, so doth it alter and digest the nutritive matter. Indi 
lion is opposite unto it. for waul of natural heat. Of this digestion there be thr 
differences — maturation) elixation. sanation. 

Maturation.] Maturation is especially observed in the fruits of trees; which n 
then said to be ripe, when the seeds are fit to be sown again. Crudity is oppOfl 
to i'. which gluttons, epicures, and idle persons are most subject unto, that use 
• 10 stir natural heal, or else choke it. as too much Wood puts out a fire. 

Elixation,] Elixation is the seething of meat in the stomach) by the said natural 
- meat is boiled in a pot; to which corruption or putre&etion is opposite, 
■■/.] Assation is a concoction of die inward moisture by heat; his opposite 
miustukuion. 

Order of Concocf fan four-fold.] Besides these three several operations of diges- 
tion, there is a four-fold order of concoction: — mastication, or chewing in the mouth; 
lUificution of this bo chewed meal in the stomach ; the third is in the liver, lo turn 

this cbylua into blood) called sauguuicatioa ; ihe last is sssimnlatioa, which is in 

• 
vision.] Expulsion is a powef of nutrition, by which it expels all superfluous 
meats, and refiques of meat and drink, by the guts, bladder, pores ; as by purg- 
luiting] -[iittiun;, sweating, urine, hairs, nails, &c. 

lenttttum.] As ihi> nutritive faculty serves to nourish the body, so doth d 
igrnenuttg faculty (the sec o nd apstetieei or power of the vegetal faculy) to the 



in- 

U 

or 

a 

an. 

Ml. 




.i i! iinl .• in .iiilmam I rclii|iii* rllmioctam liirlur, j Up. de Amnia. ax. I. Call u>, 90 inliq.rap.S. I" 

ft in in In i ivrenlem po*t aiorteni per ilVquot I da placit. phUo*. " l)e vlt «t raort. porl 3 e. 1 

• a cup. 31. ( ii'iiiii, lib. 2. prnp. I. do vu et mart, il c. 'J'i. "Suiuim •>»! 

c. 31. I'lnlarrli In fJrtllo Line ( >it 1 rp .Mj. Ji.*»in» nlimmli irunmiiinuiio, virnnatur.i ere. ISI 

cl Fkfa, ATcrroci, Cauipanclla, Ac. * I'ln- I »ec. 17. « See wore of Ailraclion iu Seal. exec. 3tl 



r.h 



lbs. 0] Anatomy of the Soul. 101 

of it in quantity, according to nil dimensions, long, broad, thick* and to 
aekc ii frow till it come to his due proportion and perfect shape ; which hath In* 
period of augmentation, as of conaumptioa ; and that most certain, as the 



i ■ »<}'" dlM, bttw el If iwparabilc temput 
r»» rii* '"- 



t» A trim .if |jf«t i, «et to rrtry mm, 
\\ tinii I. hut >h«ri, and pan* It no one can 



.? 



rrrt/wm.] The huri >>i these vegetal faculties in generation, which begets another 
tof seed, like onto itself, to the perpetual preservation of the species. 'P> thai 

. y aaciihe three subordinate operations: — the first to turn nourishment into 

and I) ;itnnts of tfie Vegetal Faculties.) Necessary concomitants 

•is of this vegetal faculty are life and his privation, death. To the pi 
of life the natural heat is most requisite, though siccity and liumuliiv. and 
fir*t qualities, be not excluded. This heat is likewise in plants, as appears by 
vc, though not so easily perceived, hi all bodies ft must 
nadical "moisture to preserve it, that it be jiot consumed; to which preservation 
oar riimr. temperature, and the good or bad use of those six non-natural 

dtauga at Ail much. For as this natural heal and moisture decays, so doth our lilt; 
ioteli; and if not prevented before by some violent accident, or inlrrmpted through 
our own default, is in die end dried up by old age, and extinguished by death lor 
vast of matter, as a lamp for defect of oil to maintain it 

Slusect. VI. — Of the srnsihk Soul. 

the sensible faculty, which is as far beyond the other in dignity, 
ion plant, having Ittoae vegetal powers included iii it. "I'ih 
al body by which it Uvea, hath sense, appetite, jttdg- 
brraih. and motion." His object m general is a si risible or passible qualuv, 
the sense is effected with it. The general organ is the brain, from which 
ly th- '("rations are derived. This sensible soul is divided into 

■arts, apprehending or moving. By the apprehensive power we perceive the 
aKmnfwii'i r absent, and retain them as wax doth the print 

•faeeaL By the t ti« >\ ing, i he body is outwardly carried from one place to another: 
oriawardlv moved bj 'pints and pulse. The apprehensive faculty is subdivide 
bin two part*, inward or outward. Outward, as the five senses, of touching, b 
aw, Mrtru: you may add Scaliger's sixth sense of litilla- 

uuo. Iial of speech, which ie the sixth external sense, accor 

* Lclbtrt. inward are three — common sense, phantasy, memory. Those five out- 
«wa teases have tin ir object in outward things only, and such as are present, as the 
\< epi it be at hand, the ear sound. Three of these senses are 
sTesaiiBi. and smell ; two of necessity, touch, and taste, without 

seaeh wecanii' sitive power is active or passive. Active" 

aekt. the eye ares the colour; passive when it is hurl by his object, as the eye by 
*a» Muvbeama. Ar. > that axiom, Visibile forte dettnat t etieuM . " <>i ,: 

sajm he not plcosm id sound to the ear, a slinking smell to (be BOM, kc. 

Sight) Of these five senses, sight is held to be most prieiou-, and tin- beet, ami 
■a* 1 whole body at once. By it we learn, and 

•nana all things, a it for use: to the sight three things are re- 

ii, and the medium. The object in general is visib 
9, as colours, and all shining The medium is the 

lUoci of the air, which comes from "light, co mm only called diaphamtm 
i. we cannot see. The organ is the eye, and chiefly the apple of it, which by 
_' both in one, conveys the sight to the common 
the organ and ■ tie distance is required, that it be not too m 

Haw off Many excellent questions appertain to this sense, discussed by ph 
wlmlur this sight be caused inrra mktendn. r. / extra mi 
in the vi*ible species, or sending of them out, which "Pluto, "Plutarch, 

•Too I acini pereplcul. Lumen a. lure nrorenlt. I»» i 
■StUU.T. &U. 




.I.i et humido. 

as +fti duuoyi Uto uffia. 



** LumeO fit | cof pure lucldo 

i2 



™ \«» I'fcfcftWfc, 



J 02 



tomj of the Soul. 



[Part. l.Sec. 



"Mtcrobfas, "'Lactanlius and others dispute. And, besides, it is the subject of 
pectivea, .if wliicli Alhazen the Arabian, Yitellio, Roger Bacon, Baptisla P< 
Guiilus Ubaldus, Aquilonius, &c, have written whole volumes. 

li tiring.] Hearing, a most excellent outward sense, " by which we learn and 
knowledge." His object is sound, or that which is heard ; the medium, air; on,.. 

To (lie sound, which is a collision of the air, three things are reij 1 - 
body to strike, as the hand of a musician; the body struck, which must be MM 
and able to resist; as a bell, lute-string. Dot wool, or sponge; the medium. 

is inward, or outward ; the outward being struck or collided by a solid bod 
still strikes the next air, until it come to that inward natural air, which as au exq 

attained in a little skin formed like a drum-head, and struck upon b 
certain email instruments like drum-sticks, conveys the sound by a pair ol 
appropriated to that use. to the common sense, as to a judge of sounds. There 
variety and much delight in them; for the knowledge of which, consult wi 
Booth ins and other musicians. 

Smelling.] Smelling is an "outward sense, which apprehends by the nost 
drawing in air; 11 and of all the rest it is the weakest sense in men. Th< 
the QOSej or two small hollow pieces of flesh a little above it: the medium the 
to nun, as water to fish : the object, smell, arising from a mixed body resolv 
which, whether it be a quality, fume, vapour, or exhalation, I will not now dispu 
or of their differences, and how lliey are caused. This sense is an organ ot In aft 

it and bearing, Bailh '"AgeHius, are of discipline; and that by avoid intr 
smells, as by choosing good, whuh do as much alter and affect the body many 
times, as diet itself. 

Taste] Taste, a necessary sense, "which perceives all savours by the tongue and 
r. and that by means of a thin spittle, or watery juice." His organ is the tongue 
with his letting nerves; the medium, a watery juice; the object, taste, or savour, 
which i.s u quality in the juice, arising from the mixture of things tasted. 

Bight Bpeciej or kinds of savour, bitter, sweet, sharp, salt, &c, all which si 
as in an ague) cannot discern, by reason of llieir organs misaffected. 
Touc /ling. ] Touch, the last of the senses, and most ignoble, yet of as great 
is the other, and of as much pleasure. This sense is exquisite in men, and by 
rsed all over the body, perceives any tactile quality. His organ the 
l ; his object those first qualities, bot, dry, moist, cold; and those that follow 
them, hard, soft, thick, thin, &.c. Many delightsome questions are moved by philo- 
sophers about these five senses; their organs, objects, mediums, which for brevity I 
omit 

Slbsect. VII. — Of tit Inward Senses. 

Common Sense] Inner senses are three in number, so called, be came they be 
within the brain-pan, as common sense, phantasy, memory. Their objects are not 
only things present, hut they perceive the sensible species of things to com.-, past, 
it, such as were before in the sense. This common sense iB the judge or mode- 
rator of the rest, by whom we discern all differences of objects; for by mine eve I 
do not know that; I see, or by mine car that I hear, but by my common sense, who 
judgetb of sounds and colours: they are but the organs to bring the spe ci e! Id bl 
red} so that all their objects an- hi*, and ah their offices ure his. The fore 
of the hrain is his or<ran or seat. 
I'/tcnitasy.] Phantasy, or imagination, which some call estimative, or cogitative. 
Confirmed, -melius, by frequent meditation,) is an inner sense which doth 

me the species perceived by common sense, of things pn 
oboftnt, and keeps them longer, recalling them to mind again, or making new of 
OWfk Ed time of sleep this faculty is free, and many limes conceive strane-e. st 
ibsurd shapes, as in sick men we commonly observe. His organ is the mi 
(tie evil of the brain; his objects alt the species communicated to him by the o 
BOB -ense. by comparison of which be feigns infinite other unto himself, hi mela 
cholv men this faculty is most powerfuland strong, and often huru, producing man 

" U« pud FUm 1 *Ut. eip. 6. de opif. D-d, 1. "Lib. 19. cap. 1. ™Phu. I. 5. c. 8 



'ur, 
me 
ick 

2 1 



■•■] 



Anatomy of thr SouJ. 



103 



and prodigious things, especially if it he stirred up by some terrible 

reseated to it from common sense or raemoiy. In poets, and painters una- 

>\ork«, as appear* by their several fictions, antics, images: as 

otjao of sleep, Psyche's palace in Apuleius, &.c. In met) it is subject and 

kit should be; but in brutes it hath no superior, and is 

«, ail the reason they have. 

Memory lays up all the species which the senses have brought in, and 
them as a good register, that they may be forthcoming when the) are called 
f phantasy and reason. His object is the same with phantasy, his seat and 
thr back part of the brain. 
J^f*etw>ns of the Senses, sleep and waking.] The affections of these senses are 
■ad waking, common i" all sensible creatures. " Sleep is a rest or binding of 
outward senses, and of the eOBdttoa sense, for the preservation of body and 
~ ia» " Bcaliger define! it); for when the common sense resteth, the outward 
real also. The phantasy alone is free, and his commander reason: as appears 
sc imaginary dreams, which are of divers kinds, natural, divine, demoniacal, he , 
tary according to humours, diet, actions, objects, 8tc., of which Arieundorus, 
Ills, and Sambuctis, with their several interpolators, have written great volumes, 
of senses proceeds from an inhibition of spirits, the way being slopped 
hi i hum , thin stopping is caused of vapours arising out of the 
• the nerve*, dv winch ilie spirits should be conveyed. When throe 
,»ent, die passage is open, and the spirits perform their accustomed 
so that ►•waking is the action and motion of the senses, which the spiiits 
" orer all parts cause. 1 ' 

Scbskct. VIII.— Of the Mating Facul/o. 

Tui» moving faculty is the oilier power of the sensitive soul, which 

those inward and outward animal motions m the body. It is divided 

rallies, the power of appetite, and of moving from place to place. Thin 

jII have it; natural, as it signifies any sadi indi- 

a* of a stone to full downward, and such actions as retention, expulsion, 

-'•nee, but are vegetal, as the appetite of meat and drink ; hun- 

t. Sensitive i- common to men and brutes. Voluntary, the third, or 

- the other two in men, and is a curb unto them, or at 

Id be, but for die most part is captivated and overruled by them; and men 

■ ins to their concupiscence and several lusts. 

by this appetite the SouJ ia Led or inclined to follow that good which the senses 

iaall approve, or avoid thnt which they hold evil : his object being good or evil, the 

lie other he rejecteth ; according to that aphorism, Omnia appt- 

seawm, all dungs seek their own good, or at least seeming good. This power 

irom sense, for where sense is, there are likewise pleasure and pain. 

inmon sense, and is divided into two powers, or 

tines, ( ible or irascible: or (as "one translates it) coveting, anger 

ipugning. Concupiscible covets alwavs pleasant and delightsome 

is thai which is distasteful, harsh, and unpleasant. Irascible, ^qutui 

per tram ft odium, as avoiding it with anger and indignation. All afiectiona 

perturbation! arise out of these two fountains, which, although the stoics make 

Id natural, and not to be resisted. The good nrieeiions are caused by 

the same nature; and if present, they procure joy, which dilates the 

and preserves' the body: if absent, they cause hope, love, desire, and COl 

bad are simple or mixed : simple for some bad object prest 

i he heart, macerates the soul, subverts the good estate 
hindering all the operations of it, causing melancholy, and many 
ttrdf; or future, as fear. Out of these two arise those mixed and 

■ of anger, which is a desire ol li.it red, which is inveterate anger; 

nded with him who hurts that he loves; and iji*«M»M»a»w*, a con? 



«T. W. Je.uite, in hu Paiilon* of the Mind*. 



"V'WvittQ, 



104 



Anatomy of the Soul. 



[Part. l.Sec. 



pound affection of joy and hate, when we rejoice at other men's mischief, and 
grieved at their prosperity; pride, self-love, emulation, envy, shame, lice., of which 
elsewhere. 

M> m i ng from place to place, is a faculty necessarily following the other- r"<>r ir 
rain were it otherwise to desire and to abhor, if we had not likewise power to pro 
B Of eschew, by moving the body from place to place: by this faculty therefor 
we Locally niovc the body, or any pnrt of it, and go from one place to another. To 
the better performance of which, three things are requisite: that which moves ; h\ 
what it moves; that which is moved. That which moves, is cither the efficient 
cause, or end. The end is the object, which is desired or eschewed; as in a dog 
catch a hare, &.c. The efficient cause in man is reason, or his subordinate phantasy, 
which apprehends good or bad ohjecta : in brutes imagination alone, which move 
the appetite, the appetite this faculty, which by an admirable league of nature, and 
by meditation of me spirit, commands the organ by which it moves : and that con- 
sists of nerves, muscles, cords, dispersed through the whole body, contracted and 
relaxed as the spirits will, which move the muscles, or " nerves in the midst of them, 
ami draw the cord, and so per consequent the joint, to the place intended. That 
which is moved, is the body or some member apt to move. The motion of the 
hotly is ilivers, as going, running, leaping, dancing, sitting, and such like, referred to 
the predicament o( situs. Worms creep, uinls lly, fishes swim; and so of parts, the 
chief of which is respiration or breathing, and is thus performed. The outward 
is drawn in bv the vocal artery, and sent by mediation of the midriff to the lungs, 
which, dilating themselves as a pair of bellows, reciprocally fetch it in, and send it 
001 to the heart to cool it; and from thence now being hot, convey it again, still 
taking in fresh. Such a like motion is that of the pulse, of which, because manv 
have written whole books, 1 will say nolhing. 

StTBSECT. IX. — Of Ike Rational Soul. 

Ix the precedcnt-subscctions I have anatomized those inferior facul tics of thi 
the rational remaineth, "a pleasant, but a doubtful subject" (as "one terms it), and 
with the like brevity to be discussed. Many erroneous opinions are about the 
essence and original of it; whether it be fire, as Zeno held; harmony, as Anstoxe- 
uus ; number, as Xenocratcs; \\ hrther it be orgaflical, Of iimrgaiiical ; sealed in the 

brain, heart or blood; mortal or immortal; how it comes into the body. Some 
hold that it is f x traduce, as Phil. 1. de Jlnimd, Tcrtullian, Lactantius dc opific. 11 i. 
cap. 19. Hugo, lib. dc Spiritu el Jlitimti, PtfteenftMl lifllaric. spec, natural, lib. 23. 
cap. 2. ct 1 1. Hippocrates, Avicenna, and many : *late writers; that om man begets 
another, body and soul; or as a candle from a candle, to be produced from the 
otherwise, say they, a man begets but half a man, and is worse than a beast 
that begets both matter and form; and, besides, the three faculties of the soul must 
be together infused, which is most absurd as they hold, because in beasts they are 
begot, the two inferior I mean, and may not be well separated in men. "Galen sup- 

seth the soul crasin MS8, to be the temperature itself; Triamegistua, Hoctattij 

rpheus, Homer, Pindarus, Pha?recides Syrus, Epictetus, trim the Chaldeea and 
^Egyptians, affirmed the soul to he immortal, as did those British "Druids of old. 

ie "Pythagoreans defend Metempsychosis; and Pnlingenesia, that souls go from 
ne body to another, epotd priiis Lethes undo* as men into wolves, bears, dogs, hogs, 

they were inclined in their lives, or participated in conditions : 






Tl 



' "Inqup fwinas 

PoMtiniun ire dnniui, perii.linu.jtj 



in corpora condl." 



"Lucian 1 s cock was first Euphorbus, a captain; 



<> fTinrn nirminl) Trojanl tempore twill, 
PaDltooidei EaphorbiM ttraoi. 



A horse, a man, a sponge. "Julian the Apostate thought Alexander's eoul 
descended into his body: Plato in Timajo, and in his Phaedon, (for aught I can per 



U.lS 



14 Nervi & »[""'" iiMV.-ninr, npirlm* ab inima. Me- 
:inrl. iirio. Jtimmlum ft artcep* •utijrr- 

lu in. "fincleniu* la fu^tx. par 30M. Briftil In 

Phy«. Scrlb. I. I. DituI OrnaUM, MeUnclhon, Hlppiiu 
II. rmJM, Lcvlnui Lemnitu, dec. m morei 



•eqttanmr. tr, "Ounr B i '"tVad 

Xii'iD Oaami dlat- orihe liniinrrmliiy of K 
•"Ovui. Mat, it, " We, who mn» i:ik. up oar abed* la 
wild l>ci»u. or be lodged in the breaau or cattle" 
*' In Galto. Idem. «.Mcepboru», hul lib. 10. e. 14. 



■».] 



Anatomy of the 



105 



not much from this opinion, thot it was from God at first, and knew 
but bring Inclosed in the body, it forgets, and learns anew, which he nib nmi- 

;> calling, and that it was put into the body for a punishment ; am] 

it goes into a beast's, or man's, as appears by his pleasant fiction de sortit'ume 

lib. 10. de rep. and after "ten thousand years is to return into the former 

again, 

** *' poat viria* anno*, per mllle firurna, 

Rurauaad humane fertur puninrdia vnr " 

immortality of it, which Poniponatus of Pa<ltia decided "lit of Arts* 
not lung since, PhnUu Avunculus, cap. 1. lib. 2, el lib. 7. cap. 55 ; Si n<-ca, lib. 7. 
. md Lucihum, epixt. 55; Diccarchus in Tull. Tusc. Epicurus, Aratus, Hippocra- 

, Lucretius lib. 1. 

•* lPr»|rrck gtfni pnrlter rum eorpore, et una 

-■•re ■rnllnma, pt-irilerque aeneacerc tneMem.)" • 

and I know not how many Neoterics. ""This question of the iminor- 
of the soul, is diver*ly and wonderfully impugned and disputed, especially 
Italians of late, 1 ' saith Jab. Colcrus, lib. de i/nmort. gsJMj etf, I. The 
themselves have doubted of it : I . < I >■■■ imus, thai Epicurean pope, as 
of hun, caused this question to be discussed pro and con before him, and rou- 
st last, as a profane and atheistical moderator, with that verse of Cornelias 
redit in nihilum, qttnd fuit ante nihil. It began of nothing, and in nothing 
■ and his Stoics, as ""Austin quotes him, supposed the tool so long to 
ill the body was fully putrified. and resolved into materia prima : but after 
«n futnos evanesce re, to be extinguished and vanished; ami in tin- meantime, 
__ the body was consuming, u syaixkrad all abroad, et e bugkuuc unfa emiae* 
eiarr, and (as that Clazomcnian Ilermotimus averred) saw pretty visions, and aufl n d 
I know not what. * Errant exangiies sine, corjiore et ossibus umbra. Others grant the 
■mortality thereof, but they make many fabulous fictions in the meantime of it, 
tftrr the* departure )r<im the body: like Pluto's Elysian fields, and that Turkey para- 
dise. The souls of good men they deified; the bad (saith "Austin i became devils, as 
they supposed ; with many such absurd tenets, which he hath confuted. Ilierome, 
and otdrr Fathers of the church, hold that the SOD] M immortal, enated of 
ad so infused into the child or embryo in his mother's woml>. ^i\ notttttt 
the * i as those of brutes, which are ex traduce, and dying with 

Ta\ni»*. int.. nothing. To whose divine treatises, and to the Scriptures them- 
I mourn all six h eal spirits, us Tully did Atticus, doubting of this 

- Pha-don. Or if they desire philosophical proofs and demonstrar 
I rr: to Niphua, Nic. Faventinus' tracts of this subject. To Fran, and 

up. 3. de Anima, Tholosatms, Eugubinus, To. Soto, • 'anas, 
Tbacnas. Peresius, Dandinus, Colerus, to that elaborate tract in Zanchius, to Tolet's 
!bty Reason*, and Lessius' Twenty-two Arguments, to prove the immortality of the 
■ml. Campanrlla, lih. dr sensu rrrum. is lart;e in the same discourse, Albertinus the 
Srfcoolmaru Jn< .tus, torn. 2. op. handleth it in four questions, Antony Bru- 

its. Aonr. is, Marinus Marccnnus, with many others. This reasonable soul, 

Atrsun rails a spiritual substance moving its fined by philosophers to 

"the first substantial act of a natural, humane, orgunical body, by which a man 
perreive*, and DlKvBfMands, freely doing all things, and with election." Out of 
dctinit iv gather, that this rational soul includes the powers, and per- 

thr di ■ other, wliirh art- contained in it, and all three (soul 

east soul, which i-s borganica] of itself, although it be in all parts, and incf 
wmL, ostng their organs, and working by tliem. It is divided into two chief parts, 
iafcuiig iij office only, ti"t in essence.. The understanding, which is tin- unional 
power apprehending ; die wdl, which is the rational power moving: to which two, 
eltite other rational powers are subject and reduced. 




shirh 



ilties 



landun. lib I. de rap Troaerp 
•**rrra itMl tk* nln.t l« bom wllh 
I dr<a>» Willi II " "lire 
i Tin*, ac miral ilitrr Ut>i ">- 



•» Uc acclca. dog , wiae 



eap. IS. "Orld. 4. Mat. "The MSsSlass •ha.dei 

wilbout either body or bonea vc 

rum larca. in.iloniin vcro l»rr«« el kmurc, ■ s,,ma 

•ay at ttireo daya. auine ail weeka, other* otbajf 



Anatomy of the Seal. 



[Part 1. Sec 




SrB^ECT. X. — Of the Understanding. 

"U.vderstandixc is a power of ihe soul, w by which we perceive, know, remem- 
nd judge a-* well singulars, as uuvetsmls, having ct rutin innate notices or helm- 
ing* i if arts a reflecting action, hy which it judgeth of his own doings, and examine 
i hit of this definition (besides his chief office, which is to apprehend, judj 
all that he perforins, without the help oi any instruments or organs) three difference 
appear betwixt a man and a beast. As first, the sense only comprehends singulari- 
ties, ihe understanding universalities. Secondly, the MOM hath n>> innate DOtWMM 
Thirdly, brutes cannot reflect upon themselves. Bees indeed make DM1 and at 
Works, and many other creatures, besides ; but when they have done, thev I 
judge of them. His object is God, .Ens, all nature, and whatsoever is to be under 
stood : wliich successively it apprehends. The object first moving the understanding 
i' sensible thing ; after by discoursing, the mind finds out the corporeal sut 
stance, and from thence the spiritual. His actions (some say} are apprehensior 
composition, division, discoursing, reasoning, memory, which some include in inven- 
tion, and judgment. The common divisions are of the understanding, agent, and 
pMJtDl . speculative, and practical; in habit, or in act; simple, or compound. The 
I is that which is called the wit of man, acumen or suUility, sharpness of in- 
vention, when he doth invent of himself without a teacher, or learns anew, which 
alt-tracts those intelligible species from lite phantasy, and transfers them to the 
■ive iindei.-'.tiiliiiL'. "" because there is nothing in the understanding, which was not 
first in the sense. 1 ' That wliich the imagination hath taken from the sense, this 
agent judgeth of, whether it be true or false; and being so judged he commit- 
the passible to be kept. The agent is a doctor or teacher, the passive a scholar; 
and his offira h to keep and further judge of such things as are conmiiited n his 
charge; as a bare and rased table at first, capable of all forms and notions. Now 
these *notiou> are two-fold, actions or habits : actions, by which we take notions of, 
and perceive things; habits, which are durable lights and notions, wliich we may 
use when we will. Some reckon up eight kinds of them, sense, experience, intelli- 
gence, truth, suspicion, error, opinion, science; to which are added art, pruJeney, 
wisdom : as also ^syuteresis. dictamen rationis, conscience; so that in all there be 
n species of the understanding, of which some are innate, as the three last 
null ; tin- other are gotten by doctrine, learning, and use. Plate wdl have all 
to be innate: Aristotle reCKOIH Bp bin live intellectual habits; two practical, as pni- 
. whose end is to prarlise; to fabricate; wisdom to comprehend the use and 
experiments of all notions and habits whatsoever. Which division of Aristotle . ii it 
be i iright) is all one with the precedent; for three being innate, and fvt 

teqttisite, the rest are improper, imperfect, and in a more strict examination exclud 
0T all these I should more amply dilate, but my subject will not permit. Three 
them I will only point at, as more necessary to my following discourse, 

H the purer part of the conscience, is an innate habit, and doth signi 
w a conversation of the knowledge of the law of God and Nature, to know good or 
And faa our divines hold) it is rather in the understanding than in the will. 
'his makes the major proposition in a practical syllogism. The dictrrmcH niiinnis 
I that which doth admonish us to do good or evil, and is the minor in the syllogism. 
The conscience is that which approves good or evil, justifying or condemning our 
notions, and is the conclusion of the syllogism : as in that familiar exauip! 
lus the Roman, taken prisoner by the Carthaginians, and suffered to go to Home, on 
that condition he should return again, or pay so much for his ransom. The synle- 
h the question; his word, oath, promise, is to be religiously kept, 
although to his enemy, and that by the law of nature. '"Do not that to another 
which thou wouldest not have done to thyself. 1 ' Dictamen applies it to him, and 
dicta!' I tin- or the like: Regulus, thou wouldst not another man should falsify his 
oath, or break promise with thee: conscience concludes, therefore, Regulus, Uiou 



"Mil up Itkl "Nihil In iiHclloriii. quod fion I nr the fonariene*. 

•tins literal in iranii. Velcurlo. "The pure part j leri no fecerlt. 



"Quod libl fieri non via, at- 





3. Sob*. II.] Anatomy of the Soul. 107 



weD l" perform iky promise, and oughlest to keep thine oath. More of this in 

Melancholy. 

Si-bsect. XI.— Of the Will. 

other power of the rational soul, *" which covets or avoids such 
been before judged and apprehended by the understanding." If good, 
nil, it abhors ii : so that his object is cither good or evil, 
rail* this our rational appetite ; for as, in the sensitive, we are moved to 
bad bv our appetite, ruled and directed by sense; so in this we in MfriM by 
nsitive appetite hath a particular object, good or bet I ; ihis 
uui««jsai, immaterial: that respects only things delectable and plea-ant; this 
Again, they differ in liberty. The sensual appetite seeing an ohj.it, if it 
convenient good, cannot but desire it ; if evil, avoid it : but this is free in his 
i i h now depraved, obscured, and fallen from his first perfection; yet in 
of his operations still free," as to go, walk, move at his pleasure, anil to rltoo-e 
ber il will do or not do, steal or tiol steal. Otherwise, in vain wen- lav. 
liberations, exhortations, counsels, precepts, rewards, promises, threats and putush- 
i; at iould be the author of sin. Hut m '"spiritual things we will nc 

prone to evil (except we be regenerate, and Led by the Spirit . we an egged on 
natural concupiscence, and there is ora|io, a confusion in our powers, *** our 
boh? will i- om God and Ins law," not in natural things only, as to eat 

dnnk, lust, to which we are led headlong by our temperature and inordinate 



"»"Jier no» nbntti cwitr», nee lenders lanlum 
null*, — ■ " 

resist, our concupiscence is originally bad, our heart evil, the seat of out 

captivates and enforceth our will. .So that in voluntary tilings we are 

js, bad by nature, by ' ignorance worse, by art, din iptinej 

We get many bad habits : suffering them to domineer and tyranni-' ©1 

hand with his evil suggestions, to tempi our depraved 
In »<-i -posed action, lo precipitate us to destruction, except our will be 

red am! counterpoised again with some divine precepts, and good I die 

■mi, hinder and check u-, when wean- in tin full career 
diasotate courses. Bo I tavid Cot n cied himself, when he had Saul at a vantage, 
and malice were as two violent oppugners on the one side ; but h< i 
' id, witldn LI him on the other. 
is of the will are velle and nollr, to will and nill : which two wor 
all. and they are good or bad) accordingly as they are directed, and some 
freely performed by himself; although the stoics absolutely deny il, and 
hare all A rhabty don ny, imposing a fatal necessity upon us, 

■ i ay that our will is free in respect of us, and il 

-oevi-r in respect of God's determinate counsel, they are inevitable 
wry. Some other actions of the will are performed by the inferior powers, 
as the sensitive and moving appetite ; as to open our eyes, to go 
and thither, not to touch a book, to speak fair or foul : but this appetite is 
trnw« rebellious in us, and will not be contained within the h riety 

trtnprrancc. It was (as 1 said) once well agreeing with reason, and then 
asceUeat consent and Harmon) between them, but that is now dissuUnl, tin v 
jtar, reason is overborne by passion: ffertw cquis auriga, ncc audii curntt 
so many w ild horses run away with a chariot, and wdl not be curbed. 
know many times what is good, but will not do it, as she said, 

»"Tr»hil nullum nora »l», aliudque rupldo, 
< aliud tmdi-t, ■ 

rounx-1* onp thing, reason another, there is a new reluctancy in men. '04L 

fuvu\ . quod odi. We cannot resist, but as Phsdra 



■ 

■ ^•fl.Ullr, 

• « ■ In (.villi. <rt libera, aid 

r«U v..lufil«f 
U*o (wtk two arodai. »• Vlrg. 



' We me neither ablt 10 contend afain 

' Vel | 
|uod bniu* •iiulii* non til matructa flu 
ml duiuM prcrepila eiculia. 

owl 



I 



Definition of Melancholy. 



[Part. 1. 







to bur nurse, *qua> loqueris* vera simt, scd furor suggeril xcqui pejora : she said well 
and true, she did acknowledge it, hut headstrong passion and fury made her to do 
that v inch was opposite. ifSo David knew the fillhiness of hi* fart, what a loathsome, 
foul, crying sin nihillcry was. veTtiOtwlthstaniliiiir he would Commit murder, and lake 
away another man 1 * wile, enforced against reason, religion, to follow his appetite. 

Those tiafunil and vegetal powers are not commanded by will at all ; for " who 
can add one cubit to his stature r" These other may, but are not : and thence come 
all those headstrong passions, violent perturbations of the mind; and many times 

i- habits, customs, fetal diseases; because we give so much way to our app 
and follow our inclination, like so many beasts. The principal habits are two in 
number, virtue and vice, whose peculiar definitions, descriptions, dillerences, and 
kinds, are hand'ed at large in the ethics, and are, indeed, the subject of moral phi- 
losophy. 



MEMB. IE 

Sibsect. I. — Definition of Melancholy, Name, Difference. 

Hiving thus briefly anatomized the body and soul of man, as a preparative to 
the rest ; I may now freely proceed to treat of my intended object, to most men's 
capacity ; and after many ambages, perspicuously define what this melancholy is, 
show his name and dillerences. The name is imposed from the matter, and disease 
denominated from the material cause: as Bruel observes, l&Aa» x **a quasi MiixuvaxoXr^ 
from black choler. And whether it Lie a cause or an effect, a disease or symptom, 
let Donatus Allomarus and Sal via mis decide; I will not contend about it. It hath 
several deemiutjoaaj aotfctiOM) and definitions. *Fracastorius, in his second book 
of intellect, calls those melancholy, " whom abundance of that same depraved humour 
of l>laek choler hath so misaffected, that (hey become mad thence, and dote in most 
things, or in all, belonging to election, will, or other manifest operations of the un- 
derstanding." 'Melanati&fl out of Galen, Kuifus, /Etius, describe it to be "a bad 
and peevish disease, which makes men degenerate into beasts:" Galen, "a privation 
or infection of the middle cell of the head, &.C." defining it from the part affected, 

which 'Hercules de SaxontA approves, lib. 1. cap. 16. calling it **a ,oV ipraretiaa of the 

principal function:" Fuschius, lib. 1. cap. 2'A. Amoldus Breviar. lib. I. rap. 18. 
Guianmus, and others: u By reason of black choler," Paulus adds. Ilalvabbas 
simply calls it a LL commotioa of the mind." .Aret.Tiis. '"a perpetual anguish of the 
soul, fastened on one thing, without an ague; which definition of his, MsrcuriaUt 
de affect, cap. lib. 1. cap. ID. laxeth : hut JSlianus Motitaltus defends, lib. tie mnrb. 
cap. 1. de Aldan, for sufficient and good. The common sort define it to be "a kind 
of dotage without a fever, having for his ordinary companions, fear and sae 
without any apparent occasion. So doth Laurenlius, cup. 4. Piso. lib. I. cap. 43. 
Donatus Allomarus, cap. 7. art. medic. Jucc.himis, in com. in lib.'J. Rhssifl ad Al- 
mansor, cap. 15. Valesius, crerc. 17. Fuschius, inslitut. 3. sec. I.e. 11. Stc. which 
common definition, howsoever approved by most, y Hercules de SaxoniA will not 
allow of, nor David Cmcius, Tin-at. mnrb, Iferm. lib. 2. cap. 0. he holds it insuffi- 
cient: as l0 rather showing what it is not, than what it is :" as omitting the specific 
difference, the phantasy and brain : but I descend to particulars. The tummum gt Mtf 
is ••dotage, or anguish of the mind," satth Aretteus; u of the principal part-," ller- 
de Saxonift adds, to distinguish it from cramp and palsy, and such diseases as 
belong to the outward sense and motions [depraved] "to distinguish it from folly 
and mudness (which Mouialtua makes angor animi, to separate) in which those 
functions are not depraved, but rather abolished; [without an ague] is added by all, 
to sever it from phrensy, and that melancholy which is in a pestilent fever. (Fear 



« P^nrra, Hipp. » Metanrbolieot vocamiii, quoa nnimt In una contentions d«fixm. nhnqiie f*bre. 

nulla vel pmviUs Melancholia lU ui.ilr lint.i-1, » Cap. 1ft. I. 1. '» Eorum Ji-fiiilli rbtle quid noo 

in inil I In omalbue, v«] in plaribua UaqM »it ptliit* qnam quid ml, explical. " Ainmi* func- 

manlft>il> five ad rectum rauoiwDB, rotantaia parti- ll ■ kaamiMlliMai io futuilale, lolluiilivr in mania, 

Hit, v,| vlecllonem, v>-l InleHectui operatjnnM, dopravanlur »o|nm in melancholia. Here, de Sax. 

1 Pe»«umiai et pertlnarlnaimum mnrhtim qui hnminea cap. 1. tract, de Melanrh. 
In bruta do^enerare cogit. ■ Panih. Med. • Alitor 



-S 




— ■ 



3. Subs. 2.] 



Of the Parts affected, $c. 



109 



tomrw) make it differ from madness : [without a eause] is lastly inserted, to 
iary passions of [fear and sorrow.] We p ro p ert y rail 
urr, a* "Laarentius interprets it, "when some one principal facultv of the 
imagination, or reason, is corrupted, as all melancholy persons have. 11 It 
without a iferer, because the humour is most part cold and dry, contrary to putn- 
Frar and sorrow are the true characters and inseparable companions ol most 
"holy, n«n all, as Her. de Saxon in, Tract, de pnsthumn de Melancholia, cap. 1. 
ptt; for to some it is most pleasant, as to such as laugh most part ; MtM 
bold again, and free from all manner of fear and grief, as hereafter shall ho 



INT. II. — Of the part affected. Affection. Parlies affected. 

SoMft difference I find amongst writers, about the principal part affected in this 
whether it he the brain, or heart, or some other member. Most are of 
that it is the brain : for being a kind of dotage, it cannot otherwise be but 
the brain must be affected, as a similar part, be it by" OOttMOl Of mwino, not 
ventricles, or any obstructions in them, for then it would be an apople.w. Ol 
' -turentius well observes, but in a cold, dry dislemperature of it in his 
which is corrupt and become too cold, or too dry, or else too hot, as in 
and such as are inclined to it: and this ■ Hippocrates confirms, Galea, (lie 
», and most of our new writers. Marcus de Oddis (in a consultation of In*, 
by and five others there cited are of the contrary part; be- 

fcar anil KOTOW, which arc passions, be seated in the heart. But this objec- 
ii dy answered by "Montaltus, who doth not deny that the heart is 
" (a« "Melanelius proves out of Galen) by reason of his vicinity, and so is 
midriff and many olhi;r piftl. They do compali, and have a fellow In line, hy 
"aw of nature : but forasmuch as this malady is caused by precedent imagination, 
the appetite, to whom spirits obey, and are subject to those principal parts, the 
ly be misaffected, as the seat of reason; and then the heart, 
1 ijipivaccius and Mercurialis have copiously davnaaed 
question, and both conclude the subject is the inner brain, and from thence it is 
saturated to the heart and other inferior parts, which sympathize and are much 
lualskd, sjaprr tally when it comes by consent, and is caused by reason of the 

as term it, whole body, liver, or "spleen, which 

» free, pylorus, meseraic veins, 8tc. For our body is like a d< ck, n OM 

bw, all the rest are disordered; the whole fabric suffers: with such ad- 

■ art and hi mposetl, such excellent proportion, as Ludo- 

■ Fable of Man hath elegantly declared. 

almost arise about the "affection, whether it be imagination or 
des de Saxonia proves it out of Galen, iEtilkB, and 
iroa. that the sole fault is in "imagination. Bruel is of the same mind : Moii- 
i hi* '-' ncholy confutes this tenet of theirs, and iliac 

many examples: as of him that thought himself a shell-fish, of a mm, 
• desperate monk that would not be persuaded hut that he was damned; 
was in fault as well as imagination, which did not correct this error: they 
away themselves oftentimes, and suppose many absurd and ridiculous thinga. 
doth not reason detect the fallacy, settle and persuade, if she be free ? ^Avi- 
then lore holds both corrupt, to whom most Arabians subscribe. The same 
led by "Areleua, **Gorgonius, Guianerius, Sic. To end the controversy, no 
nan doubts of m, but that it is hurt and misaffected here ; for the other 1 

us Bottonus, a doctor of Padua, that it is first in k> n . 

"P« conMiwum tire per ! " R»rt> quksqanm tumnrrm rITiiuil licni". .|"i • '"«■■ 
, d<> mrl it morbo »rttrllur, PJ»o. Quit nlTirni< » Bt ' 

"fpitcl. do mrlitnrh'ili i s'l .Vlti-iimr. » Farnlut imagrniuidi. ii'>t> • <>. 
KM »l»e pit con- rn-c meoiarandl !«•« hie. ■ Lib. S I 

I cap. 8. x Lib 3. c»p. S. » 1. 

imiu ii- "Lib. Ar. ni* I IS. pnrl. ». Tract. 15. cap. 2. » Hildethom 

,«(|)ium 3ilf Mclanc foL SOT. el M. XT. Quatidu,|U« rlltn 
t, k.r. rationale ai affectua mvcteralu* til. 
tap. ;a Mnbjcclnm e»t cer«hrum interim. I 






10 



Matter of Melancholy. 



[Part. 1. Sec. 1. 



nation, and afterwards in reason ; if the disease be inveterate, or as it is more 
less of continuance;" but by accident, as r Herc, de Saxoniaadds; ki faith, opinion 
discourse, ratiocination, are all accidentally depraved by the default of imagination.* 1 

Parties affected.] To the part affected, I may here add the partita, which shall 
more opportunely spoken of elsewhere, now only signified. Such as Ijave 
ni"'>n, Saturn, Mercury misaffected in their genitures, such as live in ovet 
over li' it climes: such as are born of melancholy parents; as offend in \h 
non-natural things, are black, or of a high sanguine complexion, "that have littl 
that have a hot heart, moist bruin, hot liver and cold stomach, have been Ion 
sick : such as are solitary by nature, great students, given to much eontemplatioc 
lead a life out of action, are most subject to melancholy. Of sexes both, but me 
more often; yet "women misaffected are far more violent, and grievously troubled. 
Of seasons of the year, the autumn is most melancholy. Of peculiar tunes <l 
Me, from which natural melancholy is almost an inseparable accident ; hut this art; 
final malady is more frequent in such as are of a w middle age. Some a 
years, Gariopontus 30. J ubertiis excepts neither young nor old from this a>! 
tious. Daniel Sennertus involves all of all sorts, out of common experi 
omnibus omnino corporibus cujiisatTHfue amslilutionis dominatar. JElius and Arehus ; 
ascribe into the number B not only '"discontented, passionate, and miserabli 
swarthy, black; but such as are most merry and pleasant, scoffers, and high colour- 
i* Generally , M sailh Rhasis, ■*»■ the finest wits and most generous spirits, are 
• other obnoxious to it;" I cannot except any complexion, any condition. 
or age, but "fowls and stoics, which, according to * Syncsius, are never tronhh 
with any manner of [MtMiffffi, but as Anacreon's cic<ul<i, MM taagUWt ri tldore ; 
similes ftre diis sunt. Erasmus vindicates fools from this melancholy catalogue 
because they have most part moist brains and tight hearts; "they are lire from am 
bition, envy, shame and fear ; ihey are neither troubled in conscience, nor macerated 
with tares, to which our whole life is most subject. 

Scbsect. III. — Of the Matter of Melancholy. 

Of the matter of melancholy, there is much question betwixt Aviccn and Galen 
as you may read in "CtldMrfa Contradictions, •** Valesius 1 Controversies. Moiitanus, 
Prosper Calenus, Capivaccius, ** Bright. 41 Ficinus, th"at have written either whole 
tracts, or copiously of it, in their several treatises of this subject. **•• What this 
humour is, or whence it proceeds, how it is engendered in the body, neither Galen, 
nor any old writer hath sufficiently discussed, 1 ' as Jacchinus thinks : the Neoierics 
cannot IBM, .MonUuius, in his Consultations, holds melancholy to be material or 
immaterial : and so doth Arculaims : (he material is one of the four humours before 
mentioned | and natural. The immaterial or advontkous, acipiisite, redundant, unna- 
tural, artificial; which "Hercules de Bbxob&I will have reside in the spirits alone, 
and to proceed from a "hot, cold, dry, moist distemperature, which, without matter, 
alter the brain and functions of it. 1 ' Paracelsus wholly rejects and deride! Que divi 
sion of four humours and complexions, but our Galenists generally approve of it, 
subscribing to this opinion of Montanua. 

This material melancholy is either simple or mixed; offending in quantity 
quality, varying according to his place, where it settled), as brain, spleen, meseraic 
veins. In-art, womb, and stomach; or differing according to the mixture of those 
natural humours amongst themselves, or four unnatural adust humours, l» ".hey are 
diversely tempered and mingled. If natural melancholy abound in the body, which 



l">athumn de Melitnc. edit. 1040. Depriv-nutr 
n<1r«, ill, i until*, i>|iini>>. *r [irr viIhihi tnoEuiiri.Mii-., 
01 Ao |iir\um | i)iui h.ib.nl, iii- 

eenaatl plerlqne aunt. Arm In phyatofnonaia. 
* Areleua. lib. 3. cnp. 5. *"Qiii prnp#slaluiii mini. 

Medila convruit irlaiilm,, l'i-.>. !»■■ 

in. *• Lit). I. purt. 8. cap. II. Trimui 

Me|ancrn>l)aro non tain ma»tui »ed el bllarea, 
Jocoul, racbinnanlea, trriaurcs, el, qui nU-rmnqut' 
pra-rubri «unt. *'Uul *unt •iiiiilii" InfUiil, el 

multtt- pr-Mpicnrilatu dr Tucili lnrldiuu In M«-tancho. 
Ham. lib. 1. ennt. tract. 9. *Ntinquam aanilale 

anemia exctdii aut doluro capitur. Erium. "J» 



land, calvit. "Vacant cnnnrienila- carniljrlna, 

nee pudefiunt. nee verentar, nee illljicrrantur inllllbua 
curarum, qnibiia iota vita ohnonio eat. *Lka I. 

trnrt. 3. cnnlruilic. IS. »Llb. I.cont. SI. • Itnjhl. 
ca. 10. " Life. 1. tap. A. de ».inil lunula. «= Qiilire 
mi i|ii ilia tli humor nut quit? latin* differential i 
niortii elsimniiir in corpore, ■crulumluin, na-- fmin r« 
mulii vi-trrimi Inborn irerunt, ncf (Bella WU PW l et 
Galena ai'iilcnttnm ob loqurnJl varlet 
Jnrch. cam. In 9. Rliaale, cap. 13. cap 1' 
"Mb. pnatum. de Metan. edit Venetiit, ir.iit. cap 7 
et 8. \U in icmperio calida, bumida, ate. 




.1 . \ltr* -i 



Species of Melancholy. 



Ill 





■ cold and dry, ** eo thai it be more ** than the body is well able to bear, it must 
be distempered," aaidi Faventius, "and diseased;" and so the oilier, if it be 
whether it arise from dial other melancholy of choler adust, or I nun 
produced) the like effects, ami is, as Montaltus contends, if it come by adus- 
txm of humours, most part hot and dry. Some difference 1 liiul, whethi r loll 
hurli ay be engendered of all four humours, about the coloui 

temper of it. Galen holds »t may be engendered of tliree alone, excluding phi 

">e true assertion ** Valesius and Menardus stifJly maintain, and so doth 
!>otaltus, "Montanus. How (say tliey i can white become black? 
dee de Sexonia. lib. poat it mcla. c. 8, and "Cardan are of the opposite 
part (it may be cn»> ' phlegm, eLsi rarb contingal, though it seldom come to 

p»*»i, mi is *Gujon< -rin- and Liureniius, ft, 1. with Melanet. in his hook da \innui, and 
r l o awma ; lie calls it Asininam, dull, swinish melancholy, and saith that 
an eye-witness of it: bo is "Wecker. From melancholy adust arisclh one 
>ler another, which i* BBOB4 brutish; another from phlegm, which is 
and (he last from blood, which is best. Of theee some are cold and dry, 
• and dry, "varying according to their mixtures, as they are intended, and 
\nd indeed M Kodcricus a Fons. cons. ]'■£. 1. determines, ichors, and 
•orous matters being thickened become phlegm, and phlegm degenerates into 
r, choler adnal arug'uutsa mrlanilioiia, as vinegar* out of purest wine 

putnnrtl or by exhalation of purer spirits is so made, and becomes sour and shaip; 
*harpness of this humour proceeds much Waking, troublesome thoughts 
See. so that I conclude as before. If the humour be cold, it is, saith 
iuk, ~a cause of dotage, and produccth milder symptoms : if hot, they are 
i inclining to it." If the brain be hot, the animal spirit* are hot; 
I nadneea follows, with violent actions : if cold, fatuity aud sottisluiess, Cipi- 
*•** Tin- rol.mr of IBM mixture varies likewise according to the mixture, 
hi-, 'tis sometimes black, sometimes not, Altomarus. Tin' same 
peovta onl o( Gates; and Hippocrates in his Book of Melancholy (if 
ving instance in a burning coal, "which when it is hot, abj 
n m and so doth tin- humour." This dixereitv of m< Ian- 

matter produceth diversify of effects. If it be within the "body* and not 
»eth black jaundice; if putritied, a quartan ague; if it break otti to 
•km, leprosy; if t<« parts, several maladies, as scurvy, kc If it trouble the 
l rely mixed, it produced! several kinds of madness nnd dotage • 

SnaaECT. IV. — Of the species or kinds of Melancholy. 

> the matter is divers and confused, how should it otherwise be, but that the 
mil confusi d - Many new and old writers have spoken COB- 
: melancholy and madness, as 51 Heurnius,Guianerius, Gor- 
viaiuw, Jason Pratensis, Savauarola, that will have madness nc 
it, differing (as I have said) in degrees. Some make two 
Kiiffus Epheaitni, an old writer, Constantiuus Afric tanM 

"Faui. la: others acknowledge a multitude of kinds, and leave 

s in his Tetrubiblos, "Avicenna, lib. 3. Fen. I . Tract. 4. caj 
10. m 9. Rasis. Montanus, med. part. 1. "'"If naiural DM 
be adiM, it makelh one kind; if blood, another; if choler, a ihinl, diflcr- 
»md so many several opinions there are about the kinds, as there 



>»>.».(. Off 



■<><f a r * 

■ ■ 



I mlnua »i In onrpora foerft, | prr t<w minium calefactmi.et nlu« irfnsrralua eradK : 
irt' nam recrniitin- atcMlt, qu! 

b. I I durante Oamni 

■ i r I cap ! proraua mgrr .. u 
ip. II. »Dk dirt* 1. rap. 7. 

lom eihne flrri Innchnlia. ■ Cap ft I.I i t. <mn>. 

V uric arimiliir. '). Mnrhui Itir ral ommfarlu*. 
amrniium •[wr ■• ■■, M« Isnn mint. ■ Bl Kdarntur nuiiiriill* melaiif holla, alia 

in., \ . Ill «|i. '.•[(••, pi •anfuia, alia. ■■ fl»» 

i.i. plum, i ri« e*( Intet i 

nptf i .rum tpnieciltz, quot Ipal nuniero «mil. 
Ilumur liic iiiji-j »li.|iurH)o I 



I 



1 1 2 Species of JS 

be men themselves." "Hercules de Saxonia" sets down two kinds, "material and 
immaterial; one from spirits alone, the other from humour* ami spirit-.'' Savana- 
rola, Rub. 11. Trad. 6. cnp. I. It Ggrihtd. capitis, will have the kinds to b« infi- 
nite, one from the myracn, called myrachialis of the Arabians; another stouuirh.dis, 
in hi t In* stomach ; another from the liver, heart, womb, hemrods, u " one beginning, 
another consummate." Melancthoo seconds him, w "as the humour is divi 
adust and mixed, so are the species divers;" but what these men speak of spa 
think ought to be IHttleillOOu' of symptoms, and so doth K Arculanus interpret him- 
-ili': infinite ipec*—, id est, symptoms; and in that sense, as Jo. Gorrheus acknow- 
li ■< 1 lt* ih in hu medicinal definitions, the species are infinite, but they may be reduced 
to three kinds by reason of their seat; head, body, and hypochrondries. This 
threefold division is approved by Hippocrates in his Book of Melancholy, (if it be 
his, which some suspect) by Galen, lib. 3. de loc. affectis, cap. 6. by Alexander, lih. 
1. cap. 16. Rasis, lib. 1. Continent. Tract. 9. lib. 1. cap. 16. Avicenna and most of 
our ikw writers. Th. Eraslms makes two kinds; one perpetual, which is head me- 
lancholy ; the other interrupt, which comes and goes by lits, which he subdivides 
into the other two kinds, so that all comes to the same pass. Some again make 
four or five kinds, with Ro d ariBM a Castro, de morbis mulirr. lib. 2. cap. 3. and 
Lod. .Mercalus, who in his second book de mulier. ajfect. cap. 4. will have that me- 
lancholy of nuns, widows, ami more ancient maids, to be a peculiar species of 
melancholy differing from the rest: some will reduce enthusiasts, extatieal and de- 
moniacal persons to this rank, adding "Hove melancholy to the first, and lycnnthro- 
pia. The most received division is into three kinds. The first proceeds from the 
sole fault of the brain, and is called head melancholy ; the second sympathetically 
proceeds from the whole body, when the whole temperature is melancholy : the 
third ariseth from the bowels, liver, spleen, or membrane, called mesenterium, nanu d 
hjpochdndriacal or windy melancholy, which * T Lan realms subdivides into three 
parts, from those ihree members, hepatic, splenetic, meseraic. Love melancholy, 
which Avicenna calls Ilisha: and Lycanthropia, which he calls cucubuthe, are com- 
monly included in head melancholy; but of this last, which Gerardus de Solo call* 
amoreus, and most knight melancholy* with that of religious melancholy, virgvum 
tl rirluariim, maintained by Rod. a Castro and Mercalus, and the other kind* of lovt 
melancholy, 1 will speak of apart by themselves in niy third partition. The three 
dent species are the subject of my present discourse, which 1 will anatomize 
and treat of through all their causes, symptoms, cures, together and apart; tluU 
every man that U in any measure affected with this malady, may know how to ex- 
amine it in himself, and apply remedies unto it. 

It is a hard matter, 1 couless, to distinguish these three species one from the other, 
to express i heir several causes, symptoms, cures, being that they are so often con- 
founded amongst themselves, having such affinity, that they can scarce be discerned 
by the most aaeamte physicians; and so often intermixed with other diseases, that 
the best experienced have been plunged. Motitanus const I. 26, names a patient that 
had this disease of melancholy and caninus appetitus both together; and ci'ito. 
with vertigo, "Julius Ctesar Claudinus with stone, gout, jaundice. Trincav&HittB 
with an ague-Jaundice, caninus appetitus, Stc. M Paulus Regoline, a great doctor in 
his time, consulted in this case, was so confounded with a confusion of ■YmptOfDI, 
that he knew not to what kind of melancholy to refer it ™ Trincavcllius, rallopins, 
and Kruiuanzanus, famous doctors in Italy, all three conferred with about one party, 
at the same imio, gave three different opinions. And in another place, Trincavcllius 
being demanded what he thought of a melancholy young man to whom he was 
aent for, ingenuously confessed that he was indeed melancholy, but he knew not 
to what kind to reduce it. In his seventeenth consultation there is the like dis- 
agreement about a melancholy monk. Those symptoms, which others ascribe to 
misaffected parts and humours, " Here, de SaxoniS attributes wholly to distempered 
spirits, and tL^»e immaterial, as I have said. Sometimes they cannot well discern 



■Tract, de int-l. rnp. 7. "Qurd.-im ladpiUH 

qurdaui enneumintla. M Cap, de tiunini.Iib.de 

tntmi. VnriO iidnrilur et mlacetur ip«» rnulnnchnha, 
node rarl* atncntium •pecici. * Cap. 16. in 9. 



Ra«ii. "LAurentlur-, cap. 4. de mel. *"■ ' 
'• IBS M 110. coniull. comil. IS. "llildeilialin 

«|iuil. *. fol. 106. •"Tiipcavelliii*. tnin. J- cooetl 

1 J el IB. ■ Cap. IS. tract, poetti- de tnelaa. 




Bofta i ) 



Causes of Melancholy. 



18 



from others. In Reinerus Sol man Jar's counsels, (Sect, consil. 5,) he 

indc both agreed, that the patient's disease was hypocondriacal melanch. Ay. 

Matboldus said it was asthma, and nothing else. "Solmundrr and Guunonius, 

Mat for to the melancholy Duke of Cleve, with others, could not define « li;it 

it vrasu or agree amongst themselves. The species are so confounded, us in 

3sodtmis his forty-fourth consultation lor a Polonian Count, in his judgment 

of head melancholy, and that which proceeds from the wit. ,|«- ten* 

both at <>iioe."' I could givt instance of some thai Intra had all three kind* 

/, and some successively. So that I conclude of our tnelaiuhoh 

iiiirians do of their pure forms of commonwealths, monarchies, 
democracies, are most famous in contemplation, but in practice they 
and usually mixed, (so ' T"U luus i nfom nth us) as the Lacedaemonian, 
Roman of old, German now, anil many others. What physicians say of di 
y ea n in their books it much matters not, since that in their patients 1 bodies thev 
Me commonly mixed. In such obscurity, therefore, variety and confused mixture 
<f symptoms, causes, how difficult a thing is it to treat of several kinds apart ; to 
nake any certainty or distinction among so many casualties, distractions, when 
flehban two men shall be like effected per omnia f Tis hard, I confess, yet never- 
tadaas I will adventure through the midst of these perplexities, and, led by the clue 
ar thread of the best writers, extricate myself out of a labyrinth of doubts and 
error*, and so proceed to the causes. 




SECT. II. MEMB. I. 
Sea sect. I. — Causes of Melancholy. God a cause. 

vain to speak of cures, or think of remedies, until such time as we have 
of the causes, 1 ' s " prescribes QlatJOO ■ and the eommon expe- 

othera confirms that those cures must be imperfect, lame, and to no pur- 
w herein the causes have not firat been searched, as "" Prosper Calenius well 
in his tract dr aim We to Cardinal Crcsius. Insomuch that *•* Fernelins 
pitta kind of necessity in the knowledge of the causes, and without which it is 
BDoMhlf of prevent any manner of disease." Empirics may ease, and 

— aninm help, but not thoroughly root oul ; suilatA causa toUitvr ej/ectu.*, as the 

a. die effect is likewise vanquished. It ia I most 
I ■ ' t<> be aide to discern these causes whence they are, and in 
•r* "*\*?ir;\ to my wh.it th>- beginning was. "Ha is happy that run perform it 
flit. | will adventure to guess as near as I can, and rip them all up, from the 
fat to the hut, general and particular, to every species, that so they may the better 

causes, a' -upernatitral, or natural. "Supernatural are from God 

angel*, or by God's pi rmiaaion from the devil" and his ministers. That God 

ia a cause for the punishment of sin, and satisfaction of his justice, many 

and testimonies ,,f boll Scriptures make evident unto us, Ps. evii. 17. 

man ire plagued for their offence, and by reason of their wickedness. 1 * 

slrurkrn with leprosy, 2 Reg. v. 27. Jehoram with dysentery and flux, 

clisrasr* oi els, '.! Chron. xxi. 15. David plagued for numbering 

. I Par. 21. Sodom and Gomorrah swallowed up. And this disease. \r 

specified. Psalm exxvii. 12. "He brought down their heart throug* 

' DeuL xxvui 2^. "He struck them with madness, blindness, and as- 

i evil spirit was sent by the Lord upon Saul, to vex 

mrj 1 "tabnravli per P"'n- 1 cap. II. ReruiD cognofcere num. mrdlri, iaipriniM 

Imp n<o-»»anuin, fine qua nee nwirlium ruraif, n»c prav. 

Iket. "Tin la. rnlin morl'l viricllt It 

illnVrenlla ut non facile dlgnn»rstur. uiidc militia* 

.umpierii Melantliu* * Gali-ao "'Kodli 

qui potull rerum cognotevxe causa* ' I -4.» 

rMvwr, nam alloiul •aruaa m H. 

.HUM «•**<- ll lib. I.I 




114 



Causes of Melancholy. 



[Tart. l.Sec 2. 



him."' B Nebucliadnezzar did eat grass like an ox, and his "heart was made like 
the beasts of the field." ffra thtu stones arc lull of such punishments, l.ycurgu 
because he cut down the vines in tite country, was by Bacchus driven into maii 
so was Peutheus and his mother Agave for neglecting their sacrifice. M Censor FiJ 
rina ran mad for untiling Juno's temple, to cover a new one of his own, \\ in. h 
hud dedicated to Fortune, Mu and was confounded to death with grief and sorrow 
heart. 11 When Xerxes would have spoiled ^Apollo's temple at Delphos of tlv 
infinite richei It poteeeaed, a terrible thunder came from heaven and struck f< 
thousand men dead, the rest ran mad. M A little after, the like happen XJ to Brenn 
lightning, thunder, earthquakes, upon such a sacrilegious occasion. If wc may 
licve our pontifical writers, ibey will relate unto us many strange and prodigiot 
punishments in tins kind, inflicted by their saints. How "H'lodnveus, some 
king of France, the son of Dagobert, lost his wils for uncovering the body of 
Drius: and how a ■ sacrilegious Frenchman, that would have stolen a silver im 
of St. John, at Birgburge, became frantic on a sudden, raging, and tyrannising ovt r Ins 
OWn lli'sh : of a '"Lord of Rhadnor, that coming from hunting late at night, put his 
dogs into St. Avail's church, (Llan Avan they called it) and rising betimes next 
morning, U hunters use to do, found all Ins dogs mad, himself Being suddenly 
stricken blind. Of Tyridates an ""Armenian king, for violating some holy nun 
that WSfl punished in like sort, with loss of his wils. But poets and p.- 

i for fabulous tales; let them free their own credits: howsoever they hi 
of their Nemesis, and of their saints, or by the devil's means may be deluded ; an 
rind it iruc, that ultor a tetgd l)rus y ""He is God the avenger, 1 ' as David styl 
him ; ami that it is our crying sins that pull this and many other maladies on our 
own heads. That he can by his angels, which are his ministers, strike and hfjej 
(saith "Dionysius) whom he will ; that he can plague us by his cron 
moon, and stars, which he usetli as his instruments, as a husbandman (saith Zan- 
rhius) doth a hatchet : hail, snow, winds, Sur. W44 El canjurati rcniunt in classira 
renti :" as in Joshua's time, as in Pharaoh's reign in Egypt; they are but as so 
many executioners of his justice. He can make the proudest spirits stoop, and c 
out with Julian the Apostate, Vtcisti GaUlae : or with Apollo's priest in "Chrym 
torn, () ciiIhm! it terra! unite koSttt kie-:' What an enemy is this? And prav wi 
David, acknowledging his power, " 1 am weakened and sore broken, I roar lor t! 
grief of mine heart, mine heart pan to tit, Stc." Psalm xxxviii. 8. u O Lord, n bvfc 
me not in thine anger, neither chastise me in thy wrath," Psalm xxxviii. I. u Bfafc 
me to bear joy und gladness, that the bones which thou hast broken, may rej" 
Psalm li. 8. and verse IS. - Beaton to ine the joy of thy salvation, and stablish 
me with ihy lice spirit. 1 ' For these causes belike ,J Hippocrates would have a phv- 
aictan lake special notice whether the disease come not from a divine supernatural 

or whether it follow the course of nature. But this is farther disCu 
v ran. Yale>ius, de sacr. philos. cap. 8. "Fernelius, and "J. Caesar Claudinus, 
rhom I refer you, how this place of Ilippornites is to be understood. Punn 
is of opinion, that such spiritual diseases (Tor so he calls them) are spiritually to 
cured, and not Otherwise; Ordinary means in such cases will not avail; .Yon t 
reluct undum cum Deo [we must not struggle with God.) When that monster-tamin 
Hercules overcame all in the Olympics, Jupiter at last in an unknown shape wresUi 
with him; the victory was uncertain, till at length Jupiter descried himself, and He 
i nlrs yielded. No striving with supreme powers. JVU juvat immeiw* Cent'' 
promt! ti 'tc monlei, physicians and physic can do no good, *" wc must submit our- 
M'lves unto the mighty hand of God. acknowledge our offences, call to him for 
mercy. If he strike us una eadanque manus minus ope.mqw J'eret, ;us it is with 
them that are wounded with the spear of Achilles, he alone must help ; otherwise 
our diseases are incurable, and we not to be relieved. 



"Dan. v 91. **T«Minl IwtlL lib. a. tip. 8. 

1 Mtntc input*, et •uininu nniiut inu r..t.- couMmpUM. 

1 Mu.i»ltrr cosmo*. lib. 4. cap. O. l>c citln mba 
bantur, Uni;u;ini ihmiii .1 .- Mttl pro ■ ipit.-in, &c 

'Livlim lil> 3S. "Uafiiin. 1. 3. c. 4. Quod.DI 
rorpui dUtooperucrat, In Insiuinm incidit. ■ Idem 

lib y ,uii Dual. g. ■aararaia 09*1— flat, ir-mpii fori- 
but tUiaciit, (In 111 I). Jnhjinnis iwiiifum miinilacniiii 1 
r cooit adii, fiaiulucruiu bvumi facie dor»uui cl 



ver«nt, nee mora •aerile|ru» inrniit Innns, at>]ae 

1 1 
raldM 1 iiniirrnsu, lib I, t. I. 1 
■*' Oelrio, loin :< lili. 6. »ecl. ] qnnl 3. 
Xl»i. I. & cap. lie llj-rir » 1 

•'Ue Bahitft M»M\rc. •" Lib. cop. •'■. pr"B. 
I. dc Alnlil \ rrruiii r4u*ia. •" KmBQM. ii.i-d l'2 

re»p. <• 1 I'eu v 




;h*. ».| 



of Dcvih. 



115 



f l\, — Ji Digression of Ike nature ef Spirits, bad Angels, or Dcvih, and 
hvtv they cause Ale tunc holy. 

ihr i its am! devils doth • \ hey ran I 

other disease. I m, and worthy to be d: forlhn 

I \*iil make a brief digression of the nature, of spirits. 
dHtenra, according to "Postellus, "lull of contra* 
1 tht» reach of human capacity, falcor txed 
mra. ' nstin, I con i I un not able to I ! it, Jmilm 

te with Tully, de not. afeonm, ipud 

ifUam quid xint. OUT .nil. Cardans, ScsligCTS, profound Tlmni- 

ina ami Perm liana ncies, are weak, dry, obsrun . 

-i wits, as an owl's eyes at the - i dull, 

it nuilicu !ii to . du in ; yet, as in the rest) I will edventnre ti 

M «!■ read, Act! win., the Baddlicees de- 
tied tlmt there i ■■ ils, or angels So did Galen the physician, 
ihr PmjotPtu'si. rven Aristotle himself, is Pomportatiut stoutly maintains, and Seatt* 
fw in some sort (rnuits. Though Dandinus the Jesuit, com. in !>!>. 'J. J- OJMflUr, 
•uffy denies it; imtmtaaliai a (perofa and im -. are the tame which < 
■jica rail angels, and Platonists devils, for the) name all the spirits, <&r*ioii«*, be 
Vygood or bad ; ollux Onomaslicon, lib, I. cap. 1. observes. Epi- 
nsw and atheist* are of tbfl mM mind HI general, beeaii.se tin ''inn. 
.-, Jamblichus, Proclus, insisting in the ste| BM- 
itgora* ai»' t, make no doubt of it : run Stoics, Inn 
■■lough much erring from the truth. Concei Brat beginning of 
*ta say that Adam had a wife railed Lilis, b efore he married I 
'i*r be begat nothing but devils. The Turks' 'Alcoran u altogel urd 
■nit: hut tlir Scripture informs ua Christians, bow Lucifer, 

n for his pritle and it I 
an angel of light, now casl down 
alo ihr lower aenal sublunary parts or into hell, "and delivered into chains of 
i J. lo be kepi unto tlaumal 

■tls.) There is a foolish opinion which some hold, thai they are 
■ I* ofjnen departed, good ;im! ni'i;-' •''•■■'.■ •■• veiled on 

;•! were d which with Tertullinn, Por- 

M. T'. fin iiiiintains. "These spirits," he 4 snith, 

I angels and devils, are nought but souls of men departed, which 
their frieti mtr. h«*lp and a>-i-t ilcin. <>r else 

senies. whom they 1 - Dido threaten as: 

"Omniliu, • iinpriibe ptthM." 

n( from I tin itpcp, 

- 
At I lln |iiinlaliiiiPiil -lull K now . 

. pi, .imiic »' «« Im 

tinted by ihoae higher power.- to keep men from 
ish them as they see cause: and are railed bold 

I, by 
. men, rilii . 

■ itrricttlo ■ 
mii* rulgo admilturUuTiUt m .■Etiiji>l<> '^"'"•- ^<*. 
Qa cails diem, *wnich protected particular n ill as prm. 

m, which of ull spii 
>iom< , as the Platonists supposed; Plotinus Ivis, 

|(M c.sinii ' D.rraonet 0'""" mwl» nnlm» ipir rnipnra ilcprt- 
«U»/ l.lll»«. i- • "I li iiiiiiih ■ "ii- i i|T...r ,,,., r,i i ||.;n| r,,i;ii.il|. ..id nrr-iill il.lll- 

; 



lit, it<- 

id 



[Part. 1. Sec. 

and wc christians our assisting angel, as Andreas Victorellus, a copious writer of 
this subject, Lodovicus de La-Cerda, the Jesuit, in his voluminous tract de .i 
Cuslodr, Zanchius, and prime divines think. But this absurd tenet of Tyreiis, Pi 
i &m Confute* at large in his book de Jinima ct dcpinonc. 

* Psellus, a christian, and sometimes tutor (saith Cuspinian) to Michael Parapia 
fius, Emperor of Greece, a great observer of the nature of devils, holds lh< 
"corporeal, and have "aerial bodies, that they are mortal, live and die," (which 
Martiunus Capella Likewise maintains, but our christian philosophers explode) "that 
"they are nourished and have UECHUM ul ~- f h«y feel pain if they be hurt (which Car- 
ilau run tii ins, and Scaliger justly laughs him to scorn for; Si pascanlur acrr, cur 
nan pugnant oh puriorem aera f &c.) or stroken :" and if their bodies be cut, with 
admirable celerity they come together again. Austin, in Gen. lib. iii. lib. arhit., 
appr o ves as much, mutata casu corpora in detcriorcm qnalilah m atrff spi*sinris, so 
doth Ilierome, Comment, in epist. ad Ephes. cap. 3, Origen, Teriulliaii, Lacta. 
and many ancient Fathers of the ( 'hurch : that in their fall their bodies were changed 
into a more aerial and gross substance. Bodine, lib. 4, Theatri Natune and David 
Crusius, Jlermeticte Philosophise, lib. i. cap. 4, by several arguments proves angel 
and spirits to be corporeal: quicquid catuiwtur in loco Corporevm est ; jit si 
contiiu lur in hco y ergo.* St spiritus sunt quant i* erunt Corporci : At sunt quttn! 
ergo, Sun! ftniti, ergo quanti, N.e. "Bodine goes farther yet, and will have these, 
Jinitn>: HgMtfVtd gQRt&i spirits, angel?, devils, and so likewise souls of men departed, 
it corporeal (which he most eagerly contends) to be of some shape, and thai 
lutilv round, like Sun and Moon, b a cfjt a that is the most perfect form, qu,i aj| 
habtt asperilatis, nihil angulis incisunt, nihil an/ratti/ms iiwulutcm, nihil eminet 
ted inter corpora perfecta est perfcctissimtim ; " ! therefore all spirits are corpor 
he concludes, and in their proper shapes round. That they can assume other aerial 
bodies, all manner of shapes at their pleasures, appear in what likeness they will 
themselves, that they are most swift in motion, can pass many miles in an instant, 
and so likewise "transform bodies of others into what shape they please, and with 
admirable relerity remove them from place to place; (as the Angel did Iiabakknk to 
Daniel, and as Philip the deacon was carried away by the Spirit, when he had 
lised the eunuch j ao did Pythagoras and Apollonius remove themselves and others, 
with many such feats) that they can represent castles in the air, palaces, at 
spectrum*, progidies, and such strange objects to mortal men's eyes, u cause sun lis 
savoms, kc, deceive all the senses; most writers of this subject credrbjy be! 
and that they can foretel future events, and do many strange miracles. Juno's image 
( " niullus, and Fortune's statue to the Roman matrons, with many 
.[ . I Iodine, >pondanus, and others, arc of opinion that they cause a true ni« 
tamorphosis, as Nebuchadnezzar was really translated into a lOt'a wife mi 

a pillar of salt; Ulysses 1 companions into bogaand dogs, by < 'uve's charms; tur 
themselves: and others, as they do witches into eats, dogs, bares, crows, Jstc. 
zius Cicogna hath many examples, lib. iii. onmif. mag. rap. 4 and 5, which he ther 
confutes, us Austin likewise doth, de civ. Dei lib. xviii. That they can be seen « 
and in what shape, and to whom they will, saith Psellus, Tametsi nil tale ridrrim, 

'iifi oidere, though he himself never saw them nor desired it; and 01 

carnal copulation ( as elsewhere 1 shall u prove more at large] with women and 
men. Many will not believe they can be seen, and if any man shall say, swear, and 
alillly maintain, though he be discreet and wise, judicious and learned, that he 
seen them, they account him a timorous fool, a melancholy dizard, a weak fellnw, 

uiier, a sick or a mud man, they contemn him, laugh him to scorn, and yet 
Marcus of his credit told Psellus that he had often seen them. And Leo Suavius, a 

liinan, c. 8, in Commentary 1. 1. Paracclsi de vita longa. out ol soma llnto- 

• llr lived 500 yean nines. ' Apnlelui : tjiirlliij 

inlm ill > .mil allium panrltiilin. menlp tnlionnlln, enr- 

ii, ii-Mip..rf Mmplierna, • Nairranror, <•! 

m w i H tl lii'Ttil, quod ptiUatK dnleunl anllrio |>rr- 
1 1 1 . . i •■ IWlDINI nceiiplea spnee l» 

lOrp rtalt- «|>Mt necupira space, tktrtfur*, ic. Ac. 

•4 Ilk. 1 I Iii mI. rat. fid. .'133. I' Which hn no 

roilj;liiii-»«, MgltM, fmclnrrn, |irnminencci. lull l» Hie 
muti perfeci tiunnfit pctfn I bixtle* "Cvorl&nua 



In KpiM. monies ptlnm el antmulln lrin«f.rn pnmwll 
a* Ojc devil dnl ( firml In Hip tup of the ; 

w lli hr. iin> oil. n lr m-l U-d. So 

dcngna, M 3 rnp 4. omnif. man. Per nn i 
cere n In aubltme corpora frirr , irmana 

l'eriu«vi ilid-nl el iinn.iiir in eoetpkllOa 
Aenppi. Iih. 3 rap. de no ul. l'hiloi. » Acrlpp 

di-.i.riili I'liilm Ub. 3. up. 18. >» P»ri. :. 
Mem. I. Suba. I. Love Melancholy. 



I. Sabs. 2.] 



JVatBT* of Devils. 



117 



i will have the air to be as full of them as snow falling in the skies, and ilut t>te> 
be seen, and withal sets clown the means how men may See them; Si irrcvi 
oemlis sole spl> ndtnU versus calum eontinuavrrinf td>iutus, fcc-j W and saith 
ret he tried It, prtcmittrtriMI fcei <v/« rinfu'iim, and it was true, that the 1'la- 
aaid. Parac> ieaseth diut be law than divers times, and colli 

throu and so doth Alexander ah "Wlex.-eidro, *■- thnt he so found ii hv i 
r, when as before hi doubted ^)f it" Many deny it, saith Lavater, de spectra, 
t, »nd part ii. r. 11." because they never saw thern themselves;" but ai he 
at large all over his book, especially r. I'J. part I. they are <•■ nml 

and . converse with men, as I.od. Vives ossureth us, innumerable 

! testimonies evince in all ages, tunes, places, and ,T all irau'l- 
U i-i Indies and our northern climes, S'i/ul jfamiHarim nam 
urbibus ij <rc, audirt qui vetcnt, jubcanl, ^.c. Hierooimui vita 

Basil scr. 40, Nicephorus, Euaebiua, Socrates, Sozomeuus. "Jacobus Boissar- 
tpintvum apparidonibus, Petrus Loyerus 1. de ape otrifl , Wierus 
hare tnfm of such examples of apparitions of spirits, lor him to read 

6uth< -. to his amjile satisfaction. One alone I will briefly insi rt. A 

bl Germany was sent ambassador to the Ring of Sweden (for his name, 
and such careuinstaneea, I refer you to Boiseardus, mine "Author i. After 
t business, lie sailed to Livonia, on set purpose to see those familiar 
Ebere said to be conversant with men. and do iheirdnidgery works. 
other matters, one of them told him where his wife was, in what room, in 
I h.it doing, and brought liini a ring from her, which at his n tun 
ttnium adtmraiixw . h<' found to he true; and so believed that ever after, which 
i '.inl;m. 1. 19. de subtil, relates of his father, Facius Cardan, 
1st after the ;i< ■! solemnities. An. NUI, 13 August, he conjured up seven 

•ml*, m Li reek apparel, about forty years of age, some middy of complexion, and 
pale, as he thought; he asked them many questions, and they made ieady 
r, thai devils, that they lived and died as men did, save that 

£ar longer lived (700 or 800 "years'); they did as much excel men in 
:y as we do juinenu, and were as t 1 again of those that were above 

ml keepers they are moreover, which "Plato in Crifias de- 
ite to one anotlx r, Ut uiiin homo hominu ■ 
domviaJur. they rule themselves as well as us, and the spirits of the meaner 
had eVnunonly such offices, as we make horse-keepers, neat-herds, and the 
Wnt of i our cattle; and that we can no more apprehend their na- 

«, Ulan ;i horse a mini's. They knew all things, but might not 
them to men ; and ruled and domineered over us, as we do over our horses; 
• ns, and the most generous spirits, were not comparable to 
iroes they did instruct men, and communicate their skill, 
! Bometimi s, again, terrify and punish, to keep them in awe, 
saith Lysius, Phis. Sloiconim) qunm cuUf- 
hominum." The same Author, Cardan, in his llypeirhen. out of the doc- 
'Stoics, will have sobm of these Genii (for so be calls them) to be "deairotis 
i*s c very aflable and familiar with them, as dogs are; others, aj 

tabbor a* serpents, and care not for them. The same belike Tritemiua calls Ignios. 
I ajMaacrra, q ui nunquam iemtrgmi <id mferiortL, out vis ulhim habent in trrrii 
: "Generally they far excel men in worth, as a man the meanest worm; 
B of them are inn rior to those of their own rank in worth, as the black- 
i and to men again, as some degenerate, base, rational crea- 
ellwl of brute beasts." 
Ural they are mortal, besides these testimonies of Cardan, Martianus, kc. iu:my 





•SMaeMiy uti 

,>ium ( 

«-Xtr "Si 

rrolr* pLrutrum fcl 9.7.30 



,:um, 4.C. loiito metiorti . 



mlaalrd ; hnmlnlbua, quanlo hi bruti» attimanlihus. : ' Pnr- 

■ * I'miorcn, Gubernalorra hnnMnum, ci illi auima- 

iiuiii. *» •' Coveting nothing more than lh» adivl. 

t, Fldal. ration of mankind " "Nature familiar--- 

imicia hutrilnlbua rmilii averaantur *t ablm *• AI 

nomine ploa diilant quam homo ab Ifli 

i lanien qindani »» bit ab bomlnibua «u|ici»niti 
ut homlnea » f«rl*, *c. 



1 18 Nature of Spirits. [Part. 1. Sec 3 

other divines and philosophers hold, post prolixum tempus tnoriuntur otnnes ; The 
* Platonists, and some Rabbins, Porphyrius and Plutarch, as appears by that relation 
of Thatnus : " " The great God Pan is dead ; Apollo Py thius ceased ; and so the 
rest. St. Hierome, in the life of Paul the Hermit, tells a story how one of them ap- 
peared to St. Anthony in the wilderness, and told him as much. n Paracelsus of 
our late writers stiffly maintains that they are mortal, live and die as other creatures 
do. Zozimus, L. 2, farther adds, that religion and policy dies and alters with them. 
The M Gentiles' gods, he saith, were expelled by Constantine, and together with them. 
Imperii Romani majestas, etjbrtuna interiit, et prqfligata est ; The fortune and ma- 1 
jesty of the Roman Empire decayed and vanished, as that heathen in ""Minutius for- 
merly bragged, when the Jews were overcome by the Remans, the Jew's God was 
likewise captivated by that of Rome ; and Rabsakeh to the Israelites, no God should 
deliver them out of the hands of the Assyrians. But these paradoxes of their power, 
corporeity, mortality, taking of shapes, transposing bodies, and carnal copulations, 
are sufficiently confuted by Zanch. c. 10, 1. 4. Pererius in his comment, and Tos- 
tatus questions on the 6th of Gen. Th. Aquin., St Austin, Wierus, Th. Erastus, 
Delrio, torn. 2, 1. 2, quaest. 29 ; Sebastian Michaelis, c. 2, de spiritibus, D. Reinolds 
Lect. 47. They may deceive the eyes of men, yet not take true bodies, or make a 
real metamorphosis ; but as Cicogna proves at large, they are "Illusoriee et prcesti- 
giatrices transformationes y otnnif. mag. lib. 4, cap. 4, mere illusions and cozenings, 
like that tale of Pasetis obulus in Suidas, or that of Autolicus, Mercury's son, that 
dwelt in Parnassus, who got so much treasure by cozenage and stealth. His father 
Mercury, because he could leave him no wealth, taught him many fine tricks to get 
means, "for he could drive away men's cattle, and if any pursued him, turn them 
into what shapes he would, and so did mightily enrich himself, /toe astu maximam 
pratdam est adsecutus. This, no doubt, is as true as the rest ; yet thus much in 
general. Thomas, Durand, and others, grant that they have understanding far be- 
yond men, can probably%>njecture and w foretel many things; they can cause and 
cure most diseases, deceive our senses ; they have excellent skill in all Arts and 
Sciences ; and that the most illiterate devil is Quods homine scienlior (more know- 
ing than any man), as M Cicogna maintains out of others. They know the virtues' 
of herbs, plants, stones, minerals, &c. ; of all creatures, birds, beasts, the four ele- 
ments, stars, planets, can aptly apply and make use of them as they see good ; per- 
ceiving the causes of all meteors, and the like : Dant se coloribus (as "Austin hath 
it) accommodant sejiguris, adharent sonis, subjiciunt se odoribus y infundunt se sapo- 
ribus, omnes sensus etiam ipsam inlelligentiam damones fallttnt, they deceive all our 
senses, even our understanding itself at once. "They can produce miraculous alter- 
ations in the air, and most wonderful effects, conquer armies, give victories, help, 
further, hurt, cross and alter human attempts and projects (Dei ptrmissu) as they see 
good themselves. "When Charles the Great intended to make a channel betwixt 
the Rhine and the Danube, look what his workmen did in the day, these spirits 
flung down in the night, Ut conatu Rex desisteret, perviccre. Such feats can they 
do. But that- which Bodine, 1. 4, Theat. nat. thinks (following Tyrius belike, and 
the Platonists,) they can tell the secrets of a man's heart, aut cogitationes kominum, 
is most false ; his reasons are weak, and sufficiently confuted by Zanch. lib. 4, cap. 9. 
Hierom. lib. 2, com. in Mat ad cap. 15, Athanasius quaest. 27, ad Antiochum Prin- 
cipein, and others. 

Orders.] As for those orders of good and bad devils, which the Platonists hold, 
is altogether erroneous, and those Ethnics boni et mali Geniiy are to be exploded : 
these heathen writers agree not in this point among themselves, as Dandinus notes, 

■'" Ciho et potii utl et venere cum hnminibtia sc tan- emp. 17. Parlim quia «ublll(orl« eenaue acaminc, per- 
dein mori, Cicogna. I. pari. lib. 3. c 3. « Plntarcb. , tiin ecientin ralidiorn vigent et experienita propter 
de defect, ornruloruin. »Lih. de Ztlphi* et Pig- ' masnam longiliidinem vile, partlm ab Angeltt dt»- 

meif. » I)ii gentium a Conatantin proatig&tl mint, cunt, &c. J lib 3. omnif. mag. cap. J. *JL 18. 

Ax. -'Octovian. dial. Judrorum deum iuiaee , queat. »Quum lanti ait et lam profunda aptritaai 

Ilomannrum numinihua una cum rente raptivum. ' arientla, roirum non eat tot tantaaqae re* vuw adaal 
-■ Omnia aptritibua olena, el ex eorum eoncordia et rabilea ab Ipahl patrarl, et qnuten reraaa aaiaraUaai 
dicenrdia nninea boni el mali eflectua promanant. nm- ope quaa multo melina Intelligent, malto«M | 
nia tinman* reguntur : paradoxa veterum de quo CI- •nla loci* et temporibua appUcaro Boruat, qua 
cngna. omnif. mag. I. 3. e. 3. »Ovea quaa abac- i Cicogna. " AvanUoaa, qwfcaald Imnfci 

tur-j era. in qaaacanque formaa rerlebat Panaaniaa, ■ rlabatur, boom •zpiatatw. UM 
Iivgioua aiAuUB la 1. % da &en. ad litsrmm • torta, dec 



Mm. ! Subs. 2] 

Jmrint *mal 



Nature of Spirits. 



Ill) 






ali non tonreniunt, some will have all spirits good or bad to us by a 
if an Ox or Bocm eoaU discourse, be would sav the Butcher was his 
because he killed him, the Grazier his friend because he fed him; a Hunter 
and yet kills his game, and is hated nevertheless of his game ; nee pisca- 
I fitcis amare potest, kr. But Jamblichus, Psellus, Plutarch, and most Plato- 
ar know ledge bad, et ah rorvm maleficiis cavendum, and we should beware of 
wickedness, for they are enemies of mankind, and this Plato learned in Egypt, 
they quarrelled with Jupiter, and were driven by him down to hell.*" Thai 
which •Apuleius, Xenophon, and Plato contend of Socrates Daemon ium, is most 
i Itat which Plotinus of bis, that he had likewise Ih'-um pro Dtrmo-nio ; and 
Porphyry concludes of them al! in general, if they he neglected in their 
ihey are angry; nay more, us Cardan in Ins llipperchen will, they feed on 
souls, Elemtnta sunt plantis elemenlum, animal t bus planta-, /umiinibus anima- 
■inin*x aliis, rum aulun iliis, minis mim rrrunla est ronim nntura a 
qvaprnpter damonibus : and so belike that wo have so many battles fought 
all aire*, countries, is to make them a feast, and their sole delight : hut to return 
to that I said before, if displeased they fret and chafe, (for they tees' belike on the 
" i of beasts, as we do on their bodies) and send many plagues amongst us ; but 
i they do much good ; is as vain as the rest and confuted by Austin, 
1. 4. prajpar. Evang. c 6, and others. Yet thus much 
I find, that our School-men and other " Divines make nine kinds of bad Spirits, as 
■■* hath done of Angels. In the first rank are those false gods of tut Gfn- 
oJe*, which were adored heretofore in several Idol*., ami gave Oracles at Drlpluw, 
sad elsewhere; whose Prince is Beelzebub. The second tank is of Liars and 
JEquivoeators, as Apollo, Pytbiaa, and the like. The third are those vessels of 
enjrr. s of all mischief; as that Theutus in Plato ; Easy calls them *'\i • 

af fitrr; their Prince is Belial. The fourth an- malicious revenging Devils; and 
Asmodxus. The fifth kind are cozeners, such as belong to Magicians 
:heir Prince is Satan. The sixth are those aerial devils that "corrupt 
6s air and cause plagues, thunders, fires, &c. ; spoken of in the Apocalypse, and 
I'aul to die Ephesians names them the Princes of the air ; Meresin is their Prince. 
The seventh is a destroyer, Captain of the Furies, causing wars, tumults, eotnbwh 
tkms, uproars, mentioned in the Apocalypse; and called Abaddon. The eighth il 
that accusing or calumniating Devil, whom the Greeks call AiaJoxoj, that drives men 
to despair. The ninth are thoee tempter* in several kinds, and their Prince is Mam- 
sjob. Pwllus makes six kinds, yet none above the Moon : Wierus in his P aen O O - 
i Damonis, out of an old book, makes many note dilieiuus and subordi- 
■fiisay with their several names, numbers, offices, &.c, but Gazieus cited by " Ltp- 
sjas will have all places full of Angels, Spirits, and Devils, above and beneath the 
Boon," srtherial and aerial, which Austin cites out of Varro 1. vii. de Civ. Dei, c. 6. 
•TV and aerial beneath," or, as some will, gods above, Se- 

ondri or half gods beneath. Lares, Heroes, Genii, which climb higher, if they lived 
sriU as the Stoics held; but grovel on the ground as they were baser in their lives, 
SearST to the earth: and are Manes, Lemures, Ltfnitt, !s.e. "'They will have no place 
bat all lul -, DeviK or <inn" other inhabitants; Plenum Cwlum, n> r, aqua 

itrra.fi omnia tub h mi. math a 0azS9OS; though Anthony Kusca in his book de 
burrao* lib. v. cap. 7. would confine them to the middle Region, yet they will have ' 
them every where. "Not so much as a hair-breadth empty in heaven, earth, or 
wafer*, BWrvSJ or under the earth." The air is not so full of ilies in summer, sj it 
m st all times of invisible devils: this ** Paracelsus stillly maintains, and that tl icy 
bass every nni u rs will have infinite worlds, and each world 

tus peruLiar Spirits, Gods. mil Devils to govern and pariah it. 




•li, urn pnrsil ' 



itcum. 



"Some persona believe each ttur In be a world, ami 
Ihle earth an opaque alar, over which III? Iratl Of Die 
god* preeioVa." 



anima I'Tt 5'J It mlna- 

Juve ad 
•De !>«■ rWnlia ail 
■ci 4 [irn.i.i pii' i 

itn in*tar 
rtapa lib I rtr 

. Ufa*. I. t cap. I. ' 



« Vaaa lr». c. 13. « Quibua datum e«l phm <•"• '• tra> 

ej man, &t. M Phy»wl. rMriir.>riiin e SMMC I I 

cap. IS. *> Cf-que ad lunam animaa e«ae ■ n 

ne hernae, larei, grul*>%. *• Mart. • 

« Nihil vacuum ab hit ub'i »et c»nAuum vn "•«• 
■qua jama. • Lib. de ZUp, "-Vy 



Digression of Spims. 



[Part. l.Sect. 






"Gregorius Thnlsanus makes seven kinds of retherial Spirits or Angtls, according 
to the number of the seven Planets, Salnrninc, Jovial, Martial, of which Cardan dis- 
eourseth lib. xx. de subtil, he calls them substantias primas* Olympicos rhrnumes 
Trilrniius, qui pmsunt Zodiaco, kc, and will have them to be good Angels above, 
Devils beneath the Moon, their several names and oflices he there sets down, and 
which Diouysius of Angels, will have several spirits for several countries, men, 
xffieee, kc, which live about them, and as so many assisting powers cause their 
operations, will have in a word, innumerable, as many of them as there be Stars in 
the Skies. *' Marcilius Ficiuus seems to second this opinion, out of Plato, or from 
himself, I know not, (still ruling their inferiors, as they do those under them again, 
all subordinate, and the nearest to the earth rule us, whom we subdivide into good 
and bad angels, call Gods or Devils, as they help or hurl us, and so adore, love or 
haii i hut it is most likely from Plato, for he relying wholly on Socrates, quern mori 
polio* quam tnentiri voluisse scribit, whom he says would rather die than tell a false- 
hood, out of Socrates' authority alone, made nine kinds of them : which opinion be- 
like Socrates took from Pythagoras, and he from Trismegistus, lie from Zoroastes, 
first God, second idea, '3. Intelligence*, 4. Arch-Angels, 5. Angels, 6. Devils, 7. He- 
roes, 8. Principalities, 9. Princes : of which some were absolutely good, as Gods, 
some bail, some indifferent inter deos et homines, as heroes and daemons, which ruled 
nun, and were called genii, or as ■ Proclus anil Jamblichus will* the middle betwixl 
God and men. Principalities and Princes, which commanded and swayed Kintjs and 
countries; and had several places m die Spheres perhaps, for as every sphere is 
higher, so hath it more excellent inhabitants : which belike is that Galilaeus a Gali- 
leo and Kepler aims at in his nuncio Syderio, when be will have M Saturnine and 
Jovial inhabitants : and which Tycho Brahe doth in some sort touch or insinuate 
in one of his Epistles : but these things M Zanchius justly explodes, cap. 3. lib. 4. 
P. Martyr, in 4. Sam. 28. 

So that according to these men the number of a?therial spirits must needs be infi- 
nite : for if that be true that some of our mathematicians say : if a stone could fall 
from the starry heaven, or eighth sphere, and should pass every hour an hundred 
. it would be 65 years, or more, before it would come to ground, by reason of 
the great distance of heaven from earth, which contains as some say 170 millions 
mm miles, besides those other heavens, whether they be crystalline or watery which 
BfagUMM adds, which penulvrnlure holds as much more, how many such spirits may 
it contain ? And yet for all this M Thomas Albertus, and most hold that there be far 
more angels than devils. 

Sublunary devils, and their kinds.] But be they more or less, Quod supra no* 
nihil ad nos (what is beyond our comprehension does not concern us). Howsoever 
as Martianus foolishly eupposeth, jEtherii Datmones non curant res hurna?uis, they 
care not for us, do not attend our actions, or look for us, those atherial spirits haie 
other worlds to reign in belike or business to follow. We are only now to speak 
in brief of these sublunary spirits or devils : for the rest, our divines determine that 
the Devil had no power over stars, or heavens ; **Carminibus ceclo possunt. deducert 
lunnm, kc, | by their charms (verses) they can seduce the moon from the heavens). 
Those are poetical fictions, and that they can " sistere aquam Jluviis,ct verle.re side/a 
rttro, kc, (stop rivers and turn the stars bark ward in their courses) as Canadia in 
Horace, 'tis all false. "'They are confined until the day of judgment to this sublu- 
nary world, and can work no farther than the four elements, and as God permits 
1MB. Wherefore of these sublunary devils, though others divide them otherwise 
ling to their several places and offices, PseHus makes six kinds, fiery, aerial, 
terrestrial, watery, and subterranean devils, besides thore fairies, satyrs, nymphs, kc. 

Fiery spirits or devils are such as commonly work by blazing stars, fire-drake*, 

• ip M .t 5. ferritin an. mirnb. " Conv I ditto tene.ili reiervantur. >*q. M. art. 9. 

1 in dial. 1'lai. d<- sump', enp J. I'l uphrra quae- "> Virir. d. Eg. ■ ,-V.n 4 ■ Auilin : hoc dl&J, 

N|H nni, ita pnratanliore* habenl hnbitntnrr* m> quia exMimel habilare ihl inula iln 

iptuerte contort?*, vit babel nostra, ** Lib de el Lunam el SlellaM Dim orilinavit, el alibi nemo ar 

lea. ui demnne mad. inter dem et Imminca, diea ad bitrnrecir UiemnniMii radii habilare cum tafviM iu 
i«t nnura trqualiler ad deo* feruiit. »8alnrni- utide ItBwiag eredlBiUa. idem. Zanch. I 
HM el jnvinles accolaa. M In lota deiruii mnt 1 Angel, null*. I'ereriu. in Gen. cap. 6. lib. 8. in »er 

Infra utleitei orbei in aetcni acUicel el Infra ubt Ju- | 





'-• 

-h lead men often infiumitta avt praeipitia, suith Bodine, lib. S, 
Pbeat . fol. 221. Quos mquif arcrrc ni oohtnt cialorcs, « luni nin Deum 

•pptllurc out pronam facie Icrram conn t hoc nmuhlum ma~ 

mottrii aecepiun . (whom i h to keep off 

pronounce the name of God with a dear eflfa him with their 

ItftCf I ihey coimtcrlcit HUM and BOOML 

and fit on ship must* : In navigiorum summit ati bus vimtMw j 
dioscuri, a* Eusebiu- l i ootn PfsfkNOphoa, c. xlvin. irdbnneth Da, i 

louds, ad malum neat »hirh 

r t aw tii Cardan, hut tin snme mischief or other to come unto 

$h some again will have then to pretend good, and victory to that t*i«le 
towards in sea fights, St. Elmo's rires they commonly rail them, an. 
pptar after a sea storm ; Radzrrilius, the Polonian duke, calls this appari- 
rinttnt xidtti ; and saith moreover that he saw the same after in a 
torn*, as he was s»> om Alexandria to Rhodes." Our stories are full 

leach apparitions in all kinds. Some think they keep their residence in that Hecla, 
I mountain in |cr!.. . , Lipari, Vesuvius, ^r. Thfl66 devils were 

that superstitious nvpo/»arr«ia*° end the like. 
. are such as keep quarter most part in die "air, cause many 
wpaU, thunder, and nghtliiags, tear oaks, tin* steeples, houses, strike men and 
■9MM, makr it rain stones, as in Law's time. wool. R*OgS, Sec. Counterfeit armies in 
lie Sir* strange iion.'s, BjWOMM, kr., as at Vienna before the coming of the Turks, 
tad many Um« - . as SeheretBans 1. de sport, c. 1. part 1. Lavater de spect. 

art. ] .luliw* Ohseipicim, an oU Koman, in his book of prodigies, ab urh. 

''•■' hiavcl haih illustrated by many examples, and Josephus, in his 
losjk de tirllo Judai< ihe destruction of Jerusalem. All which QuiL 1' 

r«r»t book, c. 7, de orbis coin ih as an effectual areiun 

le diem that will not l)elieve there be spirits or devds. They 
winds on a sodden, and Ian storms ; which though our rrx 

r to natural causes, yet I nm of Bodine's mind, Theat. Nat. 1. 2. 

we often caused by those aerial devils, in their M ten ; for 7Vf?i- 

se imgenmt, saith" Rich. Argentine; as when a desperate man makes away 

himself, srhkfa by hanging or dro w n i ng they frequently ilo, as Kornmanus ob- 

. 9, tripvdivm agentet, dancing and rejoicing at tho 
of a sinner, upt the air, and cause plagues, sickness, storms, 

inundations. At Mons Dinconis in Italy, there is a most iniiiwr- 
ius Pontanua: and nothing so familiar (if we in 

unmaticus, Olaus Magnus, Damianus A. Goes) as for 
oil sorcerers, in Lapland, Lithuania, and all i lia, to sell winds to 

and cause tempests, which Marcus Pauhis the Venetian relates likewi 

These kind of devils are much "delighted in sacrifices (saith Porphyry i, 
le world in awe, and had iroea, idols, sacrifices, in Rome, Gi 

. and deceive those Kthnics and Indians, being 
icd for "gods. For die Gentile- I'nsme- 

ipius), and he himself could make them come to their 
mac ami are now as much "respected by our papi 

of saints." These are they which Cardan thinks i 

pUttiion With witches | Inrtitu nnd SuCCUhi . transl'mm bodies, and 

•!; and thai si His father had one 

(as he t» not ashamed to relate)," an aerial devil, bound to him for twenty 

•/rippo's dog had a devil lied to his coll think that 

else Km - him) had one confined to hie sword pun 

Junncs and Jambres did many things of old by 
Magu-. Cinops, Apollonius Tianeus, Jamblichus, and Triiemius 









I ,nn, III. S. "fiillTlllliM. r 

I I |irn Dirl.tl iiiin. 

|l|| (I nllniM I 
«-U I 111 ilaluil I'- II ' 

Ik. "Lis 
Ac. D ver. 






122 Digression of Spirits. [Part. 1. See. 2 

of late, that showed Maximilian the emperor his wife, after she was dead ; Et ver- 
rucam in collo ejus (saith TO Godolman) so much as the wart in her neck. Delrio, 
lib. ii. hath divers examples of their feats : Cicogna, lib. iii. cap. 3. and Wierus in 
his book de praslig. damonum. Boissardus de tnagis et veneficis. 

Water-devils are those Naiads or water nymphs which have been heretofore con- 
versant about waters and rivers. The water (as Paracelsus thinks) is their chaos, 
wherein they live ; some call them fairies, and say that Habundia is their queen ; 
these cause inundations, many times shipwrecks, and deceive men diveis ways, as 
Succuba, or otherwise, appearing most part (saith Tritemius) in women's shapes. 
71 Paracelsus hath several stories of them that have lived and been married to mortal 
men, and so continued for certain years with them, and after, upon some dislike, 
have forsaken tliem. Such a one as JEgeria, with whom Numa was so familiar, 
Diana, Ceres, &c. ' "Olaus Magnus hath a long narration of one Hotherus, a king 
of Sweden, that having lost his company, as he was hunting one day, met with 
these water nymphs or fairies, and was feasted by them ; and. Hector Boethius, or 
Macbeth, and Banquo, two Scottish lords, that as they were wandering in the woods, 
had their fortunes told them by three strange women. To these, heretofore, they 
did use to sacrifice, by that vdpopavWca, or divination by waters. 

Terrestrial devils are those "Lares, Genii, Fauns, Satyrs, "Wood-nymphs, Foliots, 
Fairies, Robin Goodfellows, Trulli, &c, which as they are most conversant with 
men, so they do them most harm. Some think it was they alone that kept the 
heathen people in awe of old, and had so many idols and temples erected to them. 
Of this range was Dagon amongst the Philistines, Bel amongst the Babylonians, 
Astartcs amongst the Sidonians, Baal amongst the Samaritans, Isis and Osiris amongst 
the Egyptians, &.c. ; some put our 74 faries into this rank, which have been in former 
times adored with much superstition, with sweeping their houses, and setting of a 
pail of clean water, good victuals, and the like, and then they should not be pinched, 
but find money in their shoes, and be fortunate in their enterprises. These are they 
that dance on heaths and greens, as "Lavater thinks with Tritemius, and as "Olaus 
Magnus adds, leave that green circle, which we commonly find in plain fields, which 
others hold to prrfceed from a meteor falling, or some accidental rankness of the 
ground, so nature sports herself; they are sometimes seen by old women and chil- 
dren. Hierom. Pauli, in his description of the city of Bercino in Spain relates how 
they have been familiarly seen near that town, about fountains and hills ; JVonmm- 
quam (saith Tritemius) in sua latibula montium simpliciores homines ducant, stu- 
penda mirantibus ostenles miracula, nolarum sonitus, spectacula, &c. n Giraldus 
Cambrensis gives instance in a monk of Wales that was so deluded. "Paracelsus 
reckons up many places in Germany, where they do usually walk in little coats, 
some two feet long. A bigger kind there is of them called with us hobgoblins, and 
Robin Goodfellows, that would in those superstitious times grind corn for a mess of 
milk, cut wood, or do any manner of drudgery work. They would mend old irons 
in those JKolian isles of Lipari, in former ages, and have been often seen and heard. 
"Tholosanus calls them Trullos and Getulos, and saith, that in his days they were 
common in many places of France. Dithmarus Bleskenius, in lus description of 
Iceland, reports for a certainty, that almost in every family they have yet some such 
familiar spirits ; and Fodix Malleolus, in his book de crudel. daemon, affirms as much, 
that these Troll i or Telchines are very common in Norway, "and "'seen to do 
drudjfery work ;" to draw water, saith Wierus, lib. 1 . cap. 22, dress meat, or any 
such thing. Another sort of these there are, which frequent forlorn E houses, which 
the Italians rail foliots, most part innoxous, w Cardan holds; u They will make 
strange noises in the night, howl sometimes pitifully, and then laugh again, cause 
great Hume and sudden lights, fling stones, rattle chains, shave men, open doors and 

'• I.lli. 3. rap. a. De mag ii et veneAcis, fcc. Nerridrs. I t real*, where they exhibit wonderflil night* to their 
"Lib. df Zi!|>hin. "Lib. 3. '•'' Pro salute | marvelling eyes, and astonish their ear* by the mmnI 

hoiiiiiiinn eituliare »e simulant, ted in eorum perni- of belle, 4cc. ™ Lib. de Zilph. et Phrniasus Olaaa 



clem omnia muliuiitur. Aust. : <Dryades, Oriudrn, 
Hamadryaries. "Elves Olaus vnc. at lib. 3. 

"Part I. cap. 19. "Lib. 3. cap. 11. Elvarum 

chorea* Olans lib. 3. vocal laltnm adeo profundi in 
terras iinpriuiunl, lit locos insigni delnceps virore or- 
bicalaris iit,et framen non parent. '"Sometimes 

Ussy seduce too simple men Into their noanuin rt- 



lib. 3. «• Lib. 7. rap. 14. Qui et In fonmlitlo viral 

et frmlnla Inservlunt, ronclavla scopls purgiM, pati- 
na* muhdant, Hrna portant, equoe curant, fee. ■ Ai 
miniaieria utnntur. m Where treasure U M (m 

some think) or some murder, or sneh like 
comaltud. "lib. 1ft. 4« ram vsrtatu. 



Tract 

Z2. o 



Mem. ] . Subs. 2.] Digression of Spirits. 1 23 

them, fling down platters, stools, chests, sometimes appear in the likeness of 

:." of which read ** Pet Thyraus the Jesuit, in his 

rt de Incit infest is, purl. I. ,i enp. 4, \\\\o will have them to be devil" or the 

of damned men that seek revenge, or else soulfl Ml of purgatory that 9eek 

"Uch examples penise M Sigismundus Scheretzius, Ub. de spectris, part 1. 

he saith he took out of Luther most part ; there be many instances. ^Pli- 

aembers such a house at Athens, which Allien 

bid) no man durst inhabit for fear of devils. Austin, de dr. !)• i. lih. 

1- relates as much of Uesperius the Tribune's house, at Zubeda, near their 

1 -. ted with evil spirits, to his greut hindrance, Cum qMjctitme anima- 

hmm tt :» rrorum suorum. .Many such instances are to be read in Niderius l'i>rmicar, 

cap. xa. 3. &.c. Whether 1 may call these Zim and Ochim, which Isaiah) Gap. 

llij. 21. speaks of, 1 make a doubt. See more of these in the eaid Scliereiz. lib. 1. 

t he is lull of examples. These kind of devils many times appear to 

end affright them out of their wits, sometimes walking at nooa-day, soine- 

at nights, counterfeiting dead men's ghosts, as that of Caligula, which (saith 

is seen to walk in Lavinia's garden, where his body was buried, sj 

hauled, and the house where he died, ".Yulfa nox sine terrore transaeta, donee in- 

etmdio eomsumpta ; every night this happened, there was no quietness, till the house 

was bum ' out llecla, in Iceland, ghosts commonly walk) animus marhtomm 

mmmlmntr*, saith Job. Anan, Kb. 'A. d>- not, <hrm. (Jhius. Ub, 2. cap. 2. .Vatul Tal- 

ij'iiril. xpir. Kornmannus dc mime. mart. pari. 1. cap. 44. such sights 

w* frequently seen circa sepulehra rt momrtHJfl. saith I -a vat. lib. I. cm 19. in 

Monasteries and about churchyards, loco, paludinosa, ampla csdj/EcM, solitnria, e* 

Caestr hominiim notahu Sic. (marshes, great buddings, solitary places, or remaikablc 

t* lli- i some murder.) Thyreus adds, uhi gravis* jxcratum rst comnirssum, 

mpii* pauptru igaes habitant (where some very hi 

erne was committed, there the impious and inlamous generally dwell). These spirits 

deaths by lereral ■igna y as knocking, groaning*) &.c. "though Rich. 

Arj- I *.dc prtettigiis decmonum, will ascribe ll \\ lions in n i angels, 

eat of the authority >>f Ficinus and others ; prodigia in obitu principum totpim con- 
tmgumt, &t.c. (prodigies frequently occur at the deaths of illustrious men), as in the 
lair ran r i ...\ tlie popes 1 deaths arc foretold by Sylvester's tomb. Near 

in Finland) in the kingdom of Sweden, there Is a lake, in which, before 
reroor of die castle dies, a spectrum, in the habit of Arion with his harp, appears, 
excellent music, like those blocks in Cheshire, which (they ny presage 
i to the master of the family; or that '-"oak in Laiithadrati park in Cornwall, which 
i« mm h. Many lannlns in Europe are so put in mind of their lasl bj such 
jmhru-Mi«, and many men are forewarned | if we may hcln re ParueelMis I by lamiliar 
*ptn. i shapes, as cocks, crows, owls, which often hover about sick men's 

(■amber*, tel quia moricntium fosditalen ft nrii/7i/,as M Baracellus conjcclui 
mper tectum mfirmornm crocitanl, because they smell a corse; or for that (as "Ber- 
asrdinus di hinketh) God permits the devil to appear in die farm -• and 

uchas live wickedly here on earth. A little before Tolly 4 ! 

( saith Plutarch) the crows made a mighty noise about him, tumuli mtvc p< rstre- 

pulled KM pillow from under bis head. Rob, Gaguinus, hist. Franc, lib 

rh another wonderful story at the death of Johannes de .Monti I'orli, a 

1 :i t.'i. tanta corrorum multitude adibus morientis inscdii. qvantam 

a multitude of crows alighted on the house of the 

man, such as no one imagined existed in France). Such prodtgini are very 

it «n authors. See mor- in the said Lavater, Thyreus de loot nil 

H / ■ 'irogna, lib. 3, cap. 9. Necromancers take 

lb*: !iem at their pleasures: and so likewise, those which 

Usaldut calls Ambulones, that walk about midnight on great heaths and desert 

•i«mo<li dnnin»lnrnm. r*l * *' Meridional*-! iJrronnci Clrnenft r»l|. ill. -m, ■ r .tl»- 
- Qllldnili Ir- I0TM, I. 3. c«p. 0. •8|»I "tul». 

^mtCicojina. lib. 3 m«f . rap 5 
• *n. Survey nf Cm n wall, lib 
■ «llortoG«nl»ll.rolio 1ST. 
' ii run, *.c- •*£pist. lib. 7. | cot 4 rcctn <u, el ttam iter UcienVi\>us Vn\< 




iane imm. STAVFORO uwvw^wt 



Digression of Spirits. 



[Part 1. Sect 



■wliicli (snith w Lavater) "draw men out of the way, and lead them all night 

ye-way, or quite bar them of their way j" ihftM have several names in several 
places; we commonly call ihcm Tucks. In iho deserts of Lop, in Asia, such 
illusion- of miking spirits arc often perceived, as you may read in ,M. Pauh 
the Venetian his travels ; if one lose his company by chance, these devds will 
call him by his name, and counterfeit voices of his companions to seduce hie 
"lieronym. Pauli, in his book of the hills of Spain, relates of a great ''mount 

mtabria, where such ■peetntOM are lo be seen ; Lavater and Cicogna have variet 
>f examples of spirits and walking devil* in this kind. Sometimes they sit by the 
n'ghway side, to give men falls, and make their horses stumble and start as they rule 
(if you will believe the relation of that holy man Ketellus in "Nubrigensis), that had 
an especial grace to see devils, Cratium diciniius collatam,and talk with them. El im- 
pavidus cum spirt! 'i \bus sermonc.m misccre, without onence, and if a man cu, 
his horse for stumbling, they do heartily rejoice at it; with many such pretty feats. 

Subterranean devils are as common as the rest, and do as much harm. Olaus 
Magnus, lib. G, cap. 19, make six kinds of them; some bigger, some less. The?e 
(sailh ^Munster) are commonly seen about mines of metals, and are some of them 
noxious ; some again do no harm. The metal-men in many places account it good 
luck, a sign of treasure and rich ore when they see them. Georgius Auricula, in his 
book dc subtcrraneis am mant thus. cap. 37, reckons two more notable kinds of them, 
which he calls **Getuli and Cobali, both "■ are clolhed after the manner of metal-men, 
and will many tunes imitate their works." Their ollice, as Pictorius and Paracelsus 
think, is to keep treasure in the earth, that it be not all at once revealed; and be- 
sides, "CSoogM avers that lliev are the frequent causes of those horrible earthquakes 
u which often swallow up, not only houses, but whole islands and cities;" m Ins 
third book, cap. 11, he gives many instances. 

The last are conversant about the centre of the earth to torture the souls o 
damned men to the day of judgment ; their egress and regress some suppose to 
ubout .Etna, Lipari, Mons Ilecla in Iceland, Vesuvius, Terra del Fucjro, tic, becaus 
many shrieks and fearful cries are continually heard thereabouts, and familiar appa- 
ritions of dead men, gliosis and goblins. 

Tltrir Ojficesy Operations, Study.] Thus the devil reigns, and in a thousand 
several shapes, u as a roaring lion still seeks whom he may devour,'* 1 Pet. v., by 
sea, land, air, as yet uncoufined, though "'"some will have his proper place the air; 
all that space between us and the moon for them that transgressed least, and hell fat 
the wickedest of them. Hie vfhtt in carcere ad Jinem mimdi 1 tunc in locum fun> slio- 
rum (rudcndi.aa Austin holds dr Civil /Jri, c. 22, lib. 14, cdp. 3 et 23; but be 
where he will, he rageth while he may to comfort himself, as l L&etantha thinks, 
with other men's falls, he labours all he can to bring litem into the same pit of per 
dition wiih him. •* For 'men's miseries, calamities, and ruins are the devil's 
quetiiiL,' dishes. By many temptations and several engines, he seeks to captivate oi 
souls. The Lord of Lies, sailh {Austin, "as he was deceived himself, he seeka to 
deceive others, the ringleader lo all naughtiness, as he did by Eve and Cain, Sodom 
and Gomorrah, so would he do by all the world. Sometimes lie tempts by c 
ousnes.s, drunkenness, pleasure, pride, &.C., errs, dejects, saves, kills, protect*) and 
rides some men, as they do their horses. He studies our overthrow, and generally 



I Lib. 1. cap. 41. Dcmomim rernunlur el audiuTiliir 
frrqiictiica illuaionc*, uiide vi.iiohltua cuvendum 
te dlaanclem, aut A tergo uianeaiit. VOCM emni 
jDfunt raekiniM, in A recla ilinere aliiiiic.mt. ir 
■ bom alerilfa et rUvoaua, ubl Intcmpettt mm 
or* apparent *"Llb- 3. cap. tl, Oflfcndieala. f<- 

clunl transeiintibu* In via d peiulanler ridel inn eel 
homini'in vpl Jiimeiittim ejn» fK-de* nllcrere faci.ini, 
et mtiinie «l homo malediciua tl tmtHrtbM 

-uiugr. *\>»lln mote imiill nun. 

gemiu rt ne' " '■'•rum imitanmr. «• Illinium tn 

terr» carcerra venm norribilea terra? mniua oifknitit, 
qinhii'. MM iimi gaagAM iiiihIm cl lurrca. srd rivltalea 
Inlegrir tl inmla- hnuMie mnl. ""Hii-rotn. in 'J. 

Ephea. Mi'iii Mlchaeli*. c. 4. de *t>lrltlhu«. Idem 
Thyreu* ile loci* Infoalla. ' I ii t mini* 3. Je 

orig.rn- nmi" '-ap. 15. In inahsni apuitiu per nrmiem 
Urram va^aniur. et ajlanuui perdiliuai* sua: perden- 



dlt bnrnliiilnn nperantur. * Mwtalium mtaa 

l*le* cpuls sum luilm-uin drmnnutn, S 

' l)uiiiiiiii« mendadl A *eip*o deceptu*. alio* 

rilfiil, advers.-iriua lliltn.inl anuria. In ^ 

tuperhlB in-nnitiir, radi* malitir, ici 

prlnce-p* omnium viuomm, full India In Dal >"niun 

llan, h mnmuni pajralciam i de bornn comHImbi 

opcrallfliilbtu le|e BplphiinMim. 3. Tom. lib '2 Dio 

tiv.iiini ■ i kinbrtM. Epkvifll. lib. 10. *fj AIM An- 

gnal ill' civ. !>• I III), i 6. V. Ill' 3 Up. -."J lib. 0. ta 

lib in 21 Th. "i ntl Mai. I'a-il ep l-li.l.mncn 

s.r Th lorw In II. Oot en '^ Chrp hot 

l.rif In I. r. Julin. llai i 1. 1, 

20 /rim h. I 4 lie mall* angeltn. 1'i-n-r in (Vr>n. I. a 

Orifeu. arpe pnrlhn InWSUnt, lllraam 
nreniia n»*ira quvcumque diricunt, flaiideaunla ael 
I In- niilaloa anpe prrlirnl aucr'iaaua, I'et. War. laj 
Sain. ic. Rnacam de lufrrno. 



i Ma.*] 




Digression of Spirit*. 



125 



-M|| 



huri 



our destruction; and although he pretend man-.- times human good, ana vin- 

■i |od by Mring of several diseases, rgris sanitatem, et caeis 

rtatitmendo, as Austin declares, lib. 10, de civit Dei, cap. fi, as ApollOi 

hum of old iMir done; divert plagues, assist them in wars, pretend 

■ nihil his impuriv.i, scclrsttus, nihil humuno generi inf's/itu, 

nothing so pernicious, as may well appear by their I 

i to Saturn and Moloch, which are still in use among 

bdinna, tlicir several deceits and cozenings to keep men in ebe> 

io oracles, sacrifices, their superstitious impositions of fasts, penury, 

superstitious observations of meats, times, &c, by which thev 'cm 

■I men, as shall be showed in our Treatise of Religion-; Mo* 

i (jilhuc tempore sinitur malignari, as * Bernard expresseth it, by 

n he rOgeth a while, hereafter to be confined to hell and darkness, 

prepared for him and his angels," Mot xxv. 

tr power doth extend it is hard to determine; what the ancients field 
•Acta, force and operations, 1 will briefly show you: Plato in Critias. and 
his follower?, gave out that IftOM spirits or devds, ** were men's governors 
- lords and masters, as we are of our cattle." e ♦» They govern pro- 
kingdoms by oracles, auguries," dreams, rewards and punishments, pen* 
inspirations, sacrifices, and religious supi ;rstiiious, TtiiffJ in as many forms 
be diversity of spirits; they send wars, plagues, peace, sickness, health, 
'antes hie jam nobis, spectantes, tt arbilranles, &.c. as appears by 
of Thucydidcs, Livius, Dionyshu HalicarnassuB, with many others 
Of their wonderful stratagems, and were therefore by those Roman and 
wealths adored and worshipped for gods with prayers and sacrifices 
word, .Ythil magis quarunt quam me turn it admirationem hominum ; 'and 
hath it, Diet mm potest, quam impotenti ardore in homines duniinium, tt 
r.ultus tnaligni sjtiritus affectent.™ Tritemius in his book de septan scevn- 
mnc* to such angels as are governor! Of particular prminOOl) bf what 
I kn' i era several jur Asclepiadcs a Gn< nm, 

Jew, Abraham .Uenezra, and Rabbi Azariel, Arabians, (as 1 find 
Cicojrnai farther add, that thev are not our gOfOfOOtl onlv, .*»';/ ex 
. , ffoni et mah affeetut ]>romaiumi. but as they ngrei., sa 
e aud our W IO OO S, or disagree ; stand or fall. Juno was a bitter enemy to '! 
', Jupiter it t, Aiqua Venus Trurria, Pallas intend f* 

ne against us, Prtmato Duoyfiri Dene alt>ropem. Refr 
■ .'die and private quarrels, wars are procured by them, and tV.ev are 
i fight, as men are with cocks, bulls and dogOj ''ears, 
dearths drpend on them, our beni and noli '1 almost all our 

liar ;: Anthony Rusea contends, lib. 5, cap. 18, even' mm 

i a bad angel attending on him in particular, all his life long, which 
us calls dsrmonem,) preferments, losses, weddings, deaths, rewards and 
ta, and as "Proclus will, all offices whatsoever, alii gmrtria in. nln 
i poieMattm habenL, &.c. and several names they give them according to their 
a* Inn .i, Indegites, Prastites, &c. When the Arcades in that battle at Cl,<- 
:i was fought against King Philip for the liberty of Greece, had deceiilully 
natives, long after, in the very same place, Dtk (irtrri t t ul!t>nl<us i sailh 
miserably slain by Metellus the Roman: so likewise, in 
nta'tTx, tfiey will have things fall out, as these boni aud malt a nn favour 
us: Saiurni ■ niunt JcviaUbmt, Stc. He that is Saturninus shall 

'■ferred. "That base fellows are often advanced, undeserving 
and vicious parasites, whereas discreet, wise, virtuous and worthy Often 




. tlKumfr, Io Oir honour oflielnf divinely wnr»hlpp«d." "OmalC 

• CuttOdM tunt homlmun, mitf. lib. 8. rap. S3. " L»du» dr. -ruin -mm;. 

provlncili |>r«po- '"Lib. de iniina et Ucmone- '<<■ ul 

illi. |>r»nul», Ac. 1'rlncipra nnvllium aulicum dirltiti et di." 

- Lao pene obruant. et niulinrum or.nonim niolatruui, qol 

I iiey »eek nothing nun fecarl pr. liven «uhlit, fir Uni • 

- iiion of men" nent, 4c. Idem. Quod riiiln#nptii win ren>u<>rreniur, 

ininntent cum Kiirrm el ineptu* Ob intuUuoi Jotum »»v« V*»- 
be.ee pullf D»ut ipixua iipife to I ainum reuoncl, inde at, kc. 




Agression of Spirits. 



I. 






src neglected and unrewarded ; they refer to those domineering spirits, or subordi- 
nate Genii j as they are inclined, or favour men, so they thrive, are ruled and over- 
come ; for as ''Libanius supposeth in our ordinary conflicts and contention*, (irnius 
Genio cedit et obtetnperat^ one genius yields and is overcome by another. .All par- 
ticular events almost they refer to these private spirits ; and (as Paracelsus adds) 
they direct, teach, inspire, and instruct men. Never was any man extraordinary 
famous in any art, action, or great commander, that had not familiarem &BM0MM 
to inform him, as Numa, Sorrates, and many such, as Cardan illustrates, o'y. I'Jv 
Arcanis prudenlies civilis, '"Speciali siquidem gratia,sc a Deo donari as&r-runt magi, 
a Geniis oalt tt H m instrui, ab Us doceri. But these are most erroneous para>. 
ineptce et fabulosa nuga, rejected by our divines and Christian churches. 'Tis truo 
they have, by God's permission, power over us, and we rind by experience, thnt 
they can "hurt not our fields only, cattle, goods, but our bodies and minds. At 
Harnmel in Saxony, An. 1484. 20 Junii, the devil, in likeness of a pied piper, carried 
away 180 children that were never after 8MO. Many times men are "affrighted out 
of their wits, carried away quite, as Scheretzms illustrates, lib. l,c. iv., and seve- 
rally molested by his means, Plotiuus the Ptalonist, lib. 14, aderrs. Gnos. la 
them to scorn, that hold the devil or spirits ran cause any such diseases. Many 
think he can work, upon the body, but not upon the mind. But experience pro- 
nouneeth otherwise, that he can work both upon body and mind. Tertullian is 
of this opinion, c. 22. "" That he can cause both sickness and health," and that 
secretly. "Tauretlus adds kt by clanrular poisons he can infect the bodies, and hinder 
the operations of the bowels, though we perceive it not, closely creeping into 
them," saith Jl Lipsius, and so crucify our souls : Et nociva melancholia furiosos 
efficit. For being a spiritual body, he struggles with our spirits, saith Rogers, and 
suggests (according to w Cardan, verba sine rocr, species sine visa, envy, lust, anger 
&LC.) as he sees men inclined. 

The manner how he performs it, Btarmannus in his Oration against Bodine, sufli. 
neatly declares, ""lb- begins first with the phantasy, and moves thai idy, 

that no reriMiu is able to resist. Now the phantasy he moves by mediation of hu- 
mours ; although many physicians are of opinion, that the devil can alter the mind, 
and produce this disease of himself. Qttibusdam medicorum visum, saith "Avicenna, 
quod J\L ttmrhftiin c<mtin«at a dtemonio. Of the same mind is Psellus and Rl 
the Aral). Vb. 1. Tract. 9. Con*. mu That this disease proceeds especially from the 
devil, and from him alone." Arculanus, cap. 6. in 9. Rhasis, iElianus HontaltltS, in 
his 9. cap. Daniel Sennertus, lib. I. part. 2. cap. 11. confirm as much, that the devil 
can catise this disease; by reason many times that the parties affected propl 
speak strange language, but non sine, interventu humoris, not without the humour, as 
M interprets himself; no more doth Avicenna, si conlingat a damonin y sujlieit nobis 
ul convertat complexioncm ad choleram nigram, et sit causa ejus pro p inq tta cholera 
nigra; the immediate cause is rhoier adust, which M Pomponatius likewise labours 
to make jrnod : Galgerandus of Mantua, a famous Physician, so cured a dtemoo 
woman in bi.s time, that spake all luiioiitiges, by purging black choler, and thereupon 
belike this humour of Melancholy is called Balneum Diaholi, the Devil's Bath; the 
devil spying his opportunity of such humours drives them many times to despair, 
fury, ra<rc, i<c., mingling himself among these humours. This is that which Tertul- 
lian tft :nirihits injligunt acerbos casus, aniirnrque repentinos, membra distor- 
. occulti ri'penles, &.c. and which Lemnius goes about to prove, Immixc.ent se 
mali Genii pravis humoribus, atque atra. bilL, Sic. And 2, Jason Pratensis, •* that the 



de cruell Cadaver, " Bnitsardu*. c. 4 

mntsiii. >. .mm, cap. 3. lib. 1. de Magi*. 

Idem Z.inrhiiir. lib. i. enji, 10 et II. de mails anrelis. 
" Ncim iii r»or>»n« efficil, et qiini>i1ij(|ne 

r"iiiiu« mtnriii It. <;. ricnlnminetii (demque Zanclt. 
Cap. 10. lib. 4. ul Deut perinlitat, corpnrn aoatT* mn- 
vere po«mim, alirrare. quovia iriorborum el ni.ilnnini 
genera nlurere, iino el In iuin penctrare et 
'* Inducers poleit miirbm el eaniinlcv ■> Viace- 

rum nrlionr, poteM Inliihcra lnletiter, at Teni-ni- no- 
bis Irnoit. corpus InSttN. *> Irrepentca corporibuj 
octultO aaorbca flngimi. inentea tcrrenl, membra dis- 
torquent. Lip*. I'bil Stole, t. 1. c. 10. *>Dc re rum 
rar. I. 18. c. W3. * Quum mens Immediate* duupi 



nequit, primum mnvli pbantanam, et ila obflraial va- 
nil conctplibua nut ul ne <5uciii faiultnii irvi 
r id.iui liifiirn ti'linqunt. Sptritua nnlii* Invndit anl- 
mnnu lurLat jenius, in fiirnri-m roniiui Au-nn. de 
vit. W<-nt. «l.ib. 3 Fen 1. Tmrt 4. c. Is. »* 
Ihfmune maiime proflri*ri, et mrpi- aolo. *> Lib. 
mi. " Ca>p. de mania lib.de BirKli cere- 
bri; Iircnonea, qnum alnl t'>mi"« <»t i npreheaal- 

tilled murium, te iiuiiuuire corrxintiiis bumatila poa- 
niril.ri orfiiile In vlnceriliun npertl, Yaleitidlaem vi- 
liare, aomnlia anlmaa terrere et nvi>i- • ( ■■ -TiMia 
lii-uuuinl »e mclani-h'ili (truta !••■■ •''allbQi, 
intim Ibique cnnnidiint ct dclirlantnr tanquam in rep- 
one clariiiimorumaidorum, coguntqua ar-muni fiirtro. 







»•] 



Nature of Spirits. 



127 



a slender incomprehensible spirit, can easily insinuate and wind himself 
bodies, and cimiimtrly OOOChsO 1 in cur bowels vitiate our healths, terrify 
wilh fearful dreams, and shake our minds with furies." And in another 
These unclean spirits settled in our bodies, and now mixed with our melan- 
Ktura, do triumph u it were, and sport lliemselves as in another heaven." 
and that they go in and out of our bodies, as bees do in a hive, 
md tempt us a^ our temperature inclined of itself, and 

lo be deluded. "Agrippa and B Lavater are persuaded, that thil humour 
I lo it, wheresoever it is in extremity, and of all other, melancholy 
most subject to diabolical temptations and illusions, anil most ant to < n- 
i, and the Devil best able to work upon them. But whether by obsession, 
or otherwise, I will not determine; 'tis u difficult question. Delrio 
r and his colleague, mall. male/. Pet ThyretM the 
^. de dirmoniucis, <lc tod* infestis, de Terrijtcationibua noclumix, Ilnnmi- 
ts Flagel. deem, and others of that rank Of pontifical writers, it Bit ms, by 
and conjurations approve of it, having forged many stories to that 
A nun did eat a lettuce "without grace, or signing it with the sign of the 
was instandy possessed. Duraml. lib. 0. Rationall. c. 80. numb. 8. relates 
wa wench possessed in Bononia with two devils, by sating an unhallowed 
is she did afterwards confess, when she was cured by exorcisms. And 
our I 'apis Is do Sign themselves >o often with the sign of the cross, JVi da- 
t.<ii ausit, and exorcise all manner of meats, as being unclean or accursed 
m% as Bellarmine defends. Many such stories I find amongst pontifical writ- 
e their assertions, let them free their own credits; some few 1 will ra 
out of most approved physicians. Cornelius Gemma, lib. 2. dc nal. tm- 
^. relates of a young maid, called Katherinc. Gualter, a cooper's daughter, Jin. 
fiat had such strange passions and convulsions, three men could not some* 
r ; she purged a live eel, which be saw, a foot and a half long, and 
it himself; but the eel afterwards vanished; she vomited some twenty-four 
1 fulsome stulTof all colours, twice a day for fourteen days ; and after that 
it balls of hair, peices of wood, pigeon 1 ! dung, parchment, goose dung, 

r them kWO pound* of pure blood, and then ,il -oals and stones, of 

id i is bigger than a walnut, some of them pieces of glass, 

-ins of laughing, weeping and I fcc Et hoe (iuquit) 

i, this I saw with horror. They could do no good on her by physic, 
the clergy. Marcellus Donatus, lib. 2. c. 1. de med. mirab. hath such 
.uitry fellow, that had four knives in his belly, Inslar urrat den- 
itrd like a *aw, every one a span long, and a wreath of hair like a globe, 
baggage of like sort, wonderful to behold : how it should crime into his 
. ' - nun alio quum damemis astutiu tl dolo, < could assuredly 
been through the artifice of the devil). Langius, Epist. med, lib. 1. Epist. 
to ibis effect, and so hath Christopherus a Vega : Wieras, 
- that they are done by the subtilty and illusion of the 
ion of this, 'tis to • sercise our patience; for as "Ter- 
; est virtus, nisi comparcm habit aliqucm, m quo t t tpt r ttud o 
lal 'tis lo try us and our faith, 'lis for our offences, and lor the pun- 
<iod'B permission they do it, Cana/ices vmdicUe justa Dei, 
ins stvloi them. Executioners of his will; or rather as David, I's. 78. ver.49. 
upon ihi m the fierceness of his anger, indignation, wrath, and fexatiaa. 
so did he ofllict J < >b, Saul, the Lunatics and demoniacal 
whom Christ cured. Mat. iv. 8. Luke iv. 1 1. Luke xni. Mark ix.Tobit. viii. 3 
I say, happcncih for a punishment of sin, for their want of faith, incredu 
weakness, distrust, 8cc. 



fliilim. p-irt I. cap. I. d» 
• Sio< cIUC« CI t4iii llfict liuaa ale fc 



drm.mr obaeaaa. dial, 
null, de o;.ifli. Uri 



-Girt. pa*, c. 9. ■ Pt- 
■Llb. S9. cap. 20. torn. t. 



1 28 



Nature of Devils. 



[Part. 1. Sec. 




Scbsect. III. — Of Witches and Magicians, how thty cause Melancholy. 

You have heard what the devil can do of himself, now you shall hear what he can 
perform by his instruments, who are manv times worse (if it be possible) than lie 
himself, and to satisfy their revenge and lust cause more mischief, JMulta rnim mala 
non cgisset damon, nisi provocalus a sagis, as M Erastus thinks; much harm had 
never been done, had he nut been provoked by witches to it. He had not appeared 
in Samuel's shape, if the Witch of Eridor had let him alone; ox represented those 
serpents in Pharaoh's presence, had not ttie magicians urged him unto it; JYec tnnrbos 
vet haininibiis, vel bnttis in/iVgcrrc (Erastus maintains) si saga' quiesce.rent ; men and 
title might go free, if the witches would let him alone. Many deny witches at all, 
or il there be My they can do no harm ; of this opinion is WierOS, lib. 3. cap. 53. de 
pra.ifig. d<?m. Austin Lerchemer a Dutch writer, Biurmanus, Ewichius, EuwaldttSj 
our countryman Scot ; with him in Horace, 



' Sornnin, terror** Magicoa, miraculn, sacit*, 
Nocturno* Loniure*, porlenUque Tbeaaala rUu 
Eicfpiuut- " 



Say. can jrou Inugh indignant at the ichcine* 
ofmnglc terror*, viiloniry dream*, 
Portentous Broaden, •rllefltag iniju of II II, 
The nightly goblin, and enchanting spell 1 



They laugh at all such stories; but on the contrary are most lawyers, divines, phy- 
sicians, philosophers, Austin, Hemingius, Danaeus, Chytraeus, Zanchius, Areti 
8tc. Delrio, Springer, **Niderius, lib. 5. Fornicar. Guiatius, Bartolus, consil. 6. torn. 1. 
Ih>di>u\ damouiatU. lib 2. cap. 8, Godehnan, Damhoderius, &c. Paracelsus, Erastus, 
Scribanius, Camcrarius, &c. The parties by whom the devil deals, may be reduced 
to these two, such as command him in show at least, as conjurors, and magicians, 
whose detestable and horrid mysteries are contained in their book called "ArbateU; 
dtemonis enim advocali provtta sunf, seque crorcismis ct conjurntionibus quaM eqgi 
patiunfnr, ut miserum wugOTUKl g^nus, HI bnpietets detincant. Or such as are coin- 
Hfided, U witches, that deal ex parte implicit*, or f.r]>licite< as the "'king hath well 
ineii ; many subdivisions there are, and many several species of sorcerers, witches, 
■> charmers* ls.c. They have been tolerated heretofore some of tin in, ami 
magic hath been publicly professed in former times, in "Salamanca, "Cracow, and 
other places, though after censured by several "Universities, and now generally con- 
tradicted, though practised by some still, maintained and excused, Tanqttam res se- 
ll qua non nisi viris magnis et pecuhari beHtfitio it Cwlo instructis eommttnicOtW 
(I use "BCBS&rtUa his words) and so fur approved by some princes, Ut nihil OS 

M snrris, in eotuiiitS, Stile corum arhifrio ; they consult slill wiih 
them, and dare indeed do nothing without their advice. Nero and Heliogal 
Maxenlius, and Julianus Apostata, were never so much addicted to magic of old, as 
some of our modem princes and popes themselves are now-a-days. Emeus, King 
of Sweden, had an 'enchanted Cap, by virtue of which, and some magical mur- 
mur or whispering terms, he could command spirits, trouble the air, and make the 
wind stand which way he would, insomuch that when there was any great wind or 
storm, the common people were wont to say, the king now had on his conjuring cap 
But such examples are infinite. That which they can do, is as much almost u 
devil himself, who is slill ready to satisfy their desires, to oblige them the more unto 
him. They can cause tempests, storms, which is familiarly practised by witches in 
Norway, Iceland, as I have proved. They can make friends enemies, and en 
friends by philters ; ■ Tiirpes amores conciliarcj enforce love, tell any man where his 
friends are, about what employed, though in the most remote places; and if they 
will, **" bring their sweethearts to them by night, upon a goat's back (lying in the 
air." Sigisinund Scherelzius, part. I. cap. 0. de sped, reports confidently, that he 
conferred with sundry such, that had been so carried many miles, and that he heard 
witches themselves confess as much; hurt and infect men and beasts, vines, corn, 
cattle, plants, make women abortive, not to conceive, *' barren, men and women un- 






■ D« Latnii*. *• Et qunroodo renefki nJint enar- 

rsl. * ]}<• quo plura lean* in Boi**»rdo. lib. I. St 

Entitle. *>Rox Jaeobn*, Drntonnl. I. 1. e. 3. 

An univerMty in S|i:nn in "Id ("anile. "The 

chief town in I'oland. "Oxford and Pari*, see 

linem P t.oHil'irdl. *Prefdt de magi* el »ene- 



fld*. « Rotatura Plleum habehat, quo vrntna 

i .inlmlo! cfe ret. aercm larbaret. et in qimni partem, 
■» F.taniu*. "Mlnhrterlo hirri nnctnnri. 

" Rlerile* ntiptoa et inhabile*. vide Petriim Jc I'jllude, 
lib, i. di»unct 34 Paulum Guiclandum. 






Causes of Melancholy. 



129 



married and unmarried, fifty several ways, saith Bocline, lib. 2. c. 2. 

■, meet when and where tin y will, u Cfeogna proves, and Lavat. dc spec. 

. e. 17. ** steal young children out of ilicir cradles, mimstcrin damonum, and 

wined in their room, which we call changelings," saith *Sehefetjritte, part. 1. 

akc mm victorious, fortunate, eloquent; and therefore in those ancient mono* 

.! combats they were searched of old, **they find no magical ehanns; i 

tc *»uck frees, such as shall endure a rapier's point, musket shot, and D 

imded: of which read more in Boissardus, cap. 6. de Magia, the manner of 

. "ri, mid by whoa 'tis made, where and how to be used in erpcditianibu* 

/ f &c,, with many peculiar instances and examples; they can 

fiery furnace*, make men feel no pain on the rack, out alias torturas sent ire ; 

n stanch blood, * represent dead men's shapes, alter and turn themselves and 

to wrrernl forma, at their pleasures. "Aguberta, a famous witch in Lapland, 

a* much publicly t'i all spectators, Modo Pusilla* modb anus, modb procera 

modo vaccdy avis, coluber. Etc. Now yotmgj now old, high, low, like a 

a bird, a snake, anil what not? She could represent to others what fbrBU 

. show then (Hands absent, reveal secrete, maxima omnium 

And yet for all this suhtilly of theirs, as Lipsius well observes, 

■or. lib. 1. cap. 17. neither these magicians nor devils themselves can 

- ! 9 on! of min; or < 'raS9US' chest, tt Cli>ntrlis sirix largiru for 

, contemptible fellows most part; as "Bodine notes, they can 

i<t Jtulicum dccrela ant panas, in rrgum concilia vrl arcana, nihil in rem 

out thtimrv, they cannot give money to their clients, alter judges' de- 

eoorteils of kings, these mmnti Qettti cannot do it, altiores Qenti hoe sibi 

10 higher p thing! 10 themselves. Now and then 

may be some more famoi ins like Simon Magus, s, Apol- 

neus, Pasetes, Jamblicus, M Odo de Stellis, that for a time can build castles 

Hweeent armies, Stc, as they are u said to have done, command wealth 

fired thousands with all variety of meats upon a sudden, p r o tec t them- 

lowers from all princes' persecutions, by removing from place to 

instant, reveal Future events, tell what is done in far count 

m appenr that died long since, and do many such miracles, to the world's 

00 and opinion of deity to themselves, yet the devil forsakes them a: 

come to wick id rard aut nunquam such impostors are to be 

can work no such feats. But to my purpose, they 

■ most diseases to such a9 they love or hate, and this 

•nipt the rest. Paracelsus, Tom. 4. d< morbu armnlium. Tract. 1. 

r is; Mul > fascinanfur in melanekoliam, many are bewitched 

The same sail 1 1 Dansus, lib. 8. it torUatrUs. 

nftut, qv ■■ mnrhaS gravisaimox induxerunt : I have seen those 

lOSM me' - manner, *' dried up women's paps, 

otit, palsy ; this and apoplexy, falling sickness, which no physic could help, 

by touch alone. Kfltand in his 3 Cent. Cura 91. gives an instance of one 

g man, who by eating cakes which a witch gave him, wor d 

on a sudden, and was instantly mad : F. H. D. in "Hihles- 

: about a melancholy man, thought his disease was partly magical, and 

natural, because he vomited pieces of iron and lead, and spake such languages 

nerrr been taught; but such examples are common in Srribanius, Hercules 

Ionia, and other*. The meani by which they work are usually charms, ima. 

King Duffe; characters stamped of sundry metals, mid 
its, words, philters, kc, which generally 
w partis* affected, melancholy ; as " Monavius discourseth at large in an epistle 



-. i i.-.yrj rnT'/ii 



'.»»nlur, nil). «uppo«ltirU 
1 iriin, lib. 1 

«Ta«u1 4. IncaiitalrUrm uVjcm- 



bena: H»c «a earminibut promitili tnlrcra rot-nip*. 

vr In, an alii* dura* linmilien 
riVljninnii*. fan. 7. life 

>to inclu podacr^rn, Apofdrl 
qua* irtf'U' in < ■ 'i' 
■ Knnu« indp M ft mac in, • 
n ■ it |.liiltra Mai later ae duYcrsnl, li c 
quod limiiuirm rflli i.ml ftitflaacfei 
Schollrn 



i mil* llfir.lr- 
II. al 

'll '"'III' 

i intot. &U, 



130 



Causes of Melancholy. 



[Part. 1. Sec 3L 




of his to Acolsius, giving instance in a Bohemian baron that was so trouble! by 
philter taken. Wot that there is any power at all in those spells, charms, character 
and barbarous words ; but that the devil doth use such means to delude them. 
fideks indc magos (saith M Libanius) in officio ntiivut, turn in consortium muhfnc 
rum vocct. 

Subsect. IV. — Stars a cause. Signs from Physiognomy, Mctoposcopy* Chirnmunni. 

Natural causes are either primary and universal, or secondary and more particu 
lar. Primary causes are the heavens, planets, stxirs, &.c, by their influence (as o 
astrologers hold) producing this and such like effects. I wdl not here stand t«» d 
cuss obiitir, whether stars be causes, or signs; or to apologise for judical astro! 
If either Sextus Empericus, Picus Miramlula, Sextus a!> rTemittglt, Pererius, Eras: 
Chambers, kc, have so fur prevailed with any man, that he will attribute no vin 
at alt to the heavens, or to sun, or moon, more than he doth to their signs at an inn- 
keeper's post, or tradesman's 9hop, or generally condemn all such astrological apho- 
risms approved by experience : 1 refer him to Bel ltiti tins, Pirovanus, Marascalle 
Gocienius, Sir Christopher Ileidon, &c. If thou shall ask me what I think, I rn 
answer, nam ct doctis hisce erroribus versatus sum, (for I am conversant with the 
learned errors,) they do incline, but not compel ; no necessity at all: *''.■ 
cogtmt : and so gently incline, that a wise man nay resist them ; uinabil 

Oltru • tley rule us, but God rules them. All this (methinks) *Joh. de Ind 
hath' comprised in brief, Qttxp.ris a me quantum in nobis opt • ranfur astra ? Js.c " W 
thou know how far lite stars work upon us t I HJ they do but incline, and that 
gently, that if we will be ruled by reason, they hove no power over us ; bttl if 
follow our own nature, and be led by Bense, they do as much in ns as in brute beas 
and we are no better." So that, I hope, I may justly conclude with " Caj« 
Iitm Ml whirii/nm divina virtufis, &c, that the heaven is God's instrument, by 
diaiioti of which he governs and disposeth these elementary bodies ; or a great boo! 
whose letters are the stars, (as one calls it,) wherein are written many - 
for such as can read, M "or an excellent harp, made by an eminent workman, 
which, he that can but play, will make most admirable music.'* But to the 

"Paracelsus is of opinion, " that a physician without the knowledge of 
neither understand the cause or cure of any disease, cither of this or gout, not 
much as toothache; except he see the peculiar geniture and scheme of the party 
bcled." And for this proper malady, he will have the principal and primary m 
of it proceed from the heaven, ascribing more to stars than humours, ^"aud thai t; 
constellation alone many times produceth melancholy, all other causes set apart. 1 
He gives instance in lunatic persons, that are deprived of their wits by the moon 
motion j and in another place refers all to the ascendant, and will have the 
chief cause of it to be sought from the stars. Neither is it his opinion oni 
eBBQJ Galentsts and philosophers, though thev do not so peremptorily main I 
much. u This variety of melancholy symptoms proceeds from the stars,'' sait 
* MeSancthon : the most generous melancholy, as that of Augustus, comes from the 
conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter in Libra : the bad, as that of Catilim "s. from the 
meeting of Saturn and the moon in Scorpio. Jovianus Pontanus, in his tenth b 
and thirteenth chapter de rebus caihstibns, discourseth to this purpose at large 
atra bile vtirii gcwranlur morit, &.c, * w many diseases proceed from black CD 
as it shall be hot or cold ; and though it be cold in its own nature, yet it >- apt to 
heated, as water may be made to boil, and burn as bad as fire; or made cold as ice: 

■» n<- crurni. Cadaver. "Astra regunt homi- 

nes, el mgH nslta Deus. "Chirom. lib. Quicris II 

me quniiunii MHMltaf ntira t dim. In n« nihil a«Ui 
Vfgsre, *ed amnios prtFclivee tmhere : qui sic lumen 
I it>. r i MM, ill m iliirem "equnnlur rntlnn><in. nihil ct'- 
(Irani. «m Mm nnturam, id eeerr quod in brutis Art*. 
■ Onion vebtcnloni dlvbua tiriuiis, cuius meduiitA 

moiu, llim el Influent In, Dens I Heiiiuuiiiria mrpnra 

ordinal fl ili«p.mlt Tli.de Vio- Cajetami* In Pea. Id!. 
u Mnndut isle quasi lyrn all excellentisiinin quoriam 
artifiry conrlnnaM, qiirin qui until Inir.lhllm ellr.iet 
hamontM J. Dee. apkortoUH ll. ** Medlcus sine 

tali petllla nihil eat, dte. nisi |eneaim sclverlt, ne 



1 the 

ook, 

ohe 



timillum poierit. lib de podag. ** Constrllallo In 

rau»ii ftl ; el Inflnentia cosll morbum nil 

tiTilniri omnibus alii* amolis, Et -jliln. Oitgo 

1'ojtn pelendo est. Tr. de morhis amemiuni * Ltb. 

d?anlma. enp tie humorib. En varln,i» in MelaticrKi- 

lln, ha bet rclestes causes r< h >t ?] In 

in in.. *> El aira bile varil eraerantur nmrbl 

t1i.de ill ipse multum cnHdi am fi 

ij'riiii nlriqne *ii*clpl ■ 

su.ipie nnlura fnpidi nil. Annnn aqua sic ilBnlu 

r-ilnre nl ardent ; el n fHfOrn, nt in f\m 

r-v 1 el lure sarielas dislinctlonum, alii flent, nJ. u 

dec. 



1 . Sob* 4.] Causes of Melancholy. 1 3 1 

proceed such variety of symptoms, some mad, some solitary, some ]au<rh, 

. •. Tin- cause of all which intemperance be will have chiefly tad pri- 

' proceed from the beam m the position of .Mars. Saturn, and mercury.* 1 

» be these, ■*■ Mercury hi any genirure, if he shall be (bond in Virgo, <t 

liis oppr>> iiid that in the horoscope, irradiain. I>y those quarti 

or Mars, the child shall be mad or melancholy" Again, w "He thai -l..i!l 

Saturn and Mars, the one culminating, the other in the fourth house, when lie 

be bora, shall be melancholy, of which he shall be cured in time, if ftfi 

■bold them. *lf Uie moon be m conjunction or opposition at the birth time with 

.Saturn or Mars, or in a quartile aspect with ilu-m, i e mala cali loco, l/covituis 

iy diseases are signified, especially the heat! and brain is like to be Bliaat 

pernicious humours, to be melancholy, lunatic or mad,** C&rOSfl adds, 

matos, eclipses, earthquakes. Garcreus and Leovitius Mill lia\e the chief 

it lo be taken from the lord of the genilure, or where there is an MrpeCt 

the moon and -Mercury, and neither behold the horoscope, or Saturn innl Mats 

be lord of the present conjunction or opposition in Sagittarius or Pisces, of the 

ma or moon, such persons are commonly epileptic, dote, da'inouiacal, melancholy , 

bat eeo nor* of these aphorisms in the above-named Pontunus. Osrcawa, cap, 88. 




gemitmr. Schoner. lib. l.mp. 8, which be liath gathered out of "Ptolemy, 
r, and some odier Arabians, Junctine, Ranzovius, Lindhout, Origen. Kr. But 
I too will reject peradventure, as astrologers, and therefore part i 
the testimony of ph\ nciana, Galenists themselves. "Carto confessed the 
i A stars to have a great hand to this peculiar disease, so doth Jason Prnten- 
«*, Loturcrius pro-fat. 4* JtpophuO, Ficinus. Fernelius, Sec. T. Cnemandcr ac- 
kao* Lrdgeth the stars an universal cause, the particular from parents, and the D 
the six ■oo-aatural tilings. Baptista Port. mag. 1. I. c. 10. 12. 15, will have them 
to srery particular JmtinMim. Instances and examples, to tn inee the truth of 
•phorisms, arecoirimi.il amongst those astrologian treatises. Cardan, in hi* thirty- 
geniture, gives instance in Matth. Ibdognius. Camcrar. hor. nninlit, CM/ir. 7. 
•iniel Gare, and others; but see Garca?us, cap. 33. Luc. Gauricus, 
ft. tl ./.*, Sec The lime of this melancholy in, when the si^ii:.,:: 

(frniture are directed according to art, as the hor: moon, hykch, t^c. to 
mis or tenns of b. and a* especially, or any tixed star of their nature, 
■ bis revolution or transitus. shall offend any of those radical promissors 
L't-niiLire. 
signs there are taken from physiognomy, metoposcopy, chiromancy, which 
Job. do hdagine, and Hotman, the landgrave of Hesse his mathematician, 
lung mice in his Chiromancy ; Baptista Porta, in his celestial Physiognomy, 
feitr prorrd to hold great affinity with astrology, to satisfy the curious, 1 am the 
■are willing la 

i- nil notions *' physiognomcrs give, be these ; "black colour argues natural 
i broad veins, much hair on the brows,*" 

• lanaroluf, cap. 7, and a lmle head, nut of Aristotle, high sanguine, red 
r, shows head melancholy ; they that stutter and are bald, will be soonest me- 
ns supposed!,) by reason of the dryness of their brains ; but he 
~now more of trie several signs of humour and wits out of physiognomy] 
let him consult v.; ...nd Polemus, that comment, or rather nata- 

pbrnse upon ,\r Physiognomy, Baptista Porta'* four pleasant books, Michael 

Sen* Jt tecrttit nature. John de wdagine, Montaltus, Antony Zsau amtt. ingariorisR, 
' it, u ; 

hath these aphorisms to foretel melancholy. Tasneir. lib. 5. cap. 2, 

muira gls"'i><1nin plurlmuia nlum nielnnrlmlirnriiiYi aymploma ilrtfrum infliir nila. 

" '5 Quotlca nli. uiua ' i. arcedunl ad ha* cau*at afl>< ■ 

riurimum incuant el pro^otanl iiiSnrnrl 

ca-l>-j«ea. 

i lr«*ma aplrol, 2 




>£ id»i> 

t»a»r.i «|i-. i 

.1. nalai 




idtlpartilo Ir 



., lib. 4. f»p lo 

Ar lurl "' Joh. .1* 1 

™ Caput p«r» ('il liilivm 

• ptcrunique anrii- 

> ihlruaiU. jEtlua IJtui " 

1 * (jnlrOO. 




138 



Causes of Melancholy. 



[Part 1. Sec. 



who hath comprehended the sum of John de Indagine : Tricassus, Corvinus, an 
others in his bonk, thus hath it; ^^The Saturnine line going from the raseet 
through the hand, to Saturn's mount, atul there intersected bv certain little line 
argues melancholy; so if the vital and natural make an acute angle. Aphorism 1<>< 

saturnine, cpatic, and natural lines, making a gross triangle in the hand, ar 
as much ; M which Goclenius, cap. 5. Chiros. repeats verbatim out of him. In gene 

l occlude all, that if Saturn's mount be full of many small lines and intersr 
"Mich men are most part melancholy, miserable and full of disquietnes 
• aiv and trouble, continualls' vexed with anxious aud hitter thoughts, alwavs sor 
rowful, fearful, ros pic iou sj they delight in husbandry, buildings, pools, marshr 
springs, woods, walks," &.c. Thaddams Haggesius, in his Metoposcopia, hath rer 
tBOfl aphorisms derived from Saturn's lines in the forehead, by which he colli 
melancholy disposition; and 7 *Bapiista Porta makes observations from those other 
parts oi tin- body, as if a spot be over the spleen; TBu or in the nails; if it appear 
black, it signifieta much care, grief, contention, and melancholy;" the reason he 
to tin humours, and gives instance in himself, that for seven years space he 
-licit black spots in his nails, and all that while was in perpetual law-suits, con- 
troversies for his inheritance, fear, loss of honour, banishment, grief, care, &c. and 
when hit RUMUM ended, the black spotfl vanished. Cardan, in his book de lihris 
pnpriit, tells such a story of his own person, that a little before his son's death, hi 
had a black spot, which appeared in one of his nails; and dilated itself as he 

I to his end. But I am over tedious in these toys, which howsoever, in some 
men's loo severe censures, they may be held absurd and ridiculous, I am the holder 
to insert, as not borrowed from circutnforaneau rogues and gipsies, but out of the 
writings of worthy philosophers aud physicians, yet living some of them, and reli- 
gious professors in famous universities, who are aide to patronize that which thev 
have said, and vindicate themselves from all cavillers and ignorant persons. 

Subsect. V.— Old age a cause. 

Secondary peculiar causes efficient, so called in respect of the other precedent, 
ither congenita, in/cntii-, inimhi\ as they term them, inward, innate, inbred ; >•' 
e|*t outward and adventitious, which happen to us utter we are horn : OOngetttte or 
born with us, are either natural, as old age, or prcttrr naturam (as "Fernefius c ill 
it) that disleinperuture, which we have from our parent's seed, it being an hercditai 
disease. The first of these, which is natural to all. and which no man Inn 
avoid, is "' old age, which being; cold and dry, and of the same quality as melam 
is, imi>i needs cause it, by diminution of spirits and substance, and increasing 
adust humours; therefore e Mekmcthon avers out of Aristotle, as an undoubted imil 
I'/muiiftie drtirasse in stn< cla, that old men familiarly dote, ob otram hiln, 
lor black cholar, which is then superabundant in them: and llhasis, thai 
physician, in his Cont. lib. 1. cap. 9, calls it w "a n Table accid 

to all old and decrepit persons. Atier seventy years fns the Psalmist saith) ** **■ nil 
trouble and sorrow;" and common experience confirms the truth of it in weak and 
old j> |ieciallv such as have lived in action all their lives, had great emplox 

men!, much business, much command, and many servants to oversee, and lean 
t.c abrupt!) j as NV Charles the Fifth did to King Philip, resign up all on a sudden ; the 
■e overcome with melancholy in an instant: or if they do continue in such course 
they dote at last, ( si ne.r bin purr,: and are not able to manage their estates throus 
common infirmities incident in then* age j full of ache, sorrow and grief, childn 
di/./urds, they carle many times as they sit, and talk to themselves, they ai 

-!i, displeased with every thing, "suspicious of all, wayward, covetous, hat 

■"SUlurnl.i* n. R.-»«»itn jwr mrjinnv mnnnni drrur- I lilcin maculip in mii-iili. nijr». Iltes, rlxt*. I 

in. a onivn linm sienlrtcint, ah hniii'T- in r.. r -|.- I ih 
in. arinll nifl!iin:li'>U« us Apluiriit 7S. Vnth. cup. 11. " Vrnil rnlm prniwr^: 

ni« ini| ii let iiiliiiii.ii.. iipr(tie limpina M>neClMl : et dnlnr bi.ii.mii iu*,ii tiif-»»r iinn 
it •nliltiilini' ItlnTi sum, mule « (Ti^u iTiit «ma- Boeltllat, hum. I de COneoL I'llilm. 
n-.nri- Intrl men* umnitiu-i. lempel trldRt. •utptllncl, humor ihu*. lib. do Aiiimn. •> Neceutarlum an 

n». it. i>|. i.i ilinl, ii Hi- ;ilt niri rnlcir. dam i|i.iTi--|ntiii, el inst-pirnliile. *» Ps»l. if 

' id**, occ. Jo. de Ind nine, lib. 1. j ■ Mrlrran. Bvlg bist. lib. t. 
fUl I'hyniojtuim. lib. 10. ''Cap. 11. lib. 3. | 



■ 



I. Sub*. 6/] 



Causes of Melancholy. 



133 



i Tully.'i self-willed, superstitious, self-conceited, bnujijer* and admirers of thnii- 
'Balihaaar Casialio hath truly Doted of them." This natural infirmil 
it in old women, and such as are poor, eolrJary, live in most bwe a 
bcwjr-. are witches; insomuch that \\ icru-. I'aptisia Porta, 1 Incus 

that witches are said to tl< •» la imagination aloi 
uirh>>ly. And whereas it ii controverted, whether thu 

emtdt to death, ride in the air upon a eovlstaff out. of a chiniiiev-top. I 

throat! v, vi\, translate bodies <nnn plane to place, meet in 

and daiiif, as they do, or have earaal copulation with the devil, they 
all u» this redundant melancholy, which domineen in them, to "somniferous 
potions, and natural causes, the devil's policy, Aba Iwdunt owurimd (aaith \n i 
otf quid mtrvi de Lamiix, lib. 3. ca inilahtr, solum ritintum In 

jAcntasiajm ; the) il" do such wonders at all, only their "brains are ccaxad. !< "Thev 

Uuak du-y arc witches, and can do hurt, hut 00 ■Ot," Bui this opiui' 
Ersstua, Dwarus, Srnbanius, Sebastian Michuelis. Campanella de Seneu rental, lib. I. 
csjB.9. *' haudinus the Jesuit, lib. 8. d* .Inima crjdode ; ""Cicogna confute* at | 
That witches arc melancholy, they deny not, but not out of corrupt phantasy alone, 
SO to delude themselves and Others, or to produce such elfeets. 

iacT, VI. — Parents a cause by Propagation. 

Tbat other inward inbred cause of Melancholy is our temperature, in whole or 
part, which we ■ ■ 1 1 r parents, which "Fernelius < alls Prater naturma. 

or unnatural, it being an hereditary disease ; for a* he justifies ^Quni, perenhtm 
< pntris scm*n obtigerit, talra eradunl similar'.* spermatieaatu partes, atioctav 
morbo pater </uum general trnetur, cum semine trtuuftrt in Prob m . 
ipcntture of the father is, such is the son's, and look what disease the 
begot him, his sou will have after him; Wu and is as well inhe- 
his infirmiues, as of hi* lands. And where the complexion mid constitui 
the fiuher b corrupt, there ("aaith Roger Bacon] the complexion and constitution 
>f the son "id so the corruption is derived from the (ether 

to the too." W iirh appear in the' composition of the body, 

w/eording I lea, ""* in habit, proportion, scars, and other Uneanenta ; 

hat in rnanncrs and conditions of the mind, FA patrum in tiatos abcunt cum *< 




an anchor on his thigh, so had hi* posterity, as Trogus records, 
LIS L/ , I'lmv I. ?. c. 17, was purblind, so was his son. That famous ! 

•i JtZan\mr\n Wire known of old, anil so Mirnauird from their red beards; the AOS- 

i<? propagated, the Bavarian chin, and gi 
iroongut ; is "Buxtoi tius their voice, pace, gesture, loo!. 

I with all the rest of their conditions and infirmities; such a mother, 
«eeh a rla»:. ontends u to follow their set <!, and 

r malice aii children are many times wholly to be imputi 

pttrrni»; M I 1 therefore make any doubt of Melancholy, but thai 

.-ase. *" Paracelsus in express words affirms it, lib. dc morb. ami n- 
U 'Crato in an Epistle of his to Monavius. So doth Bruno 

I k '/> morbo mewab. Montaltus proves, cap. 11, out of Bippo- 

BUch hereditary dispositions are frequent, rt luinc .imfiii!', 
part ici pat am melanc/tolicam intemperantiam (speaking of a pal;. I 

ilea aeiica. I corrupt i «unt, eeneranl iilloa corrupt:? ei 
'lib el tfinif"i»lli'iiii», pi lilii roriun ruirii 
m»!. innli. phi- (orruiupunt. . •: i corruplki I 

"Noil Urn (inqull Ilippocrnlea) (Ml ' 
:•■, clrnirlcea aria el corporia hobiiuro njiio.fi. r-x ii«. ».•.) 
— I oriupia vrruir. lnci-aium genu*, more*, morbo*, A.< 




.. . eaSSf, «j".i ii mm 




■•i •«• *». k mmorm aWinacaultto 


mmel. aaf 


■ Ltb 1 






nupiig Jncl. w Aflenuii par.'iilt 

*' Qu) lia*c I •euni, «t puerorum malic 1.1 par 
nt, aUar i>ii:-. v ' ip. 3. deocculi. urn mlrac. 
pituiloai, i * liiij-'.i, bili 

nlilorque el una . 
rnua malum hunc aaacm, Jg Telvaiua, 



«LII>. J. 
••I 1 
11 lam p* 

nt. de 



111 in hoc quod psiroa ' huiiianuruni aSecluuiu. 

M 



134 



lunclioly. 



.[Part. l.Sec.* 

- *■ — I1L. 1 — -* 



/ 



think lie became so by participation of Melancholy. Daniel Sennertus, lib. 1. part 
2. cap. IK will have his melancholy constitution derived not only from the father to 
the son, but to the whole family sometimes ; Quandoqur tolls familiis hertd 
vtim, "l'lireslus, in his medicinal observations, illustrates this point, with an fxain;' 
of a merchant, his patient, that hail this inlirmity by inheritance; so doth BodetBH 
a FfffltffflW, torn. I. consul. 69, by an instance of a young man that was so 
031 ?iift'rc jwlfinchiiiira, had a melancholy mother, tt vie tit imluncholico, and bad die 
i> mi -ther. Ludovicus Merc a iOS, * Spanish physician, in that excellent Tract wIik 
he hath lately written of hereditary diseases, torn. 2. oper. lib. 5, reckons up leprosy, 
as those "Galbots in Gascony, hereditary lepers, pox, stone, gout, epilepsy. 
Amongst the rest, tins and madness after a set time comes to many, which he ca 
I miraculous thing in nature, ami sticks for ever to them as an incurable habit. At 
that which is more to be wondered at, it skips in some families the father, and go< 
to the si in, *• or takes every other, and sometimes every third in a lineal d> 
ami doth OOt always produce the same, but some like, and a symbolizing disease.' 

-r •< ondary causes hi u i derived, are commonly so powerful, that (as *\Yi 
phius holds) sajtc mutual dc.crcla sidcrum, they do often alter the primary cause 
and decrees of the heavens. For these reasons, belike, the Church and common 
wealth, human and Divine laws, have conspired to avoid hereditary diseases, fori >k 
ding SUCh marriages as are any whit allied; ami as Merralus adviscth all fannies 
take such, si fart pnsxit m MS rims ditttnt natura, and to make choice of tho: 
that are most differing in complexion from them; if they love their own, and respect 
the common good. f And sure, I think, it hath been ordered by God's especial pro- 
f videnee, that in all ages there should be (as usually there is) once in * 600 years, a 
transmigration of nations, to amend and purify their blood, as we alter seed upon 
our land, and that there should be as it were an inundation of those northern Goths 
and Vandals, and many such like people wbieh raine out of that continent of Scan- 
dia and Sarniatia (as some suppose) and over-ran, as a deluge, most part of Europe 
) and Africa, to alter for our good, our complexions, which were much defaced with 

ditary infirmities, Which by our lust and intemperance we had contracted. A 
sound generation of strong and able men were sent amongst us, as those northern 
toen usually are, innocuous, free from riot, and free from diseases; to qualify and 
make us as those poor naked Indians a;3 generally at this day ; and those about 
Brazil (as a late 7 writer observes"), in the Isle of Maragnan, free from all hereditary 
diseases, or other contagion, whereas without help of physic they live commonly 
ISO j ' us or more, as in the Orcades and many other places. Such are the common 
eftfcetfl of temperanre and intemperance, but I will descend to particular, and show 
I iy what means, and by whom especially, this infirmity is derived unto us 

Fi/ii Cx srnibus nati. raru sunt ftrini irmprriuiunti, old men's children are seld 
of a good temperament, u Scoltznu t uppo s eth , eonsull. 177, and therefore most 
to this disease; and as*Levinus Lemnius farther adds, old men beget most part 

ward, peevish, sad, melancholy sons, and seldom merry. He that begets a child 
on ;i full stomach, will either have a sick child, or a crazed son (as 'Cardan think*. 
contradict, mcd. lib. 1. COhttadict. 18, or if the parents be sick, or have any great 
pain of the head, or megrim, headache, i Ilierontmus Wollius ,0 doth instance in a 
Child of Sebastian Castalio's); if a drunken man get a child, it will never like!] 
a good brain, as Gellius argues, lib. 12. cap. 1. Ebrii gignunt Bftruw, one drunka 
begets another, saith "Plutarch, st/mp. lib. I. quest. 5, whose sentence "Lemni 
approves, 1. I.e. I. AUarius CrutEUB, Gen, dc qui s'U mcd. crnl. 3. fol. l>- 
CrobhJS) l<h. 1. Avicenna, Si. & Fen. 21. Tract 1. cap. 8, and Arlstode himst 
.'. prob. 4, foolish, drunken, or hair-brain women, most part bring forth child 

unto themselves, morosos ct languidos, and so likewise he that lies with a me 



IOI1 

OW 

om 
apt 
Mrt 



15. > Maelnu. Geof. « Stepe I 
MB ■ imilcru ted atmileni (iroducil rflicctuiii. et lllrim 
I in nopiitein. ' Dial, povlli Ri-ni- 

v n. i IIhiIlh it., rep. rap. dr pTindli r**iji. 

ii Minvill... I :c(.ui In. hi. in In, vnyaee io Ma- 
\. ■: i ii i i. rvrnliii. niirm niiinrt 
i-t minion c.irii'irc, vivunl mniii. HO, NO nine Mi-dl- , 
turn. Idem Hector Boetbiua de knaulli O Tchad, el I 



tlamianu; 4 fines dr Brandts. • Llh 4 r. 3 

ii.nlr nat imr Tetrlroi plrnimqu* fill... *..■■ 

int el Irirtea, rariiw cihllariwun 
■upcr repletion* m pxn.ltnuii, «l flltiqul turn ttniiinlu 
ml mrirtiotl aunt, am aiulidl, "Plat 

Leovllo. ii I deed llberla. "D 

imr i.-iuiilf ulir r\ nKitUUn mulierci tiberoa | 
(iliiduriim mill Mimics 



r 



l.Sabs..G.] Cuusrx t,f Mthmcholy. 135 




tntcmperan.'ia veneris, qttarn in navii-* I inxeetntur "Lcm- 

>pu uxores inrunt, nulla menxlrui tk cur sua ratione habita iicc vbsen 
Immu\ prtrnpua causa est, n m /tunc cxitiahm idea, el prs- 

ttfrrmm vo&tt. "II iro Lucitauus, dctestantur ad unum omncs m 

turn tt ifvtirlA lund concpti, btfalicet plcrumque ct inntmfri, ilcliri, r.lolidt, nw&Pti, 
inr altdi, tttra luc tordidi mimmi tftmM, omnibus boms corporis atqur OStfmi 
ti : ad laborcm M I linulc-s ct alii. *Judai 

tantur fadum hunc, rl immundum apud Cftrisiianot Concubihut, ui 
ittititmm abkor ad suos pr I quod Christian: tot its lepras/, m» 

tot mnrnili. impritfrinex, alphi, psora* cults i! faciei dtcoloTOiiontMy torn tnulti tncrbi 
tftdkmua^ aerrbi, et vencnosi sinl, in hunc immuuduru concubttum rrjiciuut, ct cru- 
tiles ra ptgnora vocant, qui quarto luwj proflucnte hoc m nsnun ilhtvic eoneui 
»mne BM ;»• ■rfuTrexeuni. lhtmnnvit "/■in dieted Ltt </ Nfiftt $mleUwii hufUtmodi 
1/ v is, tA) <:t indi natty siqtti deformes atit mutili, paler dilapidate 
MM ab " immundn muhcee. (Jregorius Magnus, pcltnti Augustine nwiijuid 
itnnnos hujustiwdi coneubituin tohftUX ptvhibuU virix gnu tuvt 

famtnus \n cmumetix suis mcnxlruis, fee I spare tu English this which I 
hare wsuti. Another cause some give, inordinate diet, as if a man cat garlic onions, 
tut overmuch, study too hard, be over-sorrowful, dull, heavy, dejected in mind, 
neineUAed in Ml d»tnights| fearful, eta, « their children < saith '"Cardan subtil. lib. 18) 
mill }»r much subject t<i mndnani and Belaseholj ; for i! iIm vpmta of t ! h ■ brain be 
hailed, or int«at5>ctcd by such means, at such a tune, their children n ill lie fwted in 
the brain : they will be dull, heavy, timorous, discontented all their Ures." lJ3oQie, 
. and maintain that paradox or problem, that wise men beget corn- 
f aso qly fooU; S uidas gives instance in Aristarchus the Grammarian, duos reliant 
Utvm .InsSarchum I'tonun* umbos slultos ; and which "'Eta- 'li in 

K» Mori 1. I'M ils b< ■_■ men. Card, subt. I, 12, gives this cause, Quoninm spi- 

sap*enimm ob studium resohuntur, ct in cerebrum fenmlur a eordc .* be. 
their natural spirits are resolved by study, and turned into animal; drawn from tin- 
hrart. and those other parts to the brain. Lnantttt subscribes to that of Cardan, and 
this reason. Quod ;» rsohuint debitum languide, el obscilanler, undr fa-tux a 
scixcit : they pay (heir debt (as Paul calls it) to their •■ 
v which means their children are weaklings, and many times idiots and 

t Some other causes are given, which properly pertain, and do proceed from the 

"sBothrr : if shi be over-dull, heavy, angry, peevish, discontented, and melancholy, 

not Only at lh> conception, hut even all the while she carries the child in 

her womb (aaith Fcrnclius, path. 1. 1, II) her son will be so liken i '• Md 

a» "Lnmnios adds, l. 4. c. 7, if she grieve overmuch, be disquieted, or by 

be affrighted and terrified by some fearful object, heard or seen, she en- 

her child, and spoils the temperature of it; for the nttn ngl imagination of a 

tnally upon her infant, that as Baptista Porta proves Vlnpiog. 

calrrfis 1 i mark upon it. which is most lly seen in such 

ae prodijrioaslv loner \,, r neb arid such meats, the child will love those meats, saith 

»nt! be addicted to like hurooars: "**if a great-bellwd unman ane i hare, 

her child will often have a han-lij*," m see c:iU it. £ Jwltciis g{ tuturn- 

nrm. eap. 33, liath a memorable example of one Thomas Nickcll, born in the city 

"il. "«• that went reeling and staggering all ihe days of his life, as 

sf he wnuM tall to the ground, because his mother being great with child 11V ■ 

Such another I find in Martin Wenrichiue, coat. 
aV artu smimstroruw, c . 17, I saw (sailh be) at Wittenberg, in Germany, a citizen that 
a carcass; I a*kcd him the cause, he replied," u His mother, when she 

d* oceall. nni .-tntc«' rhllilrrn «.-r-- f--'l« *»>*l. 

•in Kmiuii ii>u >* |>« mi. mill ■ Da oaeiil. nil mir Pit* mortiim iniilieniui 

lad. Ii»t, Port*, kirn prod Rl lc|rf>riini knlullu plrrniae 
■ Dra.iu* frb». IiN 1. c*p. 90. ' Bria. In I 

I" '■ Nil in 

■ IM«1- «ff' 

IwrHI nffr. -m lT i in la. i. <u4»»cr»»», qui Ai*", *.« 

undi Mvoiiiw *e. ■ ! 






136 



Causes of Melancholy. 



[Part. l.Sec. 



bore him in her womb, saw a carcass by chance, and was so sore aflrighled with it 
thai 62 to f<£tus ci assimilatiis, from a ghostly impression tlie child was lik 

So many several ways are we plagued and punished for our father'- , in 

somuch that as Fernelius truly saith, J,u It is the greatest part of our felicity tn be 
well limn, rx 1 1 « 1 it were happy for human kind, if only such parents as are sound 
hotly and mind should be suffered to marry." An husbandman will sow none but 
the best and choices! seed upon his lurid, he will not rear a bull or a horse, excej 
he be right shapen in all parts, or permit him to cover a mare, except he be well 
assured *M' his breed ; we make choice of the best rams for our sheep, rear the 
neatest kine, and keep the best dogs, Quanta id dilii^cnlius in procn <in<l<s Itbtrii 
obscrv andum ?■ And how careful then should we be in begetting of our children ? In 
former times some -'* countries have been BO chary in this behalf, so stern, that if a child 
'crooked or deformed in body or mind, they made him away; so did the Indians 

old by the relation of Curtius, and many other well-irovemed commonwealths, 
according to the discipline of those times. Heretofore in Scotland, saith M Fleet, 
Boethius, " if any were visited with the falling sickness, madness, gout, leprosy, or 
any such dangerous disease, which was likely to be propagated from the father 
the son, he was instantly gelded ; a woman kept from all company of men ; and if 
by chance having some such disease, she were found to he with child, she with her 
brood were buried alive: and this was done for the common food, lest the whole 
nation should he injured or corrupted. A severe doom you will say, and not to be 
used amongst Christians, yet more to be looked into than it is. For imw by our 
loo much utility in this kind, in giving way for all to marry that will, loo much 
liberty and indulgence in tolerating all sorts, there is a vast confusion of hereditary 
to family secure, no man almost free from some grievous inh'rrmtv or oiher. 
when no choice is had, but still the eldest must marry, as so many audi ions of the 
race; or if rich, be they fools or dizzards, lame or maimed, unable, intemperate, 
ale, exhaust through riot, as he said, '"jura furred i tario sapere juhmiur , they 
must be wise and able by inheritance: it comes to pass that our gweratiot] tf 
nipt, we have many weak persons, both in body and mind, many feral diseases 
nurinir amongst us, crazed faindies, parentis, pcremptores; our fathers bad, and we 
are like to be worse. 



MEMB. II. 
Subsect. I. — Bad Diet a cause. Substance. Quality of Meats. 

According to my proposed mpthod, having opened hitherto these m 
causes, which are inbred with us, 1 must now proceed to the outward and adventi- 
tious, which happen unto us after we are born. And those are either evident, re- 
mote, or inward, antecedent, and the nearest: continent causes sone call them. 
These outward, remote, precedent causes are subdivided again into necessary ai 

Necessary i hecause we cannot avoid them, hut they will niter us,; 
they are used, or abated) are those six non-natural things, so much spoken of 
■mOOgft physicians, which are principal causes of this disease. For almost in ever 
consultation, whereas they shall come to speak of the causes, the fault is bond, 

part objected lo the patient ; I'tccarit circa res sex non naturoks: he hath 
still offended in one of those six. B&oataons, nmsil. 23, consulted about a melan- 
choly Jew, gives that si ntriier, so did Frisemelica in the same place; and in his 244 
counsel., censuring a melancholy soldier, assigns that reason of his malady, a<i hfl 



" optimum bene naacU inaiima para fn-liriiniia i 
noalrni luriie naacl ; qoaifH>6reHI prardcic hiininno 
p urn r niiKiiltuiii videratar, «i nolin parcntio bene 
li.i I' .ii et t.ini. liticrU opriuiu d.irrnl. ** hifanlej 

pllto nacali. Uohemua, lib. S. e. 1 Apurt 
l.uconr* olim. Llpaluii, eplii. Hi, cent ad llvl^us, 
lo Villorio, ii quo* uliqua metuliruntin nana 
mutik-a notavertnt, n«cari jubi!i)t. ''Lib. 1. De 

V Iterant Srnioruni inoritiu*. Morbo roajimli te- 
iimnita, mania, lepra, tc. aui aUulla labn, que facila , 



in prolem unnnimuiur. lahorantea Inter eoe, inffrnti 
furta iiiitni;! n<-, iim-ntim, no (MU .urtoaa 

lerderetur, ri tit natu, caalrnvpruiii, >milirr-« tinju 

Ii procul a vlrorum cnncnrUo abiej • 

haniao nln]ii;i mnrrpn,? ii>v<-nldi»liif, sitnul run 
fietu nnndura editu, defndlebalur titi - . 

■ tyr. » Fecit omnia Ueliits qua Hi ii poa 

aunt circa re« tex non natural**, el em ftiarunl 
aittiaaeca, ex qulbui poatea orua aunt obairuction 




Subs. I.J 



Causes of Melancholy. 



137 



in all those six non-natund things, which were the outward causes, from 
came those inward obstructions; ami so in the rest. 

six non-natural things are diet, retention and evacuation, which are more 
than the other because diey make new mutter, or rise are conversant in 
or expelling of it. The other four are air, i deeping, wakio| 

m ol tlie inttiil. which only alter the matter. The first of then it (Bet) 
ml drink, ami causeth melancholy, as it offends in substance, 
»n-ni t ni«, that is, quantity, quality, or the like. And well it may be called | ma- 
teriel CWtt W | since that, as^Femrlius holds, B it halh such a power in bege ttin g of 
and yields the matter and sustenance of them; for neither air, DOC perttir- 
nor any of those other evident causes lake place, or work this effect, except 
lisc constitution of body, and preparation of humours, do concur. That a man nmv en , 
ibis dirt is the mod. isea, let the father be what he will, and from this alone) 

melancholy and fre q u en t other maladies arise. 1 ' Main physicians, I confess, have 
written copious volumes of this one subject, of the nature and qualities of all manner 
of .Bents; aa namely. Galen, Isaac the Jew, Halvabbas, Avici una. M four 

Arsbaans, Gordoniu*, Villanovanus, Worker, Johannes Bruerinus, sitologia it AV//A n- 
Pocnhntit, Michael Savanarola, Tract 'I. c. 8, Anthony Fumanellus, lib.dv n ^i- 
rio in his comment on Schola Salerna, Godefridus Steckius artt 
tCognatus, Ficimis, Ranzovius, Fonseca, Lessius, Magninus, regim. samtniis, 
Hugo Fridevallius, &.C., besides many other in "English, and almost every 
physician, a fia oo ni e c fll at large of nil peculiar meats in his chapter of inelau- 
I because these books are not at hand to every man, 1 will briefly touch 
what kind of meats engender this humour, through their several species, and winch 
ant to be avoided. Hon they alter and change the matter, spirits first, and alter bu- 
rner*, by which wc arc presi rved, and the constitution of our body, Pemeuni ami 
other* will show you. 1 hasten to the thing itself: and first of such diet as offends 




i <ef, a strong and hrarty meat (cold in the first degree, dry in the ■ 
itth Gul. 1. 3.c. 1. dc alnn. fac.) is condemned by him and all succeeding Authors, 
tn breed gross melancholy blood : good for such us arc sound, and of a strong con- 
suttrooo, for labouring men if ordered aright, corned, young, of an ox (for all gelde " 
amis in e»rry Species arc held best), or if old, " such as have been tired out with 
labour, an* preferred. Aubanus and Sabellicus commend Portugal beef to he lie 
em-wry*! ben and easiest of digestion ; we commend ours: but all is rejected, and 
tntit Cor anch as lead a r> my ways inclined to Melancholy, or dry of eott- 

Tale* (Galen thinks) de. facile milanchotieis agriludimbus capiuntitr. 
ParL.\ Pork, of all meats, is most nutritive in his own nature, w but altogether 
■ant for trarh as live at ease, are any ways unsound of body or mind : too moist, 
SaH of humours, and therefore noxtfl delicalts, saith Savanarola, ex rarum vsu ul 
salsarfaj' an frbris quariana generetur : naught for queasy stomachs, insomuch that 
fjnaneot use of it may breed a quartan ague. 

G'on/.i Savanarola discommends goat's flesh, and so doth "Pruerimis, /, i:i. c. 19, 

it a filthy beast, and rammish : and therefore supposeth it will breed rank and 

rnbstan id, such as are young and tender, Isaac accepts, Bnierinus and 

I dr. alimrnlirrum furulliitibus. 

Hart.' Hart ami red deer "hath an evil name: it yields gross nutriment: a strong 

and great . next unto a horse. Which although some countries eat, as 

Tartars, and Uiry of China; yet **Galen condemns. Young foals are as commonly 

- ■ain as red deer, and to furnish their navies, about Malaga especially, often 

saed ; but such meats ask long baking, or seething, to qualify them, and yet all will 

BOt S» ' 

•jer-n, Fallow Deer.] All venison is melancholy, and begets bad blood; a 




let Mailmam In t u-nm.lu Dtoihii vim 

•— •» a*f ». M k p* nur I i 

totlaik rMti imI. Ui'l "»>•' > ' ' >MPSSSS> 

n»» t*M>rbo*nm tnKrt. clumei aim* c>( 
»> Sac BiulU •noni« afpc ctnan.inl. nulla 

19 * 



alls rofente caiita. ■OOfan. Elt»l, Vauhaa. 

** FrWlafltif . ' l.nac. "Non 

laudaiur quia melanrholiriim prrtiet aln 

alii r.trm.i (in. phi FrlataiiuaJ 
ft niriM arium •uppciltrai alitupnniiii 
MbttUaa. diela. Equina talc ol »»ii.um cqullila i 
ni li.uiiinibua al aalntnla. 

2 



_LANE L/BkARY. STANFORD W\W 



138 



Omm* t>f .Melancholy. 



[Part. I. Sect 



phonal nuat i in great esteem with us (for we have more purks in England thar 
ilu-re are in all Europe besides) in our solemn feasts. 'Tis somewhat belter hunt 
than otherwise, and well prepared by cookery; but generally bad, and seldom to 
used. 

Hirrr.] Hare, a black meat, melancholy, and hard of digestion, it breeds inc 
often eaten, and causelh fearful dffeBflUj U doth all vinisnu, and is condemned by 
jtirv of plivsiriiins. Mizaldus and some others say, that hare is a n i, an 

thai it will make one fair, as Martial's Epigram testifies to Gellia; but this is per ac- 
cident* because of the good sport it mik- -. merry company and good discourse ilia 
is commonly at the eating of it, and not otherwise to be understood. 

Conies.] "Conies are of the nature of hares. Magninns compares them to beef, 
j,i^, md gOfttj Reg. sanit. part. 3. c. 17 ; vol young rabbits by all mm are approved 

be go.nl. 

Generally, all such meats as are hart! of digestion breed melancholy. Areteus 
lib. 7. cap. 5, reckons up heads and feet, "bowels, brains, entrails, marrow, fat, blood, 
skins, and those inward parts, as heart, lungs, liver, spleen, &c. They arc reji 
by Isaac, lib. 2. pari. 3, Magninus, pari. 3. cap. 17, Bruerinus, lib. 12, Savanarola, 
Rub. 32. Trad. 2. 

Milk.] Milk, and all that comes of milk, as butler and cheese, curds, &.C., increase 
melanchoh whey only excepted, which is most wholesome): "some except asses' 
lilk. The rest, to such as are sound, is nutritive and good, especially for yofM 
children, but because soon turned to corruption, *not good for those that have un- 
clean stomachs, are subject to headache, or have green wounds, stone, Sec. Of all 
cheeses, I take that kind which we call Banbury cheese to be the best, ex velustis 
IMIJlHHtf) the older, stronger, ami harder, the worst, as Laugius discoursed! in his 
Epistle in Melanclhon, cited by Mizaldus, Isaac, p. 5. Gal. 3. de cibis hani sued, fgc 

Foiel.) Amongst fowl, *° peacocks and pigeons, all fenny fowl are forbiddt , 
duck-, gee*e, swans, herons, cranes, cools, didappers, walerhens, with all those t«ds, 
curs, sheldrakes, and peck led fowls, that come hither in winter out oi"Scandi;i, Mus- 
covy. Greenland, Fnezlantl, which half the year are covered all over with MOW, and 
frozen up. Though these be fair in feathers, pleasant in taste, and have a good out- 
side, like hypocrites, white in plumes, and sort, their flesh is hard, black, unwhole- 
some, dangerous, melancholy meat ; Gravan! el ptttrefaciunt stomachum* saith Isaac, 
pari. ">. dr c>/., their young ones are more tolerable, but young pigeons he quite dis- 
approves. 

Fislirs.] It basis and "Magninus discommend all fish, and say, they breed visco- 
sities, slimy nutriment, little and humourous nourishment. Savanarola adds, did. 
moist : awl phlegmatic, Isaac; and therefore unwholesome for all cold and melan- 
choly complexions : others make a difference, rejecting oidy amongst fresh-water 
fish, ill, tench, lamprey, crawfish (which Bright approves, cap. Q), and such as are 
bred in muddy and standing waters, and have a taste of mud, as Franciscus Bonsue- 
tus poetically defines, Lib. de aquafilibus. 

u Norn pl«c<-« omflM, qui Magna, lacuwine frcquriilaul, I "All AkIi, Ihsl *tanriinff pool*, ai).l lakta f>'M|»cnt t 
Hein|HT (ilut i-iiicl delvriorl* Jubenl." | ||-> iVef yield bad juice anil llOWrtattnu 

Lampreys, Paulus Jovius, c. 34. de piscilms jltnnal. y highly magnifies, and ■ 
None speak against them, but inepli el scrupitlosi, some scrupulous persons; but 
"eels, r . :<:i, •> he abhotreth in all places, at all times, all physicians detest ihcm, < ■■- 
pecialU about the solstice." Qomesiu*, lib. 1. c. 22, de sa/Y.doth iinmodenitelv extol 
sea-fish, which others u much Vilify, and above the rest, dried, soused, indurate ti-li. 

litiij, I'uumdos, red-herrings, sprats, ttoeknfith, haherdine, poor-john, nil sh< ll-lish. 
•Tim. Bright excepts lobster and crab. Messarius eoimnends salmon, whicli Brue- 
rinus contradicts, lib. 22. c. 17. Magninus rejects conger, sturgeon, lurbot, mackarel, 
skate. 

Carp is a fish of which 1 know not what to determine. Franciscus BoOMUtW 



• Pnrum olmnnl A naiura i-rnnriim 

iillnruin ii'ntri i-l opti.iui. n IM.iii'll- 

IiiIish provoeMt. *['i»o. AliMimr. 

■ Carta Fn-ia^im, Magnlnut, part. 3. cap 17. Mrroi. 
riaiii, <te affect in. I c, lu. except* all milk a 
IIypoclK>iulriitral Melancholy. « Wecker, Syntax. 



Ilriipriniii, ]lhenr. p. 9. Ijnae, HrniT. lib. 15, rap Vi. rt J|. 
" Cap. 18. part. 3. '-Oinin !.■■■■ ri Mnid IMfM 

mriliu (li'ii'niamur nncuilla* pnrtcrtlai 
lliiln. Dliminnliir lilrn -nil, luin rgri« 
in til* Tract of Melancholy. 




b*. I.J 



Causes of Melancholy. 



139 



at » muddy fish. Ilippolitus Salvianus, in his Book de Pisc'nim nntura et 
winrii was printed at Rome in folio, l ")•>•, with most elegant pictures 
carp no belter than a shiny wntery meat. Paulus Jovius on the other 
uring u-nch. approves of it; so doth Dubravius in his Books of Hi 

>ls it for an excellent wholesome meat, arul puts it amongst the fishes 
bed rank; and so do most of our country gentlemen, that store their j. 
i bo other fish. But this controversy is easily decided* in my judgment, 
Rruerinua, /. 22, c. 13. The difference riseih from the site and nature of pool*) 
'aom* tunes muddy, sometimes sweet; they are in taste as the place is from ■ D 

in like manner almost we may conclude of other fresh fish. But 
•r* more m Rondoletius, Bellonius, Oribiudus, lib. 7. cap. 22, Isaac, /. 1, especially 
Salrianus, who is inxtar omnium solus, Stc. Howsoever they may be 
»c and approved, much DM of them is not good; P. Forestus, in his uicdi- 
obaerralions, * relates, that Carthusian friars, whose living is mOft part fish, 
object to melancholy than any Other order* anil that he found by expert- 
ting sometimes their physician ordinary »i Delft, in Holland. Hr exempiifiea 
an instance of MM Buscodnese, a Carthusian of a ruddy colour, and 
r. that by solitary living, and fish-eating, became so rniaafieeted. 

Amongst herlw to he eaten I find gourds, cucumbers, coleworts, melons, 
but especially cabbage. It causelh troublesome dreams, and send 
e n po w to t ho brain. Galen, loc. ajlcd. 1. 3. c. 0, of all herbs | cab- 

ind Isaac, lib. 2. c. 1. Animiv gnaitaUm /aril, it brings heaviness tC the soul. 
Saint ore of opinion that all raw herbs and salmis breed melancholy blood, except 
anil lettuce. Cralo. COMJl. 21. lib, 2. speaks against all herbs and tMBta, 
borage, bugloaa, fennel, parsley, dill, balm, succory. Magninus, regim. tani- 
hrrlhi- simp/irilrr malir, via ribi j all herbs are simply 
to feed on (as he thinks). So did that sending cook in "Platan hold : 

'Life* OflMf MOfeS 1 dn lint »ii|>,n-t iIicm, 
Thai i .nt . i planer. 

Ami rnukf no l««-t i ■ i i ve», 

Willi lu-iLm nml t;rii»» to (red them falter. " 



//• ■ M 




Mao «fn ranim 



Ul.l. 



Our Italians and Spaniards do make a whole dinner of herbs and salads which 
1'tatitus calls canas fuwafllH, Horace, drnas sine sanguine), by which 
Hows it, 



•vrm Yilnra rnlu.nl- 



ilrum attain cntigcrunt, 
in ilnlu. BM 
ul pttuiirm BOO rilunl, ■CWllWII I 



'The li live*, that eatiuch herb*. m>i-[ in-id« be ibort, 
Ami 'n, n fearful tlim; Icir Id report, 

Tn ii M ahoutd 0—-. I •■" «nch a kind of meat, 

Wliiili >.t, jiiiiiiiil, M.mlil MtfeM ("<-at." 

in- windy, and not fit therefore to be eaten <>f all men raw, though quali- 
fied vrith od, but in broths, or otherwise. See more of these in every "husbandman 
«:).! Ii.-:.:ili<*. 

'.«.] Roots, Kf.fi quorundam gentimm oprs sinl. saith Brnerinns, the wealth of 
wane countries, and sole food, are windy and bad, or troublesome to the head : as 

. carrots, radishes, parsnip: Crato, lib. 2. cmisil. II, 

-nine approve of parsnips and potatoes. v Magninus is 

:itoV opinion, *•** They trouble the mind, sending gross fumes to the brain, 

men mad, e«<|>eeially garlic, onions, if a man liberally feed on them a \ ear to- 

nerius, trad. 15. cop. 2, complains of all manner of roots, and so doth 

. n parsnips themselves, which are the best, Lib. 9. cap. 14. 

.' Pnstinacarmn urns succos g'gnil imprnhos. Crato, consil. 21. lib. 1. nl- 

I manner of fruits, ns pears, apples, plums, cherries, atwwuilt -. nut-. 

Millar*, serves, 8tc. Sangviw m in/iciunU saith Villauovanus, they infect the blond. 

Is, and must not therefore be taken cm CtM, aul qiian- 
tt magnd, not to make a meal of, or in any gTeat quantity. M Card;m Mkei dint 

id llnrto, P. Cre«ift.i ll<-rt>a»lsln, tec 
13. part. 3. Iirulii, in In- i 

- nlni" m r Intellcctnm lurbant, produ 

him,. aliM •usviorpf. ililn lululrn- til vi (inqiilt Mnrnin ) quod it qui* n r 

Ina ' tnlillnn* coini-ilul, in inninlmii raili-lil cap IK. Im- 
• n. IS. **De fcri 

ina coniulri, qnl lapaoa prto- In F»w plerunn|ue tnorboal, quod fructua cumedanl 
hi vol tit Id die. 
Karate I u> . ' » ' i ■ I 




Causes nf Melancholy. 



[Part. l.Sec. 2. 



a cause of their continual sickness al Fossa in Africa, "because they live so much on 
fruits, eating them thri06 ■ "lay."" I.aiirentius approves of many fruits, in his Tract 
of Melancholy, which others disallow, and amongst the not apples, which some 
Minuend, sweetings, pairmains, pippins, as good against melancholy ; but 
m that is any way inclined to. or touched wilh this malady, "Stcholas Fiso in 
hi- i fbrbtdsaU fruits, as windy, or to bo sparingly eaten at least, and not 

raw. Amongst other fruits, w Brueriuus, out of Galen, excepts grapes and figs, but I 
find (hem likewise rejected. 

Pkrfa.1 All poise are naught, beans, peas, vetches, &c, they fill the brain (saith 
base) with gross fumes, breed black thick blood, and cause troublesome dreams. 
And therefore, that which Pythagoras said to his scholars of old, may be for ever ap- 
pli'd to melancholy men, A fahis akatincte, cat no peas, nor beans; yet to such as 
will Deeds eat them, I would give this counsel, to prepare them according to those 
rules thai Arnoldus Villanovanus, and Frielagius prescribe, for eating, and dressing. 
(raits, herbs, roots, pulse, ^.c. 

Sjiiei s.] Spices cause hot and head melancholy, and are for that cause forbidden 
oy our physicians to such men as are inclined to this malady, as pepper, <iiiigcr, cin- 
namon, cloves, mace, dates, fee. honey and soger. "SoOM except homy ; to those 
that are cold, it may be tolerable, but ^"Dirfcia M in hilnn vtrtutti^ (sweets turn into 
bile,) they are obstructive, Cr.Uo therefore forbids all spice, in a consultation of his, 
for a melancholy Bcboohsaster, Omnia aromatica ct qtticyuid sanguinem adurit: so 
!'i melius, consil. 45. Guianerius, tract 1ft. cap. 2. Mercurialis, cons. 189. To 
then 1 may add all sharp and sour things. luscious and over-sweet, or fat, as oil, 
rerjuice, mustard, salt; as sweet things are obstructive, so these arc cor- 
rosive. Gomesius, in his hooks, tic. salc.L I.e. 21, highly commends salt; so doth 
Cndronchus in his tract, de soil .'/7/.s///i//ui, Lcnui. /. '.i. c. 9. de occult, mil. mir. yet 
common experience finds salt, and salt-meats, to be great procurers of this disease. 
And for that cause belike those Egyptian priests abstained from salt, even so much, 

heir bread, m saw pcrfurftattow antma ess*/, esith mine author, thai their souls 
in ii_ r ! i '. be free from perturbations. 

Jirritil. I Bread that il made of baser grain, as peas, beans, oats, rye, or H over-hard 
baki d, Ciusty, and black, is often spoken against, as causing melancholy juice and 
wind. Joh, Mayor, in the first book of his History of Scotland, contends much fix 
the wliohsomencss of oaten bread : it was objected to him then living at Paris in 
France, that his countrymen fed on oats, and base grain, as a disgrace; but he doth 
uoui ly confess, Scotland, Wales, and a third part of England, did most part use 
thai kind w bread, that ii was as wholesome as any grain, and yielded as good nou- 
rishment. And yet Wecker out of Galen calls it horse-meat, and filler for jumenls 
than men to feed on. But read Galen himself, Lib. 1. De cibis boni et mull succu 
more largely discoursing of eon and bread. 

IVin ■•-) All black wines, over-hot, compound, strong thick drinks, as Muscadine, 
Malmsey, Alicant, Rnmney, Brownbealasd, Meiheglen, and the like, of which they 

have thirty several kinds in .Muscovy, all Bttch made drinks are hurtful in this c;ise, 
to such as are hot, or of a satiguine choleric complexion, \ onng, or inclined to head- 
melancholy. For many times the drinking of wine alone causeth it. Arculauus. 
c. 16. in '.). BfosM) puts in "wine for a great cause, especially if it be immoderately 
used. Guianerius, tract. 15. c. *i, tells a story of two Dutchmen, to whom he gave 
entertainment in his boase, - that 0I in one month's space were both melancholy by 
drinking of wine, one did nought but sing, the other sigh. Galen, I. de cam>is morb. 
c. 8. Mat thiol us on Diosrorides, and above all other Andreas Bachius, /. .'t. IS, 19, 
20, have reckoned ii|iou those inconveniences that come by wine: yet notwithstand- 
ing nil lliis, to such as are cold, or sluggish melancholy, a cup of wine is good physic, 
ami so doth Mercurialis grant, e e t ui l. '-'•">, in that case, if the temperature be cold, as 
to nsosi melancholy men H is, wine is much commended, if it be moderately tu 

r, Perry.} Cider and perry are both cold and windy drinks, and I >r thai 
cause to be neglected, and so are ail th< strong drinks, 



I 



*C*p. tloM-l ■•Lib. II. c 3. ^nrinht. I quia (ignil adiulam. Sehol. Sal. •» Vlnum turbt- 

•pi» honey. ' n 'i <ii a ii/.uiiii. m, •' B> - hibitinne, duo Aleak* 

coii'il. Ib6 k*N« comedos crusum, cliulerrmi | in una rocnie meiaucbulici factl iunt. 



2. Sub*. 1] Causes of 'Melancholy. 141 

Beer, if il be over-new or over-stale, over-strong, or not sodden, smell of 
»k, sharp, or sour, is most unwholesome, frets, and galls, &r. Henricus Ayre- 
iuon nt' iiis. for one that laboured of hypochondriacal melancholy] 
' ■ >th **Crato in fliat excellent count! 1 of hit, Lih. B. con*//. 21, 
too windy, because of the hop. But he means belike that thick black Bohemian 
some other parts of M Gcrinnnv. 



'nil t[.|..lu« illi 



i ktbitur, all clarliit em diim minciuir, iimlr 
MM, qu£nl mulua frcen la corpora linquat." 



' N.iitiiiiR comet In po thick. 
Nothing «rir» oul *o t li in. 
It muit need* Wkm 

Hi. .lregi are left, willm. *' 



icoflfed) calling it Stygine- monstrum conforme paludi, a monstrous 
river Stvx. But let them say as they list, to such as are accustomed 
unto i .." I'ulvilur \'n^il c;illii!i ii ' and a pleasant drink," 

tilt- nnd better, for the hop thai rarefies it, hath an especial virtue 
. as our herbalists coulrss, Fochahtl approves, Lib. 2. sec. 2. instff. 
1 1 . and many others. 
'■ <] Standing waters, thick and ill-coloured, such as come forth of pools, 
mtw. hemp bath been steeped, or slimy fishee live, arc moat unwhole- 

putrefied, and full of mites, creepers, slimy, muddy, unclean, corrupt, impure, 
• if tin- Pirn's heat, and still-standing; they cause foul distt inpi intOICS m the 
and mind of man, are unfit to make drink of, to dress meat with, or to be* 7 mm d 
rdly or outwardly. They are good for many domestic uses, to trash 
, water cattle, 8tc, or in time of necessity, but not otherwise. Some are of opi- 
tnofa (lit standing waters make the best beer, and thai seething doth defecate 
"Cardan holds, Lib. I3.suhlil. « It mends the subsUmee, and savour of it," but 
paradox. Such beer may be stronger, but not so wholesome at the other, at 
truly justilieth out of Galen, Paradox, dec. I. Paradox 0, that the teething 
mpure waters doth not purge or purify them, Pliny, lib. 81, c. 3, is of the 
tenet, and P. Cresccntius, agricult. lib. 1. ct lib. 4. c. II. Of c. 45. Pamphiliut 
This. >:at. aquarum, such waters are naught, not to be used, and by die 

. ilropsies, pleurisies, splenetic and iiiclancholv pa.s- 
tmrt the i i a had tenijvrature, and ill disposition of the whole lioilv, 

bad colour." This Jobertus stiffly maintains, Paradox, lib. I. part. 5, that it 
- nr. and many loathsome diseases to such as use it: mil 

they say, stands with good reason; for as geographers relat' . tin a 
breeds worms in such as drink it. T 'Axius, or as now called Verduri, the 
ttiraet mer in Macedonia, makes nil cattle black that taste of it. Aleaemao HOW 
Prices, an nam tn Tbeataly, turns cattle most pari white, si potui ittcof, 

ra that "struma or poke of the Bavarian! 
aatun 3 Munster doth that of Valesians in the Alps, and M Bodinfl 

■tuttering <•( tome families in Aquitania, about Labden, i • 
ae cause. u and that the filth is derived from the water to their bodies. 11 
that t Ithy, standing, ill-coloured, thick, muddy water, mval 

muddy, ill-coloured, impure, and infirm bodies. And because the bod] works 
v shall h« understandings, dull, foggy, melai 

, ami be reallv rabject to all manner of infirmities. 

we may reduce an infinite number of compound, artifi- 
dishes, of which our cooks afford us a great variety, as tailors do fashions 
av apparel. Si :h arc "puddings stuffed with blood, or otherwise com; 

meats, soused indurate meats, fried and broiled buttered meats ; condid . p<>w- 
1, and over-dried, "all cakes, simnels, buns, cracknela made w ith butter, 

ra, pancakes, pies, sausages, and those several sauces, sharp, or over-sweet, 






, tpkrl ! •Craaaom 

■•About bantxic in 8pt uce, llam- 

•ll«Brkuf Alirincenti* HPo- 

B jiicillidna. I. I. ■ Oalrn. I. I, 

I -lid* •unt aqua- qua- ri «i.ij.-m. 

•« «,»» toitiidr aaO rual* otoatea, Ac 

I »• »tir» Qtoiiinrii. MudM 

I toumdirl. 

• pi mem, 
' IB habitual curpuria el colu- 



.» ■(..■ 
r-a-IH , 



rem. « Maf. Nigrilalem inducit il 

rint. ^Aquieei nivibua cnac l>r .lrunn — i, factual. 

" CiMtnof . I. 3. can. 36. M.ihod. hist, tap ft. 

Bnlbutlunt l.abdnni in Aquitania ob Squ 

inorhi ah acqula In Corpora darivanrur Ed ill Ml 

•x aaatmnr i-l tuffocaio nana. Hii.i. - ' ■'»- 

pedia Tero, placenta 1 , bell ■< 

rtoaa piitnrtini et roqunruin, eiiMiil tervlcinKii 

llant morho* turn rnrporl turn uninm inianibtlea. I'htaaj 

Judcua, lis. dc Ttclinia. V. Jo*. *u* t-i**. 



142 



Causes of Melancholy. 



[Part. l.Sec. 



of which sc'ientia popina, as Seneca calls it, hath served those ''Apician trirk*, and 
perfumed dishes, which Adrian the sixth Pope so much admired in the accounts of 
his predecessor Lc>> dfeeumctj and which prodigious riot and prodigality htTG in- 
vented in this aire. These do generally engender gross humours, fill the stomach 
with crudities, and all those inward parts with obstructions. Montamis, count "i'J 
gives instance, in a melancholy Jew, that by eating such tart sauces, made dishe 
and salt meats, with which he was overmuch delighted, became melancholy, and was 
evil affected. Such examples are familiar and common. 

Scbsect. II. — Quantity of Diet a Cause. 

There is not so much harm proceeding from the substance itself of meat, 
quality of it, in ill-dressing and preparing, as there is from the quantity, disori 
time and place, unseasonable use of it, T " intemperance, overmuch, or overlittle ukintr 
of it. A true saying it is, Plurcs crapula quant gladius. This gluttony kills 
than the sword, this omnivorantiaet lumicida gula, diis all-devouring and tnurd 
gut. And that of TO Pliny is truer, u Simple diet is the best; heaping up i 
meats is pernicious, and sauces worse; many dishes bring many diseast s. 11 ■ '.'- 
tin > out, "That nothing is worse than to feed on many dishes, or to protract the 
time of meals longer than ordinary ; from thence proceed our infirmities, and 'lis the 
fountain of all diseases, which arise out of the repugnancy of jross humours.'' 
Thence, sailh " Fernelius, come crudities, .wind, oppilations, cacochymin. pl< 
cachexia, bradiopepsia, u Hinc sitbitce mortes, atque intestata senectus, sudden deuth. 
&.C, and what not. 

As a lamp is choked with a multitude of oil, or a little fire with overmuch wood 
quite extinguished) so is the natural heat with immoderate eating, strangled in the 
body. Ptrnitiosa scniina est abdomen insaturabile : one saith, An insatiable paunch 
is a pernicious sink, and the fountain of all diseases, both of body and mind. "Met* 
cunalis will have it n pcruliar eause. of this privatr ffisetje ; Snlennnder, eon 

sect, y, illustrates this of Merciirialis, with an example of one so melancholy, ab 
uitriiipeslivis commessatwnibus, unseasonable feasting;. -^Crato confirms as much, in 
that often cited Counsel, 21. lib. 2, putting superfluous eating for a mam ran-e. But 
what need I seek farther for proofs ? Hear "Ilippor rales himself, Lib. 2. Aphor. I0 t 
"Impure bodies the more they are nourished, the (0016 fltej are hurt, for tin- iioiiri«h- 
nutii is putrefied with vicious humours." 

And yet for all this harm, which apparently follows surfeiting and drvn 
see how we luxuriate and rage in this kind; read what Johannes Stuckius hath 
written lately of this subject, in his great volume Be, Ant'iquorum Canviviis, ami of 
(RUT pt6Mnl age; Quam^portrntosa carta, prodigious suppers, "Qui dum invitant 
ad canam effcrunf nd BesslcftriMh what Fagos, Epicures, Apetios, Heliogables, our 
times afford ? Lucullus' ghost walks still, and every man desires to sup in Apollo; 
jEsop's costly dish is ordinarily served up. hi Magis ilia juvant,qucr plurii i mun- 
tur. The dearest cates are best, and 'tis an ordinary thing to bestow twenty or 
thirty pounds on a dish, some thousand crowns upon a dinner: "AIully-Hamet, king 
of Fez and Morocco, spent three pounds on the sauce of a capon : it is nothing in 
our times, we scorn all that is cheap. •• We loathe the very "light (some of us, as 
Seneca notes) because it comes free, and we are offended with the sun's heat, and 
those cool blasts, because we buy them not. -11 This air we breathe is so i 
we care not for it; nothing pleascth hut what is dear. And if we be. '■" \\ 
thing, it is ad gulam : If we study at all, it is erudito luau, to please the palate, am 



lettaM Meeped In \vini>. bird* Ted with fennel 
«nd sugar, a« » l'i>pe'« eoncublne ii-"-il in Avlfimn. 
Hteplun. " Amm* nefntUim ilia Cueetalt, el de 

I'mpln Mil imrniindiim stahiiiiiin f»c'K. Peletiui, 10. e. 
- 1 .ili II, (.99 lI'Mhim i i!iiib uiiliiif.imiia tiniplri, acrr- 

irborum pedif'era, el condimonla pernicin-n. 
million murium nitilta frrciiti Itiiml. -'SI |w. 

9. c. Nihil dvtertui quam il leinntia Juno loncina 
Cniocdeiido ,irnlrnlinlur, el varla rthorum genera con- 
j'jngantiir i Itide motborum ■ ea t u rl f , ipi ■- m repus- 
Danila Ituniiirinn oritur. ■ Pnth. I, 1. c. 14. «Jov. 
Sat. S. •« Aiirnia reptetio clbtirum I'ncil molanchn- 

ttcuro. h Couiettlo iiiperflua clti, el poini quin- 



lllaa nlmla. "Intpura corpora quaritn ■Sfti 

->n 'i unt« magi! India : pulrnfaeil i-niin allmentm 
vIiiobus liuin.ir. •* Vnl. <;m l«-n de poi 

rirni*. Slc pmrnnl Com. •' Amh lib. ,1 • ftft 

tap. 14. "They who Invile u» 1o a iupa«r. i>nly i 
duct ui to our tomb." » Juvenal. *' 1h« 
priced <li*hea alford the Rreni. 

. .mlin. »Na. qurvt. 4. ca. ull. laam 

lumen traiuitum, dole! quod iole, quod 
eniere non p»aainni>. quod bie air nun ornp'ut »\ 
rVuili. Ice. adea nihil placet, ni»i quad caruui »l 
•> IngenkMi ad Gulcm. 



I Sl 1 -. r J. 



Diet, a Cause. 



. 



lu satisfy the got. u A cook of oltl was a base knave (as "Livy complains ), but now 
i great man in request ; cookery is become an art, a noble science : coota art 

ear u their brains in their bellies, and their n 
heoda," as "Agrippa taxed some parasites of his time, rushing OB tin ir own 
tioo, as if a man win mid run upon the point of a sword, usqur Am rumj"tntiir 
r-iuut, "They cat till tin y hurst:*' "All day, all night, let the physician say 
r, and feral diseases are now ready to seize upon them 
t till they vomit, Eduni ut viDiuuii, r<>mu1 ut edant, Bailh Seneca; which 
relate* of Vitelline, Solo transitu ciborum nulriri judicalus : His meat did 
through and away, or till they burst again. u 8fragi tmitnantium ventrem one 
J rake over all ihe world, as so many " slaves, belly-gods, and land-serpents, 
orbit ventri nimis cmgustus, the whole world cannot satisfy their appetite, 
land, rivers, lakes, 8tc, may not give content to their raging guts. 11 To 
op the mess, what immoderate drinking in every place ? Scnem potum pota 
that aim*, bow thry tlurk to the tavern ; us il tiny were fruges tOMtmtrt nati, 
. r end bat t<> eat and drink, like Oflcllius Bibulus, that famous Roman 
itr. Qui dum fix?/, ant bihit aid mini-it ; as so many casks to hold u im\ fta 
than a cask, that mars wine, and itself is not marred by it, yet these are brave 
- was no braver. Et qua fucrunt vilia, mores sunt : 'tis now the 
of our times, an honour ; ,Vunr nru rrs Mffl n~> mint (as Chrysost. serm. 
in V. EphtS. comments) Ut i ftrmumt<p ridrnda'-qve ignnria loco halxattir, nullc 
iwtbriari ; his now eonw pees that he is no gentleman, a very milk-sop, a 

rlown, of no bringing up, that will not drink ; fit for no company ; he is your only 
gallant that plays it off finest, no disparagement now to stagger in the streets, reel, 
. but much to his fame and renown ; as in like case Epidicus told Thcsprio 
Li« f' ' ant, in the "Poet. JSdipol /acinus improbtm, out urged, the other 

, Jit jam alii fircre idenueril ill'i Marts lumon* "lis now no fault, there be i 
brave examples to bear one out; 'tis a credit to have a strong brain, and carr 
liquor well ; the sole contention who can drink most, and fox his fellow tha 
Tia the summum bonum of our tradesmen, their felicity, life, and soul, 
ta dulcedint ajfectanf, saith Pliny, lib. 14. cap. 12. Ut magna pars non o/nul 
premium inlelligat* their chief comfort, to be merry together in an aleboi 
Uvrrn, as our modern Muscovites do in their mede-inns, and Turks in their r< 
hoo*r«. which much resemble our taverns ; they will labour hard all day long to be 
drank at night, and spend totius anni laborcs, as St. Ambrose adds, in a tippling 
convert day into night, as Seneca taxes some in his times, Prrvrrtitnt ojicia 
ft lucis ; when we rise, they commonly go to bed, like our antipodes, 




■ibi primui equif oiien* arttavil anhell*, 
1111m trtt rube ii* aarendlt lutnlna vc»|h i " 



did Petronius in Tacitus, Heliognbalus in Lampridius. 



. vlfilltcil ml Ipaum 
• -trim >lerteliat." 



"He drank Ihf nliht a way 

Till o«in« dawn, then inured out nil ibe dijr.' 



S; irite never saw the sun rise or set so much as OHM in twenty 

yew*. Verves, against whom Tolly so much inveighs, in winter he never was extra 

trrtmr- 'win, never almost ool of bed, IC " -*ull wenehmj and drinking; so 

dU he epend bia time, and *o do mj riadi in our daya. They have gymnasia biho- 

•>1» and rendezvous ; these centaurs and lupitluc toss pots and bowls as so 

boll new tricks, as sausages, anchovies, tobacr 8, pi c k l e d 

i !oes, fctc. : iniitimerable salt meats to increase their appetite, 

•tody 'iiirt themselves by taking antidotes la to carry their drink the 

:id when nought else serves, they will go forth, or be conveyed out, to 

thor gorge, that they may return to drink afresh." They make laws, insanat 

eomtro bibmdi falhcias, and 'brag of it when they have done, crowning that 

■ tUa mancipmm. n»n<- (n omnI ••limsllnne, I de riM.tnW "Ptantap. "H«r. lib. I. 

in^Un.Tiiii.tr. * r,.,.i » I. 7. QiK.rHm Sal. 3. "»Dt*l breTiUw €<•■■■■ lla lo»|rt- 

m. in (Miinin. &r . ►* In liirrin tiido atuprrs ronlrrrliranir aim rnpiant, 

lart - astaafj. •"Mancipia irriiamrnta p>c»f[li.inliir » l-nr. n 'it ad 

abas* so") n\*>r* a*d aumpia B*tlman(p>. rnnrivlum rrpnriemnr, f-pleil u 

•,r«*>v>< xd ll> i, limn; K Srvicnlla ruttiira hiuriri ul biltnnl. Ambroa. InfiiUa vi.a » flat 

»taur>t iu*U et Ciarla, .£*•>• Sylvius, ad unletilulioneni, die. 



Diet, a Cause. 



[fart. l.Sec 




man thut i3 soonest gone, as their drunken predecessors have done, *quid cqo 

vidro? pg. Cum corona PseudaJum ebrium tuum . And when they are i 

will have a can of wine with 'Maron's old wniinii to he engraven on their tombs. 
So they triumph in villany, ;tnd justify their wickedness ; with Rabelais, that French 
Lucian, drunkenness is belter for the body than physic, because there be more old 
drunkards than old physicians. Many such frothy arguments they have, * inviting 
and encouraging others to do as they do, and love them dearly for it (no glue like 
to that of good fellowship). So did Alcibiades in Greece; Nero, Bonosus, Hclio- 
gabalus in Rome, or Alegabalus rather, as he was styled of old (as ' Ignatius proves 
out of Mnne old coins). So do many great men still, as 8 Heresbachius observes. 
When a prince drinks till his eyes stare, like Bitias in the Poet, 



-" III.? iniplger bausil 



-"a thirsty »oul ; 



riting 
■like 
lelio- 

roves 

rrm 



Spittnatileu] vina pateraiu.") 



He look clialiriise and einbrnc'd (he bowl : 

W ii li pleasure swlll'd the jrolil, nor ceaaed to draw 

Till he the bottom of the brimmer • aw." 






and comes off clearly, sound trumpets, fife and drums, the spectators will applaud 
him, u lhe "bishop himself (if he belie them not) with his chaplain will stand by 
and do as much,"' digmim principe hmtstnm, 'twas done like a prince. "Our 
Dutchmen invite allcomers with a pail and a dish," VeluJ infundibula integras obbas 
rxhiLuriun\ t /. in monslrosis poculis, ipsi mmistrosi mnnstrosius cpotavt, u making 
barrels of their lullies." Incrtdihile dictu y as "one of their own countrymen com- 
plains ; "Qutnitttm liquoris immadrstissima grns capiat, he. * How they love a man 
that will be drunk, crown him ami honour him for it," hate him that will not pi 
him, suib him, kill him : a most intolerable offence, and not to be forgiven. ■•» lie 
is a mortal enemy that will not drink with him," as Munster relates of the Saxoaf, 
So in Poland, he is the best servitor, and the honeslest fellow, saith Alexander Ga- 
guinus, ,4tk that drinketh most healths to the honour of his master, he shall be 
rewarded as a good servant, and held the bravest fellow that carries his liquor best," 
when a brewer's horse will bear much more than any sturdy drinker, yet for his 
noble exploits in this kind, he shall be accounted a most valiant man, for u Tiim inter 
epuhis nrtU vir MM potest ac in bello, as much valour is to be found in fe 
in fighting, and some of our city raptains, and carpet knights will make this good, and 
[trove it. Thus they many limes wilfully pervert the good temperature of their 
bodies, stifle their wits, strangle nature, and degenerate into beasts. 

Some again are in the other extreme, and draw this mischief on their heads by 
too ceremonious and strict diet, being over-precise, cockney-like, and curious in their 
observation of meals, times, as that Media im viatica prescribes, just so many ounces 
at dinner, which Lessius enjoins, so much at supper, not a little more, nor a little 
less, of such meal, and at such hours, a diet-drink m the morning, cock-broth, China- 
broth, at dinner, plum-brnth, n chicken, a rabbit, rib of a rack of mutton, wing of « 
capon, the merry -thought of a hen, &.c. ; to sounder bodies this is too nice and most 
absurd. Others otlend in over-much fating: pining adays, saith "Guianeri us, and 
raking anights, as many Moors and Turks in these our times do. u Audi, 
monks, anil the rest of that superstitious rank (as the same Guianerius witnesseth, 
that he hath often seen to have happened in his time) through immoderate fasting, 
have been frequently mad." Of such men belike Hippocrates speaks, 1 Apln 
when as he saith, ITU they more offend in too sparing diet, and are worse damn 
than they that feed liberally, and are ready to surfeit. 



4 Plautua. » Lib. 3. Anlhnl. c.20. » Gratlam 

cnncjltanl po:ntnlo. " Nolii ad Ovarea. ' I I ■ 
educamlia prim ipiim llberia. • Vtog .11 I. "Idem 
it ft n in pouini - I piacopl Snccllanut. cum ingentem 
paieram exhaurit princep*. u Bohamua In 6 
Adeo imni ■'!• r It* < ' miiiiod*a1e ab ipms bihitur, in in 
COmpolaiK>iii!Mi« *"" BOB eytihto aolutl cl canlliari* 
■at Infuinl- r.> po*MM, ted impletuui mukirale nppo- 
Iiant, rl »c in •■ 1 1 1 injerla li-Ttantiir qu em libel act libit mil 

fmlirc ' Hutu tiirredihilr. iiann! n ni tarjuaM 

iqnnrlce immoiteMii gen* capiat, pin* BBtaartai 
itaainiutn Jinbvtit, ai aerlo corooanl, uiiiiMcieaiiiium 41 



contra qui nor Tult, et errde et fuatibua n 

"Qui polare reriinal, bostis habetur. rt . 

BUBS IM r«pi,itnr i Um melius liibn BfOaatBtl 

.lunliii. mrlior habetiir minialer. 

upud Stona-nm, a«r. 18. "Qui dr< >li«- j.Ji. 

nncle vigilant, facile cadurtt in iiirlancholiani ; rt qui 

nature modum eicvdiinl. c. S. tract. IS. r •• l.ortea 

Tiiiih tnlpranlla, ul ii* nrpe acrldti qui mm 

fvrsfiTt. l»co aervlro cilplunt per jcjuiim ni. quod ma- 

■i>h i Hnilanlur, ipta vidi aiepe. ' In laau 

ren dvlinriuiinl. f i quo At ut majori affii 

mi'nto, cnajorquc tit error tcoul quaiu pl< ie »l 



s«u.a.] 



Causes of 



145 




ScWfccT. Ill- — Custom of Dttt, Delight, Appetite, Necessity, how they cause or 

Itindrr. 

rule is »o general, which admits not some exception ; to this, therefore* which 
hitherto said, ^fbr 1 shall otherwise pot most men out of commons,) and 
inconveniences which proceed from the substance of meats, an intemperate or 
of tin in. i ustom somewhat detracts am! ((iiiiluiis. according 1 to thai 
,3 Aphoris. 50. '* u Such things as wc have been long accuston 
they be evil in their own nature, yet they are less offensive. 1 ' Otherwise it 
it well be ohjecti (1 that it were a mere "tyranny to live after those strict rules 
of pit -m "doth alter nature itself, and to such as are used to then it 

make* bud meals wholesome, and unseasonable times to OWN im dismili r. I 
sad perry are windy drinks, so are all fruits windy in themselves ooU moot part, 
ret in some •hires of *' England, Normandy in France, Guipuscoa in Spain, 'tis their 
eoflunoo drink, and they are no whit offended with it. In Spain, Italy, and Africa, 
•bsy liso mo»t on roots, raw herbs, camel's ^milk, and it agrees well with them : 
vksrh to ■ Stranger -will cause much in In Wales, lucticiniis vescUUtt 

tympany IJwvd confesseth, S Cambro-ftriton himself, in his elegant epistle to 
• brthxm bruliut, ihey lire most on white meats : in Holland on nsh, roots*" bettor; 
sud so at this day in Greece, as "Bellonius observes, the] bad much rathflr feed on 
Wl than flesh. With us, Mamma pan virtus iH curnr consistit, we feed on flesh 
assl part, *aith "Pol :il.a« all northern countries do; and it would be very 

to as to live alirr ilieir dirt, or they to live after ours. We drink beer, they 
; they use oil, we butter ; we in the nurth are a gieal eaters ; they most sparing 
hot?' - ; and yet they ami we following our own customs an 

An Ethiopian of old seeing an European eat bread, wonden-d, ijwimodo 
itrxoribus prsccnt's rwrrunur, how we could eat such kind of meats : so much 
hi-- oen from our- in diet, that as mine "author infers, si <juis illtinim 

ffpmti not amulun tilht ; if any man should so bed with us, it would he all 
to nourish, as Cicuta, Aconitum, or Hellebore itself. At this day in China the 
a manner altogether on roots and herbs, and to the wealthiest, 
a«s. mule, dog*, cat-lloh. is as drlicliLsome as the rest, so ° Mat. Riccius the 
relates, who lived ers amongst them. The Tartars eat raw i 

commonly * hors< - ink milk and blood, as the Noniades of old 

cium cum nangumr jiotat njuitm. They scoff at our Europeans for eating 
lops of weeds, nnd horse meat, not fit for men ; and yet Sca- 
a sound and witty nation, living a hundred years; even in tbe 
itry of them is Benedict the Jesuit observed in his travels, 

gren tri by land to Pekiu, which EUccins eontends to be the 

rtth Csmbulu in Cataia. In Scandia their bread is usually dried fish, and so 
ui ti - ; ami their other fare, as in Iceland, saith ■ Dithtnarus 

tdt-ir dnnk water, their lodging on the ground. 

In Amain in many places il. is roots, their meat palm: . potatoes* 

There be of thorn too thai familiarly drink *'salt sea-water all 

"'mw meat, grass, and that with delight. With some, fish, si-rpents, 

s^iilc 'Vat man's flesh, raw and roasted, oven tin F.m- 

pnw "Monf/uma lllmoslf In BOOM CoaotOf aiain, J one tree yields tht-m OOCOOf 

irr« qoi|'|Hp il« 
•W-i <lm m Tel lanuitatla, >• 

liters (I Miiliu, AtclhM. *e 

■ Hie frr* v<>*euiitur ar. tabula omnia, Mai Ricciu*. 
lb. J. cap. 11 "Tajtari mull*. rqitht v. 

'l (mtf* cotiicmtiMii, ili.r.ii.i, 

r#fe- I !)■•<• JuiniMiif.riiiii pabulum el boiiuio, non hou 

Maria ** l«Uo<ii» OmstmUvm vittm coram batyro, i«ii\ 

" panl» habeui, point aqua, 

nut scrum, ale vivunL line m»t1iclna nmlt.i ail Jtitma 

■JfHI " l-aoi 'I flearrln lib 11. cap 10. 

Ai|ii*m tnarlnam bib«rv #urii abacus noil. 

vie» 5. voyage. ■ I'aminnr* »«IU-fi*«>*l 

F^r. PorlrniK, III' novm nrbl* Imcrip. M Una— 

r..firn, c. !>(■ I'almr Idttar tutiut orbia atliuitt>»» 





lit t MM ltf mold n I 

I »•■!,, 



I 



»Lll) 



lpl«iut n<l(l> N 

•». »»l aaal *>-» ill 4a, «t 41 

>aal laaao tun awn pari 

NBJ eV «»» lt'i« i|ilMl •! l)l'l, 

fc«(*n/vai at u!r:uin, apad Stnaa quain louga piBilantlor 

I» N 



146 



Retention and Evacuation* Causes. 



[Pi* 1. Seel 

nuts, meat and drink, fire, fuel, apparel ; with his leaves, oil, vinegar, cover for 
houses, &.c, and yet these men going naked, feeding coarse, live commonly a hun- 
dred years, are seldom or never sick ; all which diet our physicians forbid. In West* 
phalia they feed most part on fat meats and wourts, knuckle deep, and call it x cere- 
brum Jovis ; in the Low Countries with roots, in Italy frogs and snails are used. The 
Turks, saith Busbequius, delight most in fried meals. In Muscovy, garlic and onioni 
are ordinary meat and sauce, which would be pernicious to such as are unaccustomed 
to them, delightsome to others ; and all is w because they have been brought up unto 
; t Husbandmen, and such as labour, can eat fat bacon, salt gross meat, hard cheese, 
&c, ( dura messorum ilia), coarse bread at all times, go to bed and labour upon a 
full stomach, which to some idle persons would be present death, and is against the 
rules of physic, so that custom is all in all. Our travellers find this by common ex- 
perience when they come in far countries, and use their diet, they are suddenly 
offended, 3 * as our Hollanders and Englishmen when they touch upon the coasts of 
Africa, those Indian capes and islands, are commonly molested with calentures, 
fluxes, and much distempered by reason of their fruits. "Peregrina, etsi suavia, 
solent vescentibus perturbationes insignes adferre, strange meats, though pleasant, 
cause notable alterations and distempers. On the other side, use or custom miti- 
gates or makes all good again. Mithridates by often use, which Pliny wonders at, 
was able to drink poison ; and a maid, as Curtius records, sent to Alexander from 
K. Porus, was brought up with poison from her infancy. The Turks, saith Bello- 
nius, lib. 3. c. 15, eat opium familiarly, a drachm at once, which we dare not take in 
grains. "Garcius ab Horto writes of one whom he saw at Goa in the East Indies, 
that took ten drachms of opium in three days ; and yet consulto loqurbatur, spake 
understanding^, so much can custom do. 4, Theophraslus speaks of a shepherd 
that could eat hellebore in substance. And therefore Cardan concludes out of Galen. 
Consuetudinem ulcunque ferendatn* nisi valde malatn. Custom is howsoever to be 
kept, except it be extremely bad : he adviseth all men to keep their old customs, and 
that by the authority of '"Hippocrates himself, Band urn aliquid tempori, cstali, rt- 
gioni, constictudini, and therefore to a continue as they began, be it diet, bath, exer- 
cise, &c, or whatsoever else. 

Another exception is delight, or appetite, to such and such meats : though they 
be hard of digestion, melancholy ; yet as Fuchsius excepts, cap. 6. lib. 2. Inslit sect 2, 
44 "The stomach doth readily digest, and willingly entertain such meats we love 
most, and are pleasing to us, abhors on the other side such as we distaste." Which 
Hippocrates confirms, Aphoris. 2. 38. Some cannot endure cheese, out of a secret 
antipathy ; or to see a roasted duck, which to others is a tf delightsome meat 

The last exception is necessity, poverty, want, hunger, which drives men many 
times to do that which otherwise they are loth, cannot endure, and thankfully to 
accept of it : as beverage in ships, and in sieges of great cities, to feed on dogs, cats, 
rats, and men themselves. Three outlaws in * Hector Boethius, being driven to their 
shifts, did eat raw flesh, and flesh of such fowl as they could catch, in one of the 
Hebrides for some few months. These things do mitigate or disannul that which 
hath been said of melancholy meats, and make it more tolerable ; but to such as are 
wealthy, live plenteously, at ease, may take their choice, and refrain if they wilL 
these viands are to be forborne, if they be inclined to, or suspect melancholy, as 
they tender their healths : Otherwise if they be intemperate, or disordered in their 
diet, at their peril be it. Qui monet amat, Jive et cave. 

He who advise* Is your friend 
Farewell, and to your health attend. 

Si'bsect. IV. — Retention and Evacuation a cause, and how. 

Of retention and evacuation, there be divers kinds, which are either concomitant, 
assisting, or sole causes many times of melancholy. * Galen reduccth defect and 
abundance to this head ; others 4bu All that is separated, or remains." 

Lips, epist. "Teiicris amicscere multum. portereret. ** Qui cum voluptate asaumnnlur clM 

•"Iteiicntiiia! mutatloncs noxain pnriunt. Hlppncral. vintrlculiu aviiliun romplecliuir, cxpedilluaqne con 

AphurUm. 21, Epist. 6. ncct. 3. Druerimm, lih. 1. roquit. et que divplicent aversatur. o Nothing 

cap. S3. Siinpl. mud. v. 4. I. 1. "Heurnius. ne.iinat a good stomaih. aa the saying in. "Lib."* 

I. S. c. 19. prai. med. « J Aphoris. 17. *-In Hist. Scot. "3u. arlia. * <Aue excaraumur •*• 

di/Mia coDsuctudinem sequalur adolescent, et inceptis subgistunt, 




«■] 



Retention and Evacuation, Cauus. 



147 



In the first rank, of these, I may well reckon up costivencss. and 
f in of our ordinary excrements, which as it often cnusrth other diseases, so tliis 
articular. 'Gaums, lm. I . cap. 3, saith, »* It protluceth iiui.. 
th* head, dulness, cloudiness, heodacln .'" fce. Prosper Calenus, lib, dr otra 
have it distemper not the organ only, •« t»ut the mind itself by troubling 
nd sometimes it is a sole cause of madness, as you may read in ih 
'Skrukius's Medicinal Observations. A young merchant going to Nordcling 
Germany. for ten day* 1 space never went to 6tool; at bis return h- 

melancholy, thinking that he was robbed, and would not at ; madV d 
hia money wan gone; his friends thought he hnd some philtruin 
■ in bus, a | . being sent for, found his "costiveness alone to 1 . 

and thereupon gave him a clyster, by which he was speedily reco\ 
■us, consult. 35. lib. 1, saith as much of a melancholy lawyer, to \ 
S* admin Birred physic, and Hodericus a Fonseca, consult. 85. torn. 2. *of a pi 
rt~ bis, Oiat for eight days was bound, and therefore mtkochosf atlected. Other' 
mcBtiiios snil is there are, not simply necessary, but at some times; as 

Ftrswlras accounts them, Path. lib. 1. cap. 15, as suppression of tuemorrh 
in women, bleeding at nose, immoderate or no use at all of V 
ordinary issues. 

ition of ha rrhohls, or monthly issues, Villanovanus Breviar. lib. 1. rap. 

Areulanus, cap. IG. in 0. Rhsats, Vittorius Faventinus, pract. mag. Tract. 2. eapi 
Brnel, J«.c. put fur ordinary causes. Fuchsius, 1. 2. sect. 5. c. 30, go. - 
** Thai many men unseasonably sored of the lu-rmorrhoids I 
w i luly, seeking to avoid Scylln, they fall into Charybdis. Gall 

exnnmen. 3. ad text. '2(5, illustrates this by an i xainpl a of l.uciu- 
wbnm hr cured of madness, contracted by this means: And "Skenkius haili two 
wher instances of two ineluucholy and mad women, so caused from the sup 
4 their months. The same may be said of bleeding at the u< •< . ii 
— p e ed , and have been formerly used, as • Villanovanus oajeth: And "1 
Lh %. swrt. 5. cap. 33, slitlly maintains, "That without great danger, BOOfa 
not be stayed." 

duccth like effects. Mathiolus, epist. 5. 7. penult., ""'avoucheth 
i basbfulness abstained from veuery, and there- 
- and dull; and some other!* that were very tittdfOUBj BM 
eyond all measure sad." Oribaaius, mrd. collect. I. 0. c. 37, speak* 
not use carnal copulation, are continually troubled 
with heaviness and headache; and some in the same case by intermission of it."'' 
Xot bv «>| it hurts many, Areulanus, c. 6. in 'J. Rhati*, i i Magninus, part. 3. cap, 5, 
it ""sends up poisoned eapoori to the brain and heart."' And so 
lea himself bold. "That if this natural seed be over-long kept m soma 
it turns to poison." Hieronymns Mercurialis, in his chapter of Melancholy, 
fbff an especial this malaih, ' "Priapifimu . is, kc. Hahali 

many oilier diseases. Vfllenoi ' 1. 

•'•• knew '"iimnv monks and widows grievously botthkd win tnelan- 
iis a L^l.udov i ynSfLSid 

a Castro, f/t morbiit multcr. I. 2. c. 3. treat la Ilia -ub- 

e a peculiar kind of melancholy hi stale maids, i one, 
inn, 06 suppressions hi M ft m snwaaaB, ii'intler. masta. an 

rrrfcwnda', rvsj ■ cum summa vila* tl rervM n 

r*m desperations, &.< melanchol] in the highest dearie, and all for wall 









rapHU it"- eolla abatln«nt< «, tdfpidna, t>letotq«r furl .« • • 



■■■a**! 

u r am — . *• I 

I. *. *,.... 
• as •«» mm 

■»- 

k<W»i ^u«t **Mv«l <1'Ju»Jjiii pur pi 






dim iw'< ». lioil- 



hoiift uti« a 



148 



Retention and Evacuation, Causes. 



[Part 1. Sec. * 




of husbands. .rElianus Montaltus, cap. 37. de melancholy confirms as much out of 
Galen; so dolh Wierus, Christoferus a Vega de art. mid. h!>. 3. c. 14, relates many 
such examples of men and women, that he had seen so melancholy. Feelix Plater 
:u the first book of his Observations, "" tells a story of an ancient gentleman in 
Ihttui) thnt married a young wife, and was not able to pay his debts in that kind 
t<>r a long lime together, by reason of his several infirmities : but she, because of this 
inhibition of Venus, fell into a horrible fury, and desired every one that came to 
her, by words, looks, and gestures, to have to do whit her, Stc." CT Bemardus Pa 
nus, a physician, saith, u He knew a good honest godly priest, that because he wou 
neither willingly marry, nor make use of the stews, fell into grievous nielaneh- 

Hilili >lu>iiN, sp'irel, '£, hath such another example of an Italian melancholy 
-'., in a consultation had Jinno 1580. Jason Pratensis gives instance in a married 
man, that from his wife's death abstaining, 6nk after marriage, became exceedingly 

ly," Bodarieni a Fonseca in a young man so inkiili eted, Tom. 2. consult. 8 
To these you may add, if you please, that conceited tale of a Jew, so visited in lil 
sort, :iin.l so cured, out of Poggius Florentines. 

int emp erate Venus is ah but as bad in the other extreme. Galen, I. 6. dr morhis 
lar. sect. 5. text. 26, reckons up melancholy amongst those diseases which are " 
asperated by venery :" so doth Avicenna, 2, 3, c. 11. Oribasius, lor. cilat. Ficini 
lib. 8> de sanitate tuendii. Marsilius Cognatus, Montaltus, cap. 27. Guiaie 
Trail. 3. cap. 2. Magninus, cap. 5. part. 3, '"gives the reason, because : ' kW it infri- 
gidates and dries up the body, consumes the spirits ; and would therefore have all 

■Kh as :in- r.il.l a-n! dry (0 :.ik<- li:ri! of ami to avoid it a^ | uftOfttl . M.!il\ ."' Jt0< 

chiou* iu <J Rhusis, cap. 15, ascribes the same cause, and instnnceth in a patient ol" 
his, thiit married a young wife in a hot summer, ***tad so dried Itimself with cham- 
ber-work, that he became in short space from melancholy, mad :" he cured him by 
in' usi cuing remedies. The like example I find in Laelius a Fonte Eugubinus, cemsidt. 
199, of a gentleman of Venice, that upon the same occasion was first melancholy, 
afterwards mad. Read in him the story at large. 

other evacuation stopped will cause it, as well as these above named, he it 
bile, ~' 3 ulcer, issue, &.c. Hercules de Saxonisi, lib. I. c. 16, and Gordonins, verify 
this out of their experience. They saw one wounded in the head who M long as 
the sore was open, Lucida hahuit mentis intrriHtf/a, was well ; but when it wat 
■topped) Rdiil melancholia, his melancholy fit seized on him again, 

i<-!a! evacuations are much like in effect, as hot houses, baths, bio" 
purging, unseasonably and immoderately used. "Baths dry too much, if used in 
i'i'v, l>e they natural or artificial, and ollcml extreme hoi, or cold ; w OM drii-^. 
other refrigerates overmuch. nlnmauus, eonsil. 137, sailh, they over-heal liie liver 
Job. Struthius, Stigmaf. arlis. 1. 4. e. 9, contends, " ,J " that if one May longer than 
dinnry at the bath, go in too oft, or at unseasonable times, he notrefiea the hunio 
in li- bodr." To this purpose writes Magninus, I. 3. c. 5. GtuanorrlH, '/Viicf. 1 
c. 21, utterly disallows all hot baths in melancholy adust. 7: '• | saw saith 
thai laboured of the gout, who to be freed of this malady came to the bat! 
instantly cured of his disease, but got another worse, and that WM madness." 
thi* judgment varies as the humour doth, in hot or cold : baths may be good fin 
melancholy man, bad for another; that which will cure it iu this party, may 
it in ;i serum!. 

Pklcbotamf.] Phlebotomy, many times neglected, may do much harm to the 
when there is a manifest redundance of bad humours, and melancholy blood; a 
when these humours heat and boil, if this be not used in time, the parties aflec 



una 

ok 



[ H 



• lit tetifti Alfatu* jurenem uanram dimt. it 

re. el tnuliU norbtt eorreaiila, n«n po- 

lail prniate olBciiin irniritl. vli iniio niiiirtiminii) 

I in li'.rri mluiii fur-.riii.i tit. eb Ve- 

■ nhiluinrn ut omnium earn iiivi«enlluni con- 

•-. vnliii, e.-,i>i expetenl, l-i qiiiira non 

toa Anglicanoa ui'ignn aapaliit ela- 

iii .1. 'Vnii aacardotani optlntun ai i>iu i>n 

■inn i nodal mi Vi.ii.ti-, in niei-iiic iii.Ihh •yaiptnmata 
ia. i. la. 

inllaip. "Quai ft MiUll exncerh iritur. 

"tulprnluuin ioiIuiu cauMin jxmunt. •' I!, ureal 



cni-pui, •pirilua cnn*nmll. A.C. caveant nh li». - 
lulloitnlco mortal I. ' J )laex*icealita ut tan 
lli-.n »ih1iii> ftierlt iinnnm, ab humecl«niil.>> 
71 E x cnnirrio »»i uleara r\*t UOi 

tlb. 1. I>im-oiiiiii>thI« cold b:ilh- as imilntii. 
cum rvdilunt corpuii. SI qu - 

In lav, ant limn, frequenter, mil Imp 

bunorta pttirat&cM " Ego mwi aapa o or 

dain (utioitiim «nll nitiiMiim, i|in in llbirni. nir <l. . 
ta, ad balnea accetilt, el 4e guua liberalut, maau 
faclua eal 




Bad .i(>, a Cause. 



Ufl 



are id g • bernad; but it it he unadvisedly, importuuely, 

erating the body, dulling the 
<m: as Joh. ** Curio in his Hub chapter well n 
i more hurt than good : w «*The humours Page no 
■ad is so far from avoiding melanchol) . 

spcr Calenus observes as much of all phl< 

:iml as *' Leonartis Jacchinue speaks out of 
■oa > * ,4 *The Mood is much b many men after their l< 

at first," For thu like Solust, Salvmioflv*; 

•r of no blood-leiiing at all in ih : ~ -i rt 

i l>V bis OWn VOldfl hi tli.it |il.ur, [ii:i-trr i>f 

ad in d found by long experience! that ihta I. 

• ■r any other part, did m i good." 'I'" 

h some wink ut, disallow and 

all (i 1 by long experience 1 liave (bund 

■wad, after they bad been twenty, nay, sixty time I to 

It wai BO ordiuan*- thing' of old) in Galen'f? lime, lo take at onr*o 

*tii*h men six pounds of blood, which now we dare scarce take in ounce* : »ed 

written of this subji 

Pnrgini? upward ami downward, in abundance of bad hu UPS omitted, may be 

in tin |>n cedent, if overmuch, too frequent or \;- 
n 'wwkfh strength, saith I u< hsius, /. 2. sect. 2 c. 17, or if they br> strong 

i hem to an ill habit, they make thi 
a* better than i] this and surh like- infirmities must needs, follow 

V, — Bad A ;sr of % M,lancholy. 

moment, in producing ibis or any other disease, being that 
! our more inner parte, " a II it be 
A foe asea by injection o( 

Vvirenno, lib. l. Gal. <h sun tuendd, Mer- 
■mtal: saith, " A thick air thickcueth the blood and hu- 

ll, ost profitable, and most perni 
bodu-4 : air an culiar disease, nothing sooner causelh '" 

we breathe and live. 1 ' ■ Spefa as is the air, smU 
h our ipi ire our humours. It offends commonly if it 

ick, fuliginous, cloudy, blustering, or a tempeetnoue 

. . in- Method ol Kistorj . proves thai 

with melancholy) and tlmt there at tc in 

it numbers of mud men. insomuch that they are 

■ iihl peculiar hospitals for them. Leo M Afer, hb. 3. 

id Zuinger, confirm as much : they are o 

that Bcaree two words pass without railing or chiding io 

:ll have every man 
that in hot countries it is tar more familiar than 
now said be not continually so, for as "Aeoata 
. most temperate habitation, win.! 
-bowers. But it boll 

■rus, others in Malm, 







at Ifi I f IT nnrni- 

■>~ takl Mb prj- 

' *i ■ - r km .Mfn*4M 



elinl- I liae niton* innolot lone i cognnvl, qui 

rlftalM, »eia«;iri MSM Hindi nJo, A.c. 
■ "Mnipunn ati ntrttai •'■ 

' Bortas. *«, ii 

•Lib. 1 up 

iltlll. El HI 

•QlMlU Bt'l 

n..ne.l- 






■ 
i, in tn'i'.ai* »u- 
"Ub. 'i. ■ttoionedcua, c*»."l. 






150 



Causes of Melancholy. 



l.Sec.2 



Aupulia, and the M Holy Land, where at some seasons of the year is nothing but dust, 
their rivers dried up, the air scorching hot, and earth inflamed ; insomuch that many 
pilgrims going barefoot for devotion sake, from Joppa to Jerusalem upon the hot 
sands, often run mad, or else quite overwhelmed with sand, prqfundis arenis, as in 
many parts of Africa, Arabia Deserta, Bactriana, now Cliarassan, when the west wind 
blows '■"Involuti arenis transeuntes necanlur. " Hercules de Saxonia, a professor in 
Venice, gives this cause why so many Venetian women are melancholy, Quod diu 
sub sole deganti they tarry too long in the sun. Montanus, consil. 21, amongst other 
causes assigns this ; Why that Jew his patient was mad, Quod torn mullum exposuit se 
ccilnri etfrigori : he exposed himself so much to heat and cold, and for that reason in 
Venice, there is little stirring in those brick paved streets in summer about noon, they 
are most part then asleep : as they arc likewise in the great Mogol's countries, and all 
over tin; East Indies. At Aden in Arabia, as " Lodovicus Vcrtomannus relates in his tra- 
vels, they keep their markets in the night, to avoid extremity of heat ; and in Omnia, 
like cattle in a pasture, people of all sorts lie up to the chin in water all daylong. At 
Brazil in Portugal ; Burgos in Castile ; Messina in Sicily, all over Spain and Italy, their 
streets arc most part narrow, to avoid the sunbeams. The Turks wear great turbans 
adfugnndos solis radios, to refract the sunbeams ; and much inconvenience that hot 
air of Bantam in Java yields to our men, that sojourn there for traffic ; where it it 
so hot, '*•* that they that are sick of the pox, lie commonly bleaching in the sun, to 
dry up their sores." Such a complaint I read of those isles of Cape Verde, fourteen de- 
grees from the Equator, they do male, audire : 'One calls them the unheal tl lies t clime 
of the world, for fluxes, fevers, frenzies, calentures, which commonly seize on seafar- 
ing men that touch at them, and all by reason of a hot distemperature of the air. The 
hardiest men are oflended with this heat, and stiflest clowns cannot resist it, as Con- 
stantino allirms, Jlgricult. 1. 2. c. 45. They that are naturally born in such air, may 
not i endure it, as Nijrcr records of some part of Mesopotamia, now called Diarbecha 
Quibusdam in locis servient i cestui adeo subject a est, ut pleraque animal ia fcrvore solis 
el cn-li cxtinguantur, 'tis so hot there in some places, that men of the country and 
raitle are killed with it; and 'Adricomius of Arabia Felix, by reason of myrrh, frank- 
incense, and hot spices there growing, the air is so obnoxious to their brains, that* 
the very inhabitants at some times cannot abide it, much less weaklings and strangers. 
4 Ainatns Lusitanus, cent. 1. curat. 45, reports of a young maid, that was one Vincent 
a mrricrV daughter, some thirteen years of age, that would wash her hair in the heat 
of the day ^in July) and so let it dry in the sun, *" to make it yellow, but by that 
means tarrying too long in the heat, she inflamed her head, and made herself mad." 
Cold air in die other extreme is almost as bad as hot, and so doth Monlaltus esteem 
of it, c. 11, if it be dry withal. In those northern countries, the people are therefore 
generally (lull, heavy, and many witches, which (as I have before quoted) Saxo Grara- 
inalicus. Olaus, Baptista Porta ascribe to melancholy. But these cold climes are 
more subject to natural melancholy (not this artificial) which is cold and dry: for 
which cause "Mercurius Britannicns belike puts melancholy men to inhabit just un- 
der the Pole. The worst of the three is a 7 thick, cloudy, misty, foggy air, or such 
as come from fens, moorish grounds, lakes, muckhills, draughts, sinks, where any 
carcasses, or carrion lies, or from whence any stinking fulsome smell comes : Galen, 
Avieenna, Mercurialis. new and old physicians, hold that such air is unwholesome, 
and engenders melancholy, plagues, and what not? 'Alexandretta, an haven-town in 
the Mediterranean Sea, Saint John de Ulloa, an haven in Nova-Hispania, are much 
condemned for a bad air. so are Durazzo in Albania, Lithuania, Ditmarsh, Pomptinc 
Pal in If* iu Italy, the territories about Pisa, Ferrara, Sic. Komney Marsh with us; the 
Hundred* in Essex, the fens in Lincolnshire. Cardan, de rerum varictate, 1. 17. c. 1)6, 
iii ids fault with the siirht of those rich, and most populous cities in the Low Coun 



'<* Apulia rstlvo cnlnre imxiint frrvrt. ila ut ante 
fliH'iu Mali non« u mint it nil. •"•"Thi-y prri»h in 

rli. Mil. of Kami." UaiMnm Per*. "" I'nmhcn ppu 

]'r:ir(. t. I. 1. cap. IS. VeiiHtir mulirre* qiir diu 

*uli Mil- viviuit, aliqiiandn mi'lnnrlmlirr cvaduiil. 
* N.ivisf lib. 3 cap. 4. cnminrrrlu nocle, Intra ai-cunria 
6I1 iiiini»i. qui nrviunt intrnllu ralus eiercont. 
■«> Mnrlhi Galileo Iiborantea. cxpnnant ad tolem ut 
morbus etileeent. • Sir Richard llawkina la ala 



Obnflrvaiimis, *ect. 11 * Hippocralpa, X. Aphnrli- 

innrum idem nit. 'Idem MaRlnui in Pnna 

* Uofcrip. Tor. aanciat. 'Quum ad anlit radM 

in liM>ne loiigam mnram trahertt, ut capilloi davca 
redderel, in manlam inrldit. 'Mil ados alter •» 

idem, aeu Trrra AuitralU lnco|nita. iCra*aai 

et tuipidua air, triatem efflcit anlman. ■Com* 

motf.y called Bcaadaroon In Alls MImu. 




Dad Air, a Cattse. 



131 



I 



bat t 



Vmsterdam, Leyden, Utrecht, Stc. the air is bad; and to at 

'Ini mi in Italy, Salisbury with us Hull and Lynn: they 

be commodious for i, this new kind of fortification, and many oilier 

necessary uses ; but an • <■? Old Kome hath descended Prom 

hills to the valley, Mis the site of most of our new cite Id !>,-i to build 

tr» take tin- . »!>]»< »rt imily of rivers. Leander Alhertus pleads haul for : 

'i the black moorish lands appear at every low water : the 
noke (u he thinks) qualify the air; and *some suppose, that a thick 
helps the memory, as in them of Pisa in Italy; and our Camden, out of 
ndl the site of ('.(inliridge, because it is to beat ihe fens. But let the 
of tn be as it may, how ran they be e x c use d that have a delirious seat, 

(feMUt air, and all that nature can aiTord, and yet through their own na- tineas, 
. immund and sonlid manner of life, suffer their air to putrefy, and 
Ires to l>e chocked up? Many cities in Turkey do mole audirr in thin kind : 
Constantinople itself, where commonly carrion lies in the street. Some fun! the 

hi Madrid, the kiiiffs seat, a most excellent air, a pleasant site; 
tants are slovens, and the streets uncleanly kept. A 

me ICmpeotOOlU air is as bad as impure, rOUgfa and foul weather, im- \\ 
mdy dark days, as it is commonly with as, Ca him visit (inlum, \ 
Ian* calls it a filthy sky, Bi in quo fncilr generantur mibes ; asTully\*. brother 
tetania wrote to him in Rome, bong then Qucstor in Britain. " In a thick and 
doodt i Lemnius) men are tetric, sad, and peevish: And if tire western 

!d that there be a cairn, or a fair sunshine day, there is a kind of 
sjaenn \ minds ; it chean Op men and beasts : bill if it M a turbulent, rough, 

•rniy weather, men kK md, lumpish, and much dejected, angry, waspish, 
iall. and melancholy." This was " v*trgtrs experiment of old, 

"But wlifn llir. f.irp n{ llcnri-n rhnnerd 
To iei«i|wil«. ram, from •eaiou Our . 

Our muni- IM nlii-ml. unit In ■■ur hrr-mi 
Forthwith mini! new t i 

B not weather-wise against such and such conjunction* of ; I - >vrd 

. ilull ami heavy in roeh teui[iestuous s< 'Oehdum ceniriatal 

nmum : the time re quir e*, and llie autuum breeds it; whin r is like unto 
d, the air works on all men, more or less, hut especially on such 
I to it, as Lemnius holds, ""Tiny are most moved 
«M which are already mad, rave downright, either in. or agninel a 
• vil many times takes his opportunity of such storms, and 
iben nours by the air he stirred, he goes in with them, exagitates our spirits, 

and vexr t -; as the sea waves, so are the spirits and humours in our bodies 

toast- winds and storms." To such as are melancholy therefore, 

Mocit*rm«, con-nil. 94, Will have tempestuous and rough nir to he avoided, and CM*)?. 
".t sir, and would not have them to walk alnoad, hut in a pleasant day. 
I*. 3. iniiicnds the MWth and eastern Winds, commends the north. 

. roan'/. 31. "" Will not any windows to be opened in the night. - " Consil. 
liscommeuds especially the south wind, and nocturnal air: 
doth "Plutarch. The night and darkness makes men sad, the like 00 all mb- 
tntnar-an tank*, dark houses in caves and rocks, desert places cause melaneliolv in 
an in*ta:tt, especially such as have noi been used to it, or otherwise secvstoaied, 
Read mure of air in Hippocrates, AZlius, L 3. a c. 171. ad 175. OribssitUh a c. 1. 
erf SI. At i< < n. /. |. can. Fen. 2. dor. %. F, n. 1. c. 123 to the 12, &c. 

I. — ftaaodersfr Esersias a cause, and luno. Soliiuriiv^. Idleness. 

I but it may be abused : nothing hotter than exercise (if oppor- 
IS preservation of the body : nuthing so bad if it be unseasonable, 



ri 



Xwtvttt nbi t»mp*»ta«. el coll mobltii humor 

.... Inn IlllllUI 

• 



'I 



as nrr ru<- 
it. 




i 



vulrnl T'lMnl. qM><<l 

| III. I III! ! : 



1 ■ 

— l«C]ut i| nu.irnlri Ml <.,!!; 1 

"Mem uuil.Ui vanlUI, ab 




n*rf rltoofT»nrtuntiir. ft mulil ln«ai 
i. ntiter quieli 
ii*ii. ei i 
runl. rl 

resant, eitftumi, «-t m itui 
■ ■it i 

MMUUMl 



'•Lib. dc Wide rV U*^.,^. 



152 



Causes of Melancholy. 



violent, or overmuch. Fernelius out of Galen, Pat h. lib. I.e. 16, 
much exercise and weariness consumes the spirits and substance, refrigerates the 
body; and such humours which Nature would have otherwise coucocted an 
piUiiI, it stirs up and makes them rage: which being so enraged, diversely affect and 
trouble the body and mind. 1 ' So dotfa ii, if it be unseasonably unod, upon a full 
stomach, or when the body is full of crudities which Fuchsias to much inveighs 
against, lih. %, instil, sic 2. c. 4, giving thai lor a cause, why school-boys in Ger- 
many are so often scabbed) because they use i .-sently after meats. IT Bayenis 
puts in a caveat against such exercise, because u it ,8 corrupts the meat in the stomach, 
and carries the same juice raw, and as yet undigested, into the veins (saith Lemnius), 
which there putrefies and confounds the animal spirits." Crato, consil. 31.2.3, 
" protests against all such exercise after meal, as being the greatest enemy to con- 
coction that mav be, and cause of corruption of humours, which produce this, and 
many other diseases. Not without good reason then doth Salust. Salvianus. /. 2. c. t, 
and Leonartus Jacchinus, in D. Rkasis, Merc urialis, Arcubanus, and many other, set 
down "immoderate exercise as a most forcible cause of melancholy. 

Opposite to exercise is idleness (the budge of gentry) or want of exercise, the 
banc of body and mind, the nurse of naughtiness. Stepmother of discipline, the chief 
auUior of all mischief, one of the seven deadly sins, and a sole cause of this and 
many other maladies, the devil's cushion, as sl Gualter calls it, his pillow and chief 
reposal. u For the mind can never rest, but still meditates on one thing or other, 
pt it be occupied about some honest business, of his own accord it rushed) into 
icholy. u Ja too Orach and violent exercise ofiendfl on the one side, so doth an 
idle lite 00 the other (saith Crato), it fills the body full of phlegm, gross humours, 
and all manner of obstructions, rheums, catarrhs," Ss.r. Rhasis, cont. lib. 1. tract. 9, 
accounts of it as the greatest cause of melancholy. n " I have often seen (saith he) 
that idleness begets this humour more than anything else." M on (alius, c. 1, second* 
him out of his experience, ■**' They that are idle are far more subject to melancholy 
than such M are conversant or employed about any office or bill larch 

reckons up idleness for a sole cause ol the sickness ol the soul: "-There an 
(saith be) troubled in mind, that have 00 oilier cause but this." Homer, Ilio'l. I, 
brings in Achilles eating of his own heart in his idleness, because he might not 6ght 
Idercmialis, consil. 86, for a melancholy young man urgelh^it as a chief cause ; why 
was he melancholy ? because idle. Nothing begets it sooner, increased) and conti- 
nueth it oftencr than idleness. 27 A disease familiar to all idle persons, an inseparable 
companion to such as live at ease, Pingui olio tlvsidios u life out of action, 

and have no calling or ordinary einployineiil to busy themselves about, that have small 
■ " e.isjnris , and though ihcy have, such is their laziness, dulncss, they will nol compose 
themselves to do aught ; they cannot abide work, though it be necessary; easy as to 
dress themselves, write a letter, or the like-, yet as he that is benumbed with cold 
sits still shaking, that might relieve himself with a little exercise or stirring, do they 
complain, but will not use the facile and ready means to do themselves good; and 
so are still tormented wilh melancholy. Especially if they have been formerly 
brought up to business, or to keep much company, and upon a sudden come to lead 
a sedentary life; it crucifies their souls, and seizelh on them in an instant; for whilst 
they are any ways employed, in action, discourse, about any business, sport or re- 
creation, or in company to their liking, they are very well ; but if alone or idle, 
tormented instantly again ; one day's solitariness, one hour's sometimes, doth them 



'•Mulia di-falie.il In. tpirllun, rirtumque Mibttnnllam I 

c\li:itini, rt eorpui reffqjonu. Huinorei rurtiipio* qui 

■i li i.-i il ualura rnnrni]ul ■•( itiiin.iri pnnsiut, •' d»-inuiii 

Mimic eicludi, irrlim, el quati in furorem If It, qui 

poelnii limta Willi lllil. Utr" ritwre corpus vanft la- ' 

unlBiuiiiuue. •'■ In Vi m iin-nuii : t.ibru *lr. 

"Infill, ad vil. Christ cap. II film* 

i mil tnpli, qui putrcfr«nt«« Kite spiritual 

■ innriuin. '» I'nnli bare huinnris copio pel 

ii'imt ii.;. r> iliiiir, unile mortu inultiplicei. '■■'Iin- 

ilium. • Hon- It in I Cor. vl. 

N 1 1 ii qua Bra honilnli quUcrrtf non poMil, «d enn- 

t o. ii. . i irca varlaa engit*llnni-a Jiarnrrai, niti kOBMtd 

Bltqao itegolio nvcupeior, ad melanchnliam «pontn 

lelalillur. ■Crato, comll. St. Vl unmodica cor- 



porii exercilailo norM corporibu*. Ha vita deMt, it 

minus: iiiiiim,. animal piluilnnuin n-ddit, vl 

id' -run minus cl trrhros tiuiinfir,. pi nimbus i 

■ El \nlnq;uiid una de jebus qaa> minis gem-rat mi- 

linclialiam, est oticwuna. 

Kills i iiima, el hoc a nobis ohsen. r timlo 

macit obnoxioa qui plane olicwi mm. 

aUflsM inunere versanlur ■MtjWB it. m V< 

quii. aunon*. Sum qua iptuui oiiuin in 

irgiltudincm. >■ Nihil est qund »•■ < 

am aim ac auteau at (ilium el ibi 

e( anlmi ciercilalionibu*. ^Mhil mntti* 

Inlelle-rtum, quaixi otlum. Gunlotiim de ob»«rvat. rlt 

bum lib. 1. 







Idleness a Cause. 



153 



grows 



-'.-.II 






a week's physic, labour, and company can do good. Melancholy 

villi being alone, an . that as v, 

Ho m/Vii male qtutm moltdtr es*r, I dad rather !»• nek tluiri idle. Thjl 

"body or mind. That oj body is nothing hut I kind ofoenumb- 

cxercise, which, if we may believe ■ i iseth 

mental hm da the. 

and cumkea Uiem urutpt to do any thing II hetMM ver." 

mm «•* fill. .....Cur «*." | p£j2 JJJjj,, „, 

1st in untitled grounds, and all manner of wood*, so do gross hum<v 
D a stable that never tra- 
il k in a mew that seldom : tnbjeet to diseases; winch left unto 
or»: i from any such incumbrance^. An idle dog will be dm 
le person think i<> escape I Idleness of the mind is much i 
of UV *rft without employment is a disease ^jErugo animi, ruhig* 
>ul, •'• plague, a hell itself, Maximum animi npcumm 
it. *" As in a standing pool, won Ifhj creepers in n- 
J ni rnorrnntur a<ju<r. the water itself putrefies, and air likewise, if it be not 
■urred by the wind) so do evil and corrupt thoughts in an idle person, 1 ' 
animated. In a commonwealth, where is no public enemy, there is 
irfl wars, and they mgfl upon themselves: thts body of ours, when it i 

how to It, macerates and vexelh itself with cares, griefs, 

nd suspicions; it tortures and preys upon his own di- 
al rest. Thus much I dare boldly say, " He or she that is idle, be they 
31, never so rich, so well allied, fortunate, happy, let tin m 
" ig* i nee rmd felicity thai heart can wish and desire, all contest* 

long as he or she or they are idle, they shall never be pleased, navel well 

still, vexed still, loathing still, weeping, sigh* 

with the world, with every object, wishing them- 

R€ carried away with some foolish phantasy or other. And 

true ravine that so many great men, ladies, and gentlewomen, labour of 

l y and city ; for idleness is an appendix to nobility ; they count 

ad all their days in sports, r- mes, 

therefore take no pains; be of no vocation : they feed liberally, line well, 

rnployment, (for to work. I say, they may not abide,) and 

i thence their bodies become full ot groat humours, 

; their minds disquieted, dull, heavy, ice. care, jealom HMM 

aullc: -o "familiarly on them. For what will not fear 

llasrr Work iu an idle body * what distempers will they not en ■ i tie 

of "Israel murmured against Pharoah in Egypt, he commanded his officers 

their task, and let t -aw themselves, and yet make their full num- 

brick*'; for the sole cause why they mutiny, and are evil at ease, is. ** they 

ir and see so many discontented persons in all places 

veral grievance- -ary complaints, fears, suspi- 

,* the beet means to is to set them a work, so to busy their minds ; tor 

th is, they are idle. Well they may build ensiles in the air for a time, and 

cal and pleasant humours, hut in the end they will 

•ill I say discontent, suspicious, * fearful, jealous, 

themselves; so long as they be idle, it is impossible to please 

jo 701 nrscit u(t. p!u* habit nrgotii quam qui ncgotium in negolio, as that 

He thai knows not how 10 spend busi- 

nf mind, than he that is most busy in the midst of all his 

Olivia* animus Mttd In idle person (as he follows it) knows 






cln- Irg, now that » 

li.nrl 

h ihf ni, nr ■ 






■• n.fno 
ihuii. MI «* uUmu tunic cogiUlkiuM. i 



liunlmml ■ 

II*.*. 



lanchohj. 

not when he is well, what he would have, or whither he would go, (Jumn 

tm rst.iU'tni: hi/jrf, he is tired out with ever) tiling, displeased with nil, weary of 
his lit'' : .VVr lu.ne dnmi, ncc mihlitr, neither at home not abroad, erruf, r.l \ 
tarn vivitur, lie wanders and lives besides himself. In a word, What the nil 

laziness and idleness are, I do not rind any where more accurately v\]n 
Bed, than in these verses of Philolaches in the ^Comical loet, which for iln-ii 
elegancy I will in part insert. 



" Noviirum irdlum cue arbitrnr similcm «>eo hnminem, 
la In'' nam* rat : Kl rel argumenta dic.iui. 
A%il<:« nuanUo sunt ad amusslin e»l>' >l urtr. 

<' lnutl.it rnbrum, oii]ii«- eieiiiplmn pxpftlt, fee, 
ai ubi ill'' miLTut IMQMW BOOH Utdiliieiuqut!, fcc, 
lu vint. conftlBgil tegulon, imbricesque, 
I'mnl'iril acr operara fahrt, fcc. 
Dkiim til botuloei litnUe* eiie ».dtuni arbitretisinl, 



F.thri pfirrntrn fiindnmriituni ■ tibslruiitit lihrmram. 

Kipnliunt, doccnt literaa, nee parr' 

Ego auicm «ub fiibrurum |i 

Pontqunni autem nilxravi in 

t'rrdidi oprratn ftibrmiii'i ii. 

V'lni isii.iiii, pa iiiiln liMiipesiaa fun, 

adrentaqM MO grandlnem ct nnbrem attullt, 

[ll.i iiiiln Mtt utem deturbavlt, fce. 



'•A young man is like a fair new house, the carpenter leaves it well built, in gor 

repair, of solid stuff; but a bad tenant lets it rain in, and for want of repaj 

to di I ■ iv. Six. Our parents, tutors, friends, spare no cost to bring us up in i.nryout 

in all manner of virtuous education ; but when we are left to ourselves, id 

tempest drives all virtuous motions out of our minds, ct niliili sumus, on a sudden 

by sloth and such bad ways, we come to non g 

Cousin gerrnan to idleness, ami a concomitant cause, which goes hand in hand 
with it, is ""nimia solitudo, too much solitariness, by the testimony of all physi 
cause and symptom both; but as it is here put for a cause, it is either ecu 
forced, or HUM voluntary. Enforced solitariness is commonly seen in *H 
Bonlu, friars, anchorites, that by dieir order and course of life must ab 

jtv, society of other men, and betake tin niselvcs to a private cell : Olio svj 
, a* Bale and Hospinian well term it, such as are the Carthusians 
our time, that eat no flesh (by their order), keep perpetual silence, never go abr 
Such as live in prison, or some desert place, and cannot have company, as many 
our country gentlemen do in solitary houses, they must either be alone wiihoi 
companions, or live beyond their means, and entertain all comers as so many 
or else converse with their servants and hinds, such as are unequal, manor to then 
ami i») I contrary disposition : or else as some do, to avoid solitariness, spend tin 

■ iih lewd fellows in taverns, and in alehouses, and thence addict themselves 
some unlawful disports, or dissolute courses. Divers again are cast upon this 
of solitariness for want of means, or out of a strong apprehension o{ omit 

disgrace, or through bashfulness, rudeness, simplicity, they cannot apply ttu-mselve 
to others' company. Nullum solum infclici gralius solitudiw, vln mllua A 
m exprv&rti ; this enforced solitariness takes place, and produrelli 

-i in such as have spent their time jovially* perailventute in all !. 
ItMM) in good company, in some great family or populous city, ami are up 
den eniiiiiiid to a desert country cottage far off, restrained of their liberty, and liar 
from their ordinary associates ; solitariness is very irksome to such, in"-! tedk 
and a sudden cause of great inconvenience. 

V •Inruary solitariness is that which is familiar with melancholy, and gently hrir 
on like a syren, a shoeing-horn, or some sphynx to this irrevocable gulf, a prima 
cause, Piso calls it; most pleasant it is at first, to such as arc melancholy 
lie in bed whole days, and keep I heir chambers, to walk alone in some soliuiry grov 
betwixt wootl and water, by a brook side, to meditate upon some delight 
pleasant subject, which shall alli-et them most ; amabffis VUatlia, ti 

ws error: a most i ncom p a rable delight it is so to melancholize, and build <• ntles in 

the air. to go smiling to themselves, acting sn infinite variety of parts, which they* sop 

pose ami Strongly imagine they represent, or that thev see acted or done : lihiriu 

"o'/fi, saith Lemnius, to conceive and meditate of such pleasant tin 

nt, past, or to come," as Rhasis speaks. So delightsome the 

toys arc at lirst, they could spend whole days and nights without sleep, » -v< a WhcJ 

me in such contemplations, and fantastical meditations, which are like unt 

dreams, and they will hardly be drawn from them, or willingly Interrupt, SO pb 

■ Plaittua, Prol Moatel. • Piio, MonUltlu, M.-r. J r«n«». nccmlonom narium ••(. *'Joi 
tmi iijia, Ate. •> Aqtubui malum, veltu * pomiim \ prraenluim, prarteuiarum, el futtirarutu iuedu»uo. 






•.] [tlhnrss, a Cause. 15£ 

mm conceits are, that they binder their ordinary tasks and necessary business, 

cannot address nemselvea to them, or ahnoftl to Bay study or employment, 

fantastical and bewitching thoughts so covertly, so feelingly, so ni 

tinuallv act upon, creep in. insinuate, posst -<s, oven ict, and detain than, 

cannot. I amy, go about their more B cc aa aar y business, stave off or extricate 

but are ever muring, melancholizing, and earned along, aa ) say) 

t9 letl round about a heath with a Puck in the night, they run earnestly on in 

labyrinth ed anxious and solicitous melancholy n -, and cam 

l. winding and unwinding themselves, as so l 
, and still heir humours, until at Iasi the scene is tamed upon a rao- 

eorae bad object, ami tht-y being now habituated to such vain meditations 
(itary places, can endure ho company, can ruminate of nothing but harsh and 
subjects. Fear, sorrow, suspicion, imfrnririmi fwdon, discontent, cares, 
weariness of life surprise them in a moment, and they can tliink of nothing else, 
continually suspecting, no sooner are thejr eyes open, bul this infernal plague of 
:/rth on ihem, and terrifies their souls, representing s< a] ob- 

10 tin ir minds, which now by no means, no labour, bo pemasionfl lb 
JetkaKa arundo, ^thc arrow of death still remains in the 
I it, ** they cannot resist. I may not deny but that there i- 
lie meditation, contemplation, and kind of solitariness to be embraced, wh* h 
fathers so highly commended, "Hion I psostom, Cyprian, Austin, in 

wbnl" Mich Petrarch, Erasmus, Stella, and others, so much magnify in their 

lo«>k», a paradise, a heaven on earth, if it be iisi d for the Lo<l . 

better for the soul: as many of tho-e old monks osed it, to divine contemplations, 

tier in Adrian's time, Dioclesian the emperor, retired themi 
ax., in that H I solus scil Ptucrc, Vatia lives alone, which the Romans were 

iv. when tht-y commended a country life. Or to the bettering ol 
knowledge, as Democnlus, Cleanthes, and those excellent phflosOphen nan 
don*-- the tumultuous world, or as in Pliny's villa Lau- 

in,Jovius' study, tliat they might better vaeare stvdiis i 
heir studies. Rethinks, therefore, our too zealous jnne 
' in that general subversion of abbeys and religious houses, 
ling down all; they might have taken away those gross abuses 

. and not so far to ; 
and raged agar. ind everlasting monuments of our 

-. s ■ sonn ; <1 collegiate o 111 might 

bate been »ell spureil. ami their revenues otherwise employed, I" re and there one, 
in good towns or cities at least, for men and women of all sorts an I ins to 

sequester themselves from the cares and tumults of the world, that were 
not or fit to marry; or otherwise willing to be troubled with common 

asaurs, and km :1 where to bestow themselves, to live apart in, for more eon- 

femeucy, good education, l» ttei company sake, to follow their studies I bbj , to the 

and at some truly devoted monks of 
eld bad d ely and truly to serve God. For these men are neither solitary, 

.illr. a* tin tde answer to the husbandman in £sop, tha idle- 

net* be was di leas in his company; or that Scij ins in 

■ :m minux xolux, yinim cum xolti*; minqnum minux oiiosus, - 
- whCO he was alone, never i 

wbr-n he seemed to he moel idle, It is reported by Plato in bis dial* 
in that pi commendation of S z into 

SorratraT -hance, be Blood still musing, cod< 

morning to noon, and when a" then he had not j 

ciifilun*. he so continued till tin* evening, the soldiers (for he then followed th« 

■tl bun with admiration, ami on set purpose watched all night, bul he 

persnert-d immoveable ad erhortim so//*, till thi in the momii g, and then 

Itacnrni Xrritu r« r rid am, I inlnni trorpkiitltiut Infrrlnm, ■ lntnil 

• e| oi>'»c«. *.(ii« «•' herM» n 
• delta lit "Ofbc. S. 

cucun, ■otJtauliiiem I'atadiiuni : , 







156 



Causes of Melancholy. 



[Part 1- Sec. 






saluting the sun, went his ways. In what humour constant Socrates did thus, I 
know not, or how he might be affected, but this would be pernicious to another 
man ; what intricate business might so really possess him. I cannot easily guess; but 
this is oliosum otium, it is far otherwise with these men, according to Seneca, Omnia 
nobis mala solitudo persuadel ; this solitude undoeth us, pugnal cum vitd sociali; 'tis 
a de-tructive solitariness. These men are devils alone, as the saying is Homo snlus 
aut Die**, aut Daemon: a man alone, is either a saint or a devil, mens ejus out lan- 
■ i! tumescii ; and "Va soli in this sense, woe be to him that is so alone. 
Tin- - wretches do frequently degenerate from men, and of sociable creatures be- 

beasts, monsters, inhumane, ugly to behold, Misanthropi; they do even loathe 
themselves, and hate the company of men, as so many Timons, Nebuchadm 
by U)0 much indulging to these pleasing humours, and through their own default. 
So that which Mercurialis, cnnsil. 11, sometimes expostulated with his melancholy 

it, may be justly applied to every solitary and idle person in particular. *.Va- 
tura Ae Ir videtur conqueri posse, kc. "Nature may justly complain of thee, that 
whereas she gave thee a good wholesome temperature, a sound body, and I 
given thee so divine and excellent a soul, so many good parts, and profitable 
thou hast not only contemned and rejected, but hast corrupted them, polluted them, 
overthrown their temperature, and perverted those gifts with riot, idleness, solitari- 
ness, and many other ways, thou art a traitor to God and nature, an enemy to thy- 
Belf and to the world.' 1 Pcrditio tun ex le; thou hast lost thyself wilfully, cast 
away th\self, " thou thyself art the efficient cause of thine own misery, by nut resist- 
ing such vaiu cogitations, but giving way unto them. 11 

SinsECT. VII. — Sleeping and Waking, Causes. 

What I have formerly said of exercise, I may now repeat of sleep. Nothing better 
than moderate sleep, nothing worse than it, if it be in extremes, or unseasonably 
It is a received opinion, that a melancholy man cannot sleep overmuch; 
Summit supra mndum jHrodcti\ as un only antidote, and nothing offends them 

i this malady sooner, than waking, yet in some cases sleep ma] 
harm than good, in thai phlegmatic, swinish, cold, and sluggish melancholy v 
Melaiieilmu > peaks of, that thinks* of waters, sighing most part, Stc. 47 It dulls the 
■pirita, if overmuch, and senses; fills the head full of gross humours; cs 
tillations, rheums, great store of excrements in the brain, and all the other parts, as 
**Fuchsius speaks of them, that sleep like so many dormice. Or if it be used in the 
day-time, upon a full stomach, the body ill-composed to rest, or after hard tat 
inereaaeth fearful dreams, incubus, night walking, crying out, and much unquietness; 
such sleep prepares the body, as 49 one observes, "to many perilous diseases." But, 
as I have said, waking overmuch, is both a symptom, and an ordinary cause. It 
cauMHh dryness of the brain, frenzy, dotage, and makes the body dry, lean, 
and ugly to behold, 1 ' as "Lemnius hath it. "The temperature of the brain is cor- 
rupted by it, the humours adust, the eyes made to sink into the head, cinder in- 
Srotsed, and the whole body mllamed : n and, as may be added out of Galen, 3. dt 
sanitate tuendo, Avicenna 3. 1. *'" It overthrows the natural heat, it causrlh crudi- 
ties, hurts concoction," and what not? Not without good cause therefore Crato, 
const/. 551. Ub.2\ Ilildesheim, spied. 2. de delir. et Mania, Jacchinus, Arculanus on 
Rliusi*, Cuiiauerius and Mercurialis, reckon up this overmuch waking as a principal 
cause. 






■I i. "NllUrarip la viiMiirrotirpn I 

in nb ea lisinperatlitsiimiiii eorpui ndeptm urn, 

•i a Ueo ae mile dnnuin, nun rontetivp- 

• i.n himiIm, veram corrnpUtl, lateul, pr<irlidi»tl. optl- 

irim<'!|.., eraputa, at ntm vilit nrruri- 

bim. fcr "Path. lib. cap. 17. Fprtifl. mrpiu 

M icntiia. irxsmlsquo virea lorpore ic- 

. %. sect. S. cip. 4. Magnnm eirre- 

rnniiionim vim rerelirn et aliis ptirillms ennxervat. 

"Jo. KrUiw-, lib. Jc rcbui 6 Don uaturaliboi. fnc- 



parni enrpua la.Un anmno* ad multa* p»riru 

nidmet. u Instil ail vilam opllnifiin. a 

Urn •iccitafpin mllVrt, plirencain et riHini...., 
milium f.icli. squatidum, itriicoMim, him 
tcnipprairiciruiin cerebri ootrunph, mtt Ian tti ' 

Mtteeal 1MB arremlif, pfrtfuuilos rrilil 

lot, calorein until. <■' Naturalera • 

Irsa coacoclroae crmlitnten facil. Attendant ji*r- 
nuui vigilant corpora initios 







1-1 



Perturbations 



MEMB. III. 



"tnd. 



—Passions and Perturbations of the Mind, how they cause Melancholy 

uoeopnist in "Plutarch made answer to Alexander (demanding- whirl 

: Ins fellows did speak better than the other: so may I say 

noses; 10 shall require which is the greatest, every OM ■ more 

than ! this of passion the greatest of all. A most frequent and 

I'ulmen perturbationum (Piccolomineus calls it/ this 

and lightning of perturbation, which causeth such violent and speedy altera- 

tliis our microcosm, and many times subverts the good estate and lempera- 

- M the body Works upon the mind by his bad humour.-, troubling 

sending gross fumes into the brain, and so per const quens disturbing the 

of it, 



' Corpui oiuMiim, 



Il< lirrnn Tltii* ammun qunrtue prrgrarat una,'* 

V sorrow, &.c_, which are ordinary symptoms of this disease : so on the other 

tind most effectually works upon the body, producing by his passions and 

rbatians miraculous alterations, as melancholy, despair, cruel diseases, and 

death itself. Insomuch that it is most true which Plato sailh in his 

rporis nulla abanimn procedure ; all the "mischiefs of the body 

rd fr. hI DeiiKicritus in ■ Plutarch urgeth, DamneUam iri aniinam 

Ihfl body should in this behalf bring an action against the soul, surely 

ml would be cast and convicted, that by her supine negligence had caused such 

iwoi cncca, having authority over the body, and using it for an instrument, as a 

i his hammer (saith* 7 Cyprian), imputing all those vires and maladies to the 

Kren so doth ^rMiilostratus, nan coinquinatur corjms, nisi consrnsuanima; ; 

•t corrupted, but by the soul.) Lodovicus Vives will have such turhu- 

arootious proceed from ignorance and indiscretion. 8 * All philosophers mi- 

:. t of tlie body to the soul, that should have governed it better, by 

sand of reason, and hath not done it. The Stoics are altogether of opinion (as 

■ and " Piccolomineus record), thai a wise man should be ix«6i»{, witho: ; 

of positions and perturbations whatsoever, as "Seneca reports of Cato, the 

rks of Socrates, and Jo. Aubenue of a nation in Africa, to fret from passion, 

irr ao stupid, that if they be wounded with a sword, they will only look back. 

2 inxt it., will exclude u fear from a wise man :" others except all, some 

rmirtA passions. I'm let them dispute how they will, set down in Thesi. give 

*ie contrary; we find that of t *Lemnius true by common expert not ; 

mortal man is free from these perturbations : or if he be so, sure he is either a 

i nd bred with ns, we have them from our parents 

.7 ytir, nhlms W>« mus malum hiinc assnn, saith *" Pelezius, Jre$cUw 

myW| 'n- propagated from Adam, Cain was melancholy, •as 

h it, tuid who is not? Good discipline, education, philosophy, divinity (1 

st drny i. may mitigate and restrain these passions in some few men at some 

bat roust part they domineer, and are so violent, 9 ' that as a torrent (torrens vehtt 

re rvpto) bean down all before, and overflow! his bunks, sternit agros* sternil 

lay* waste the fields, prostrates the crops,) they overwhelm reason, judgment, 

the temperature of the body ; Frrtur '°cquis anriga, nee audit currus 

■ such a man (saith "Austin) " that is so led, in a wise man's c j 

than he that stands upon his head. It is doubted by some, Gravwresne 

a perttrrbationibus, an ab humoribus, whether humours or perturbation.- 



■ Gr»d I r U « Hor 

■i' «»H«M»4 bj >*«i*j.Uj'» VW« wdxhi 

••I'. • cla»l 

r«rfott anlisui ir« panbiilo alllrimr. 

'..■nd. '" l'ro- 

T*ir I bn.li; Qn* uliiitr COrpOr*, til fabvl 

i.l- I "Lib de 

taeoattSaraaUa, *t Ignorant la mum « anient 

^lM i"* "Of. id. It. 31 

M. -iliajiat - Lib. 1. cap. 0. it 




rpilaenie nerriiMerli roi, tantum reaplfltint. ' ter- 
ror In •»|iifiii" rnr • m !»• 
mi r I I c. |n Nrnin mmialium qol ill 
ducaiur: qai nnn movrtur, am »>uni, nut V< 
« IiMtit. I. 2. de liunianorum affcrt n 
curat. •> Epl«l. lo.'i. "Crni. 
'i De civli. Iir I. I. H. c. t| 

qui Invcrii* prdibui unbuilt, tali* Inocutli ta|>i< iniiui, 
tui puaionea donimaniur 



58 



Causes of Melancholy. 



[Pail. 1. 



.he more grievous maladies. But we find that of our Saviour, Mat. xxvi. 4 1 , m 
true, *• The spirit is willing, the flesh is weak," we cannot resist ; and tins of "- I 
Judanis, "Perturbations often offend the body, and are most frequent 
lelancholy, turning it out of the hinges of his health." Vives compare* than 
'" Winds upon the sea, some only move as those great gales, but others turbulent 
quite overturn the ship. Those which are light, easy, aud more ■eldom, Co 
thinking, do us Utile -harm, and are therefore contemned of us: yet if they be n 
iterated, ,4 "as the rain ^saith Austin) doth a stone, so do these perturbations pen 
trate the mind : "and (as one ohscrves i " produce a habit of melancholy at die lag 
ghich having gotten the mastery in our soul-, may well be called diseases. 
How these passions produce this effect, ^Agrippa hath haudled at lar^e, Ocndi 
kilos. I. 11. c. 63. Cardan, /. 14. subtil. Lemnius, /. 1. c. 12, de occult, nat. mar. 
lib. 1. cap. 1(5. Sium/. M ■'. dlspul. 18. seel. I. art. 2b. T. Bright, cap. 12, of his 

-c. Wright the Jesuit, in his Book of the Passions of die Min 
&c. Thus in brief, to our imagination cometh by the outward sense <>r memory, 
some object to be known (residing in the foremost part of the brain ), which ha 
conceiving or amplifying presently communicates to the heart, the MWt of all all 
tions. The pure spirits forthwith Hock from the brain to the heart, by cert 
channels, and signify what good or bad object was presented; "which hum 
bends itself to prosecute, or avoid it; and withal, draweth with it other humours 
help it: so in pleasure, concur great store of purer spirits; in sadness, much me 
ehuly blood; in ire, choler. If the imagination be very apprehensive, intent, a 
violent, it sends great store of spirits to, or from the heart, and makes a di 
>n, and greater tumult, as I he humours in the body be likewise pn p 
the temperature itself ill or well disposed, the passions are longer and slrot 
that the first step and fountain of all our grievances in this kind, is n Li 
which misinforming the heart, causeth all these distemperatures, alteration an 
simi of spirits and humours. By means of which, so disturbed, concoction is 
hiadered, and the priucipal parts are much debditated ; as w Dr. Navarra well declare 
being consulted by MoiUnnus about ■ melancholy Jew. The spirits so confound 
the nourishment must needs be abated, bad humours increased, crudities and iluc! 
spirits engendered with melancholy blood. The other parts cannot perform tin 
functions, having the spirils drawn from them by vehement passion, but fail in m a 
and motion; so we look upon a thing, and see it not; hear, and observe no: 
otherwise would much affect us, had we been free. I may therefore cone! 
"Ann.ililus, JMnriina ris est plttinlns'ur. , l htiic uni fere, non autem corjtor 
peri'i, nmnis melancholia' causa est ascribcn'ln : "Great is the force of uuaginati< 
and much more ought the cause of melancholy to be ascribed to this alone, i 
the distemperalure of the body." Of which imagination, because it hath so 
a stroke in producing this malady, and is so powerful of itself, it will not be ii 
proper to my discourse, lo make a brief digression, and speak of the force of it, am 
how it causeth this alteration. Which manner of digression, howsoever K 
like, m frivolous and impertinent, yet f am of sl Beroaldus's opinion, "St: 
siena do mightily delight and refresh ■ weary reader, they are like sauce to a " 
stomach, and I do therefore most wdlingly use them." \ 

Subsect. II. — Of the Farce of Imagination. 

What imagination is, I have sufficiently declared in my digression of the anal*,.- 
of the soul. I will only now point at the wonderful effects and power pf it ; wind 



■If Decal. paiglnnei mailing corpus offend lim 

• nliuiin. i- 1 In-'i'i'-nimlme caiium melancholia;. 

uen ab ingenio ct aamtnie priMinn, I. 3. de 

mum. "Fra-nuet tiimull annul, vrlm in in. in 

. quedain placide, qiiieiliun lur- 

bul«lit<c : *lc in corpora qundom affect ion en excitant 

t mium, n'l.iilini lin movent, ut de atajn jndlrii depol- 

lant. Mima lapidern, nit panlaUm hi 

mil in. "Dra valentet rectc norbl tmin.il 

• "Iniaginallo movm corpna, nd ■ iijn-, 

-, et "I'lrltlM vil<ll«:-l, ,|iii:,.i, 
■^■few ' Ecclee. xiil. 36. "The heart altera 



(he countenance lo good or evil, and dlatm 
tha mind c.uisnih dielemperature n( tit. 
".Spirit", el sanr«ls * Iran lmajein.it i< 
tur, humorea enim miitali actloi 
I Pica. n Montaol, eonail. 82. II 

raiMenl melanchnliain, claruui ; rt qin 
impL-diani, el membra principal' «i>8n 

vur. I I rap. IS. ■■Soleul h i 
I'lVTilnliliT nhlfClarc, 'I |nr«e 

iiiachumrjue naun lain qM 

cjiidiiiiviiiu nflcere, el ego llbcnter ei. 




«•! 



Of the Force of Imagination. 



169 



as it i* eminent in fell. *o most especially it ragrlh in mi lancholy persons in keep- 
i-!jC the s pec ies of objects so long, mistaking, amplifying them By continual and 
"annua; iiwxliminn, until at length it prodaoeta in some parties real uaeth 

thi«,and many other maladies. And ;ilth<>utrh this phantasy of ours be a nibon 
faculty to reason, and should be ruled by it, yet in many men, through inward or 
outward distempcratures, defect of organs, which are unapt, or otherwise contami- 
wise unapt, or hindered, and hurt This we see verified in sleeper*] 
which by reason of humour* and concourse of vapours troubling the phantasy, ima- 
gme many limes absurd and prodigious things, and in such as are troubled with 
**fhm t or witch-ridden (as we call it), if they lie on their backs, they suppose, an 
old woman rides, and sits so hard upon them, that they are almost stifled for want of 
re is nothing otlends, but a concourse of bud humours, v 
th« . This is likewise evident in such as walk in the night in their 

sleep, and dost vapours move the phantasy, the phantasy tie. appe- 

tite animal spirits eauselh the body to walk up and down as if 
they were awake. F recast. /. 8. a* inhlhcl. refers all ecstasies to this force of ii 

such as lie whole day* together in a trance: as that priest whom M CcUu* 
at, that could separate hnmmlf from his senses when he list, and lit like 
man* void of life and sense. Cardan brags of himself, that he could do 
and that when he list Many times such men when they come to them- 
tell strange things of heaven and hell, what visions they have seen ; as that 
•cOwrn, in Matthew Paris, that went into St Patrick's purgatory, and the monk o* 
Kvesitarn tn the same author. Those common apparitions in Bede and Gregory] 
Semt BrKlgrfs revelations, Wier. /. 3. de Iannis, c. 11. Ca?sar Vanninus, in his l)ia- 
■anea* kc reduceth (as 1 have formerly said ), with all those tales of witi 
dancing, rida trmationa, operations, &.c. to the force of "u 

aod tl; ions. The like etTects almost are to be seen in such as 

': how ma' ras, antics, golden mountains and castles in the air do 

i-mselves.' 1 appeal to painters, mechanicians, maUiematicianai 
all vices to a false and corrupt imagination, anger, revenge, lust, am- 
ine**, which prefers falsehood before that which is right and good, 
the soul with false shows and suppositious. r Bernardus Penotlus will 
ion to proceed from this fountain; as he falsely imagined), 
It ; and as he COOCeivetfa of it, so it must he, and it shall be. nmlra 
he will have it so. But mot Uy in passions and allirtions, it show* 

and evident what will not a fearful man conceive in the dark - What 

forms of bugbears, devils, witches, goblins r Lavater imputes the greatest 
of spectrum*, and the like apparitions, to fear, which above all other passions 

us), and so likewise love, sorrow, joy, 
. .is she that saw her son BOOM from the battle at CaDIU 

pagination, made speckled lambs, laying speckled 

before his »h ••< p. Persian, that .-Ethiopian queen in Heliodorus, by seeing the 

Peraiu* aud Andromeda, instead of a blackamoor, was brought to bed of a 

child. In imitation of w bom belike, a hard-favoured fellow in Creece, be- 

oth deformed, to yet a good brood of children, F, 

l imaginu inthalnmo colhcavit, Sickling the bin M pictures 1" BOttU buy (or 

in his chamber, " That his wife by frequent sight of them, might conceive and 

surh And if we may believe Bale, one of Pop* Nicholas the Third 1 * 

;ts brought to bed of a monster. " If a woman 
her conception think of another ma or ab- 

i* ehdd will be like him.'' Great-bellied women, when they long, J 

example* i rid, as moles, warts, scars, harelips, monsters, e^jMcially 








ilbui am- trro eirnin line *en>u perimmrtii, t]n.T umln . 

I '•! lultui , .' 

ijai fiitlm, prop' 
■■tan. » ' '-rem m A V 

• •- ^niiir. |iun*»f,tuf do' >it. piir oiiitilliiit iilTi-i ul>u». I. i 

»t nnv-r, £.••. I .". i - 
■■• muni r"»*'" 

ti phtnli.l 
»b i|»«i» d«-M< rji«. •<..;.. i ,. oMl(lei totei in dw e> 




160 



I of Melancholy. 



[Part- l.SecS 



■ 

I 

■ 
is' 

■(-, 
ley 



caused in their children hy force of a depraved phantasy in them : Ipsam speciem quam 
timo ctfn;itit,f/i:tiu inilucit : She imprints that stamp upon her child which she *'con 
ceives unto herself. And therefore Lodovicus Vives, lib. 2. de Christ, fwm 
special caution to great-bellied women, w That they do not admit such absurd coi 
cetts and cogitations, hut by all means avoid those horrihle objects, heard or seei 
or filtliv spectacles." Some will laugh, weep, sigh, groan, blush, tremble, tm 
such things as are suggested unto them by their imagination. Avicenna speaks of 
one thai could east himself into a palsy when he list ; and some can imitate the tunes 
of birds and beasts that they can hardiy be discerned : Dagebertus' and Saint Francis' 
scars and wounds, like those of Christ's (if at the least any such were), "'Agrippa 
supposeth to have happened by force of imagination : that some are turned t<> w .»lv 
from men to women, and women again to men (which is constantly believed 1 ) to tli 
same imagination ; or from men to asses, dogs, or any other shapes. w Wierus 
eribaa all those famous transformations to imagination; that in hydrophobia tin 
seem to see the picture of a dog, still in their water, "that melancholy men and sick 
men conceive so many plumtasiical visions, apparitions to themselves, and have such 
absurd apparitions, as that they are kings, lords, cocks, bears, apes, owls ; that the 
are heavy, light, transparent, great and little, senseless and dead (as shall he showi 
more at large, in our w sections of symptoms), can be imputed to nought else, but 
a corrupt, false, and violent imagination. It works not in sick and melancholy in 
only, but even most forcibly sometimes in such as are sound : it makes them su 
denly sick, and "altera their temperature in on instant. And sometimes a si mi 
conceit or apprehension, as * Valesius proves, will take away diseases : in both km 
it Will produce real effects. Men, if they see lint another man tremble, giddy or sici 
of some fearful disease, their apprehension and fear is so strong in this kind, that the 
will have the same disease. Or if by some soothsayer, wiseman, fortune-teller, 

Khysieian, they be told they shall have such a disease, they will so seriously app 
end it, that they will instantly labour of it. A thing familiar in China saitH 1 1 1 c - 
cius the Jesuit), ** u If it be told them they shall be sick on such a d thut 

day comes they will surely be sick, and will be so terribly afflicted-, that sometimes 
they die upon it. Dr. Cotta in his discovery of ignorant practitioners of ph 
cap. 8, baih two strange stories to this purpose, what fancy is able to do. Thi 
of a iwirson's wife in Northamptonshire, An. Itt07, that coming to a physician, and 
told bv him that she was troubled with the sciatica, as he conjectured sh« 

was free from), the same night after her return, upon his words, loll into a gift 
ha of a sciatica: and such another example he hath of another good wife, 
BO Iroubled with the cramp, alter the same manner site came by it, be< 
sician did but name it. Sometimes death itself is' caused by force of phantasy. I have 
heard of one that coming by chance in company of him that was thought to b 
of die plague {which was not so) fell down suddenly dead. Another «vaa i 
the plague with conceit, One teeing his fellow let blood fails down in a aw 
Another | aaitfa '"Cardan out of Aristotle), fell down dead (which is familiar to 
men ul any ghastly sight), seeing but a man hanged. A Jew in Frame sniih 'Lo- 
dovicus Vivea), came by chance over a dangerous passage or plank, that lay over a 
brook in the dark, without harm, the next day perceiving what danger he was in, 
fell down dead. Many will not. believe such stories to be true, but laugh commonly. 
and deride when they hear of them*, but let these men consider with then 
"Peter Byarus illustrates it, If they were set to walk upon a plank on high, they 
would be giddy, upon which they dare securely walk upon the ground. Many 
(saith Agrippa), 3 ** strong-hearted men otherwise, tremble at such sights, dazzle, am 



il.ive 

oon. 
wo- 



" Quiit nnn fotul ad hue inritri iiniro, guliila »|ilrltumii 
•ratlone per nrrvo*. quibui matrix rerehro rim- 

iunetn rtt, iinprimll Iniprecruilir imnrinnlin 1 lit it 
ni|*lnctiir malum granaltim, iiimi m>ta» mm i>r«>- 
ferel friii • SI leporeai, infiiim edliur ■Btfaaa 
bifido, el ill- "n« cofiutin move! reran 

»prcie« Wl»f, |U>. I riijt H. »Nl ilniii ulprum 

fMtant, uiliiild ii>l ■M)Ur4ai cn(rltntiiinc«. Mil et vlsu, 
■adituqiie ii .1 1 ••' horreodi deylwnl ••OcciiH. 

h. 1 i. hi 41 w Lib. 3. il.i l.nntil*. <n». 10. 

* A(tri|>|ni. Illi. l.rap. M. "fed. 3. nirinb. l.iub- 

•Pc( S ' M iII.-lh malefic fbl 77 corpu* in ul .1 n 

foiai Id dlrcrsag Kgrtluiilut; ei forll appieheniioac. 



Tr. Vale*. |. 5. conl fi. nonnunquam itiam mo 
dimiiriiicnnacquuriliir, quandnque curantur. 

In SbuM, I. I. e. ft. lantiiin pnrrn mull 1 pf^dlil'i 
-(-•• Lribaanl m ip«e melui fiilem lariat : mi 
■ I pneriklum n» Imrii lull die eo* inorbn con 
ii utii liii-n tulvfiif nl, in Kiorbuin 1111 lilunl. rl vi men 
ullli. li, rum o em inline, nltqiiando (Hum cum 
cnlluruntur. iwrtul.iil I- ' l.ili. .1 de 1 

cap. de trial. »I,ih. de Pole. I I 

Ev alio denplcienlr* nllijul pr* timorc • 
ealigant. iiifirnvinlur ; lie Mngiillut, I 
coiuiliale* quandoque sequunt ur, quandoque ra«dual. 




Saba. 3] 



Division of Perturbations. 



Ki . 



•a sick, if thr-, v n from a high place, and what moves them hut con- 

As some are so molested by phantasy \ so some again, by fancy alone, and a 
gnod conceit, are as easily recovered. We see commonly the tooth-ache, gout, fall- 
rknesw, biting of a mad dog, and many such maladies cured by spells, wotdsj 
and charms, and many green wounds by that now so much used Ungiun- 
rm Armarium, magnetically cured, which Crollius and Goclenius in a book of late 
belli defended, Libavius in a just tract as stiffly contradicts, and moat men controvert 
All the world know I there is no virtue in such charms or cures, but a strong conceit 
tod opinion alone, as* Pompouatius holds, " which forceth a motion of the humours, 
■nriu, end blood, which takes away the cause of the malady from the parts alfceted." 
The tike we may say of our magical effects, superstitious cures, and such as are done 
hanks and wizards. " As by wicked incredulity many men are hurt (so 
situ *W tenia of charms, spells, 8tc), we find in our experience, by the same means 
many one relieved." An empiric oftentimes, and a silly chirurgeon, doth more 
Strang* ru; i rational physician. Nymannus gives a reason, because the pa- 

ttest pola his confidence in him, ' which Avicenna "prefers before art, precepts, and 
all remedies whalso. ^Tis opinion alone (saith 7 Cardan), that makes or mars 

phjsirisns, and he doth the best cures, according to Hippocrates, in whom most trust. 
So diversely doth this phantasy of ours affect, turn, and wind, so imperiously command 
osr bodirs, which as another ,4t Proteus, or a chameleon, can take all shapes ; and is 
of ee< ' as Ficinus adds), that it can work upon others, as well as oursel 

How ran otherwise blear eyes in one man cause the like affection in another ? Why 
doth one man's yawning "make another yawn ? One man's pissing provoke a second 
taaoy times to do the like ? Why doth scraping of trenchers offend a third, or hack- 
inf of file* ? Why doth a carcass bleed when the murderer is brought before it, some 
weeks afW the murder hath been done? Why do witches and old women fascinate 
and h ndren : but as Wierus, Paracelsus, Cardan, Mizaldus, Valleriola, QtMM 

TasStttttU, Cam panel l.-i. and many philosophers think, the forcible imagination of the 
ens party mores and alters the spirits of the other. Nay more, they can cause and 
CSS* Bol only diseases, maladies, and several infirmities, by this means, as Avicenna, 
it assist. I supposcth in parlies remote, but move bodies from their places, 

thunder. tempests, which opinion Alkindus, Paracelsus, and some 

r of. So that I may certainly conclude this strong conceit or imagina- 
tion i» tut ruin Aommu, and the rudder of this our ship, which reason should steer, 
Wet, overborne by phantasy, cannot manage, and so suffers itself, and this whole vessel 
of aura \>< ruled, and often overturned. Read more of this in Wierus, /. 3. 

a* Lamm. c. 8,9, 10. Franciscus Valesius, med. controv. I. 5. cont. 6. Marcdius 
Draw tin, /. 2. e. 1. <J- ht.tt. mtd. mtrabil. Levinus Lemnius, de occult, nat. mir. I. I 
. I. 18. de rcrum var. Corn. Agrippa, de occult, philos. cap. 04, 05 
Camera mi*, 1 cent. cap. 54. horarum subcis. Nymannus, moral, dc Imag. Lanreii 
fees* and him thai is inatar omnium, Fienus, a famous physician of Antwerp, that 
three books dc viribus imaghutitonU. I have thus far digressed, because this 

is the medium deferens of passions, by whose means they work and 
Bee prodigious effects : and as the phantasy is more or less intended 

aii.l i heir humours disposed, so do perturbations move, more or less, and 



nta 



improM.-u. 



Subject. HI. — Division of Pr^urbations. 



and passions, which trouble the ph^itasy, though they dwell be- 
es of sense and reason, yet they rather follow sense than reason, be- 
ihey arc drowned in corporeal organs of sense. They are commonly '* reduced 
and concupiscible. The Thomists subdivide them into 



nllllonr 




mr |>ra?VJfaSa*V 



Ibllr fii, 
t ndurla. 



' Tluref t»rnt In qnem plar«i eonfldinM. lib. de **pt- 
entla. * MarcHlui Ficinun. 1. IB. c. IS. *r llirolof 

I'Umnlca. Irmrinnlio r«l tnnquain Protrti* *el Chi- 
rnotaon, ( orpin proprium el »hen»u» nonnunquam 
n m.ifn« »Lnr OKJlautu latcucal, WieriM. 

'■V. Jeinll. 



o2 



It.'-' 



Comei "J •*/• laneholjf, 



[Part. 1 SfC, 



eleven, six in the coveting, and five in tlie invading. Aristotle reduceili all to jil 
sure ami pain, Plato to love and hatred, "Vives to good and bad. If good. 
sent, and then we absolutely joy and love; or to come, and then we desire ami bo 
for it. If evil, we absolute bate it ; if present] it is by sorrow ; if to come fear. Th 
four passions lz Bernard compares » to the wheels of a chariot, by which we are 
ried in this world." All other passions are subordinate unto these four, • 
BOBM Will : loTO, J"V, desire, hatred, sorrow, fear j the rest, as anger, 
tion, pride, jealousy, anxiety, mercy, shame, discontent, despair, ambition. 
&c, are reducible unto the first; and if they be immoderate, they "con- 
spirits, and melancholy is especially caused by diem. Some few discreet men tin- 
are, that can govern themselves, and curb in these inordinate affections, by religi 
philosophy, and such divine precepts, of meekness, patience, and the like ; but m 
part for want of government, out of indiscretion, ignorance, they suffer ihemseU 
wholly to be led by sense, and are so far from repressing rebellious inclinations, i 
they give all encouragement unto them, leaving the reins, and using all prw 
to further them r bad by nature, worse by art, discipline, "custom, education, and 
perverse will of their own, they follow on, wheresoever their unbridled affei 
will transport them, and do more out of custom, self-will, than out of reason 
lumax nift/iiius, as Bfela&cthofl cells it, malum far.it. : this stubborn will of ours per- 
verts judgment, which sees and knows what should and ought to be done, and vet 
will not do it. Mancipia gulee, slaves to their several lusts and appetite, they pre- 
cipitate and plunge ' 5 themselves into a labyrinth of cares, blinded with lust, b! 
w ir.li ambition ; ""They seek that at God's hands which they may give unto them- 
selves, if they could but refrain from those cares and perturbations, wherewith they 
continually macerate their minds. 1 ' But giving way to these violent passions of fear, 
grief, shame, revenge, hatred, malice, Slc, they are torn in pieces, as Actacon was 
with his dogs, and "crucify their own souls. 



Subsect. IV. — Sorrow a Cause of Melancholy. 






Sorrow. Insanus dolor.] Is this catalogue of passions, which so much torment 
the soul of man, and cause this malady, (for I will briefly speak of them all. and in their 
order,) the first place in this irascible appetite, may justly be challenged by sorrow. 
An inseparable companion, ls " The mother and daughter of melancholy, h.r epitome, 
symptom, and chief cause :" as Hippocrates hath it, they beget one anoi her, and tread 
in a ring, lor sorrow is both cause and svmploin of ibis disease. How it is a svmp- 
tom shall be shown in its place. Thai it is a cause all the world acknowledged!, 
Dolor nonnuHis imtanite causa fuit^et alionirn morbonim insanahilium, saith Plutarch 
to Apollonius; a cause of madness, a cause of many other diseases, a sole cause of 
this mischief] "Lemn'uis calls it. So doth Hhasis emit. I. 1. tract, 9. Gum 
Trar). 15. c, 5, And if it take root once, it ends in despair, as *Fo lix Plater ob- 
serves, and as in "Cebps' table, may well be conpled with it. "ChrysostOtt, m In 
seventeenth epistle to Olympia, describes it to be "a cruel torture of the soul, a m 
inexplicable grief, poisoned worm, consuming body and soul, and gnawing the very 
heart, a perpetual executioner, continual night, profound darkness, a whirlwind, a 
tempest, an ague not appearing, healing worse than any fire, and a battle that hath no 
It crucifies worse than an)' tyrant ; no torture, no strappado, no bodily punisb- 



end 



>i S. de .\iimm. "Sur. 35. liit quautor patflonei 

mil tiiti<|iiam rolir liKiirru.fiiibu* vliiruiii lux mundo. 
:a Hatiiui n>ii|i|)e kmnoderaikirie, npiriiua innneicuTit. 
Panel I I. P«lb. C is. I'Malamiisuductinodepra. 
vatur [naenium ne bene fici.il. I'rueper Caleiiut, I. de 
atra bile. Plum I'.iciimt bomlnei • conavetudlae qnnm 
t r.ttiurir \ i.ii.iiii aaaupacere mil I mm e«l. Video 

nelinra pribiiqtie dtflerioraaequnr. Oviil. *NlM 

Irdllnr niai kfi'lpno. " Multi »« in mquiriuditiirm 

ra-i ipitmil mnnuinno n •/upiiliiaiihiia nxraprali. inn 
intelliitunl re Iliad ddiii pi-tcre. qtmil *itn Ipata al ve- 
linl anaatBM pciamni, »i curia ct prrttiiliml.iiiibii*, qnt- 
bui nsnliluc a« mueeraril, in>|i«e»rr vi'IIimh. b Tnnio 
atudlo niiscrinriim camaa.el alimenta dolor um tiua-n- 
mi, vilamque aecua frlicisnim.un, trialeni el initera- 
■M CuVltiiiip. IVlrsrctl. prBfat. de Remedila, tr. 

'Timor el icctsiilia, al dm peraevcrenl, causa el ao- 



biile* itui hunvnria cun(,et In rirculiim *« ptorreani 

Hip. Aphortl. 13. I. r>. Idem MonlallM, ..ip 18. Vk- 

toriiia rarenllnua, pmet, Imag. ..larrore 

<>i inr in imr dflapsl aunt. Lemn., life, I rip lit. 

*>Multa cura at Irisiin.i r.icmm 

hum (rap 3. iln mentia alien ) *l nllna i 

vt-ruin Scamqiui d<.gcnerai melaneholiam ei in <<■"» 

raiiouam deal nit. 1( lllo Itictua, .-j 

drsperalio omul poiiitur. ' J Aiiiinai . iml.l. 

lormerttutrj, dolur Inezplicabllia, tint i i 
aed cordn pertinecna, porpvimiacurriii 
ennaumena, jiicia nnx.el irnebra? profu 
el tuibo el (Vliri* non apnaretia, nnm 
'ncenilen«; lonjrior, pt pufiia! fin.", non b 
Cnicem eifcumfert dolur» i'.nit imjuc ouiih 
rrudi ln.reiD pnr te fart. 




• *•] 



Fear, a Cause. 



1G3 




ltkr unlo it. Tis the eagle without question which the poets feigned to gnaw 
heart, and "no heaviness is like unto the beerineM of the 1 
15, 16. * u Every perturbation is a misery, but grief a ami torment*" 
_ passion : as in old Rome, when the I nVtator was created, all inferior 
ceased; when grief appears, all other passions vanish. u Jt dries up the 
tiih Solomon, ch. 17. Pro., "makes them hollow-eyed, pals, ami tea 
row fcrort, to have dead looks, wrinkled brows, shrivelled cheeks, dry bodies, and 
quit* pro gits their temperature that are misaffected with it. As Eleonara, thai exiled 
muurniul duchess (in our "English Ovid), laments to her noble husband Humphrey, 
Dokr of Gloucester, 

N ■- - - iL.. iw. ..— u. .k«.. .- »-. iiniM i™k I Sorrow hmh ao deapoil'd roe of all grace. 
-** UoaBpluaj oo<« aucb ].>r and j>lea»urc took, j u ke . ..fool Gorgon," ate. 

him! tion. refrigerates the heart, takes away stomach, colour, and 

thickens the blood, r ( Fermlius, /. I.e. 1H. ilr morb. rmtxis.) roniainiuatrM the 
its." -' I Overthrows the natural heat, perverts the rood estate ol 

mind, and makes them weary of their lives, cry out, howl and roar for 

•.heir souls. David confessed as much, Psalm xxxviii. 8, " I have roan d 

a aery disquietness of my heart." And Psalm cxix. 4, part 1 v. »M\ >. ml 

away for very heaviness," v. 38. *' I am like a bottle in the nooke." An- 

COSB plained that he could not sleep, and thai Ins heart feinted for grief, 

himself, lir <lolorum, out of an apprehension of <iru[\ did sweet : 

iv. "His soul was heavy to the death, and no sorow was like unto 

it. 21. /. 2, give* instance in one that was so melancholy by reason of 
ami Hon tonus, contil. •'!'», in a noble matron, ,,u that had no other cause of 
thea mucb.H i "' IS I) in llddi-xlieiui, fully cured a patient of his that was orach 

Sj UuMeJ With melancholy, and for many years, "but afterwards, hy a little OCCaStOa 
of sorrow, be fell into hi* former fits, and was tonnented as before." Examples are 
eosjsaon, how it causeth sjelaocholy, a desperation, and sometimes death itself; 
for I Eceles. xxxviii. 15,) "Of beaiiueM comes death; worhSy sorrow eaoaeth 
dsath." 9 Cor. vii. 10, Psalm xxxi. 10, •* My life is wasted with heaviness, and my 
raars with mounting." Why was Hecuba said to be turned to a dog r Nlobe into 
a rtone • but that for grief she was senseless and stupid. Si verm the I 
dard for encf; ami bow "many myriads besides? Tantn illi tst ftritas, tu,, 
immmta Ittcttu* Melancthon givesa reaoofl oi it, r "tlie "alluring of much melatv* 
choly blood about the heart, which collection extingtiisheth the good spirits, or at 
least dulleth them, sorrow strikes the heart, makes it tremble and pine away, with 
i; and die black blood drawn from the spleen, and diffused under the ribs, 
side, makes those perilous hypochondriacal convulsions, which happen 
are troubled with sorroi 





SrnsECT. V. — Fear, a Cause. 

nan to sorrow, is fear, or rather a sister, fi'lua Achates, and 
-i. an assistant and a principal agent in procuring of tin- mischief; I 
symptom as the other. In a word, as "Virgil of the Harpies, I may justly say 
of ahem U 

"Tiaainaa MM lllta mmtatrum, ne< aerior till n I " A »adder momler. or more err rail, 

Fma n Ira D«uaa ■ tjrjm aeac extulil undii" | Or vengeance of tbc g>>d», re'er (HOI (r St) » <.r Hell." 

This foe : was worshipped heretofore as a god by the I-trcdxmo- 

and most of those other torturing "affections, and so was sorrow amongst 




I. 4. «. 6. "Tulljr S. Tuac. | priora aymptomata incidit. 
nt'tena at carnifVlna r«l dnlnr 



■ V, 
de owrnr*. Bftbla la «>vld. 

nrbo mnawnpl 



»ur 



tin. t 



■a ai'|ti< 
•i Main 



-I-'- • 1 



aolml poataa accudcnlc, in LacluiU ■. 



* l.i i 

B»aa uikiilr ni 



it niiiina, 

..huh I. 3. 

Ii.nh- 

. ■•-.f.i.m- 

tai :,..n...- 



I in 



Causes <]f Melancholy. 



[Part l.Sec 




ih 



e rest, under the name of Angerona Dea, they stood in 6uch awe of them, 
u-iin, tic Civitat. JM, lib. 4. cap. 8, noteth out of Varro, fear was commonly 
d and painted in their temples with a lion's head; and as Macrobius record 
I. 10. Saturnalium ; <Ul In the calends of January, Angerona had her holy day. 
whom in the temple of Volupia, or goddess of pleasure, their augurs and bishops did 
yearly sacrifice; that, being propitious to lliem, she might expel all can 
ami vexation of the mind for that year following." Many lamentabN 
Aw causeth in men, as to be red, pale, tremble, sweat, u it makes sudden cold 
In it to come over all the body, palpitation of the heart, syncope, 8s.r. It nma 
many men that are to speak, or show themselves in public assemblies, or befnr 
some iml personages, asTully confessed of himself, that he trembled still at th 
beginning of his speech ; and Demosthenes, that great orator of Greece, befor 
Philippus. It confounds voice and memory, as Lucian wittily brings in Jupit 
Tragifldus, so much afraid of his auditory, when he was to make a speech to 
rest of the Gods, that he could not utler a ready word, but was compelled to us 
Mercury's help in prompting. Many men are so amazed and astonished with ii. 
they know not where they are, what they say, a what they do, and that which 

it tortures them many days before with continual affrights and suspn 
hinders most honourable attempts, and makes their hearts ache, sad and heavy. 
They that Live in fear are never free, "resolute, secure, never merry, but in continual 
pain : that, as Vives truly said, Nulla est miseria major quam metus, no greater 
ttitU v, no rack, nor torture like unto it, ever suspicious, anxious, solicitous, they 
arc childishly drooping without reason, without judgment, **" especially i I some 
terrible object be offered," as Plutarch hath it. It causeth oftentimes sudden mad- 
MM, and almost all manner of diseases, as I have sufficiently illustrated in my 
"digression of the force of imagination, and shall do more at large in my mUium 
of 4: terrors. Fear makes our imagination conceive what it list, invites the devil to 
come to us, as ** Agrippa and Cardan avouch, and tyrannizvfh over our phantasy more 
than all other affections, especially in the dark. We see this verified in l 
as ^I^vater saith, Quce mctuunt, Jingiml ; what they fear they conceive, and i 
unto themselves; they think they see goblins, hags, devils, and many limes bi i 
melancholy thereby. Cardan, subtil, lib. 18, hath an example of such an on 
caused to be melancholy (by sight of a bugbear) all his life after. • Augustus < 
durst not sit in the darkj nisi alitjuo assidenlc y saith M Suetonius, Nunqudm' (nifSr'a 
rviirj/urit. And 'tis strange what women and children will conceive unto them- 
selves, if they go over a church-yard in the night, lie, or be alone in a dark room, 
how they sweat and tremble on a sudden. Many men are troubled with future 
events, foreknowledge of their fortunes, destinies, as Severus the Emperor, Adrian 
and Doiniliu.ii, Qvod sciret ultimum vita' diem, Baith Suetonius, raldc sohcilus. nun h 
tortured in mind because he foreknew his end; with many such, of which I shall 
■peak more opportunely in another place.' 1 Anxiety, mercy, pity, indignation, fcCq 
inn! such fearful branches derived from these two stems of fear and sorrow, I volun- 
tarily omit; read more of them in "Carolus Pascalius, M Dandinus, Sic. 

Sobsect. Vl.^Shame and Disgrace, Causes. 

Siioie and disgrace cause most violent passions And bitter pangs. Ob pudorct* 
el detUCUS publicum, ob errorum commissum uqte movenlur gencrosi animi i Fuclix 
Plater, lib. 8. dc aliniat mentis.) Generous minds are often moved with than 
ill ipait for some public disgrace. And he, saith Philo, lib. 2. dc provid. dc i, **" that 
Mtbp ota himself to fear, grief, ambition, shame, is not happy, but altogether miserable, 



■T.llliu Uiratd. Bymag. 1. de .iii- nfeMUaiilte 

'in 1 mint diyr AiiBerotia>, mi poll' 

llo Vnluplr *nrra fnciunl, qu.id unyrf* 

el mi I in> #n|icimdlne« propiiiata pmrwiui. ' Ti- 

ii ii frum. cordis iviliiiilionrm. rod* defrr- 

qna imiliuein. Ayrippa. till. 1 cap. 03. Timidl 

ni|n«r npiiiiua habent frigid. u Mnnt. ■MMl 

fm-iiMiir, agminr niinmi; qulf men nunc 

HI Km nil" oil I Alclat. " Kl tii» mm 

in in., in. i nam eOMtarOBt, «fd ft Instituium animi 

c/ 'audabilrm cucaiuiii tmpcdll. Tbucididci. 



1 l.ih de fniriiudlne et vlriuic Alcinn Ii 

let ailfuil Irrilbilii. "Sect. i. Mi-m 3. Sub*. 

' Sect. 1 Mi nib. 4. Sub*. 3. .1 is in 

limor attrahlr. ad »e Dttuionaa, ttntrtttrm, inullii 

in hmiiinibua pn,minl. "Lib. 1 8p9CtrU ca. 

i.me» rarCi tperiia vtdem.qnin minim iiintni 

•Jut. »'S»eit 9. M-mb 4 fnbt 7. *>DrTli 

•■i vilito. m m Aritl. dr Anlma. 

in (nbjeeil limnrif dnniln»t|nni, 
loitt, amt'iilnnlf, piiJnrm. frlu lion pat, »rd oiiib 
[ miicf, nmidul* laboriut lorquclur et niiacrlt. 



mmmi * 






Shame and Disgrace, Causes. 



with continual iaoour, care, and misery." It is as forcible a batterer as any 
•jf the rest : ** u Mirny men neglect the tumult* of the world, and care not for glory, 
nd yn they ore aim id of infamy, repulse, disjjrace, {Tul. ojjic. 1. I,) may c. 
tareiy centrum pleasure, bear grief indifferently, but they arc quite "battered and 
broken with reproach and obloquy :" (siquidrm vita et fmna pari passu ambulant) 
and are so dejected many time* for some public injury, disgrace, as a box on the ear 
•r. to be overcome of their adversary, foiled tn ilie lir Id, to be Mil in a 
■Beech, aoate foul fact committed or disclosed, &.c. that they dare not come a' 
all their lives after, but melancholize in corners, and keep in holes. The moat 
• t» are most subject to it ; Spirifus altos frangit et generosos : II- 
Aristotle, because lie could n©1 tmderstand the motion of Euripus, for grief 
shamr drowned himself: Ca-livs Rodiginus antiquar. lee. lib. 89. cap. 8, I 
rat fmdort consumptus, was swallowed up with this passion of shame nu bi 
beeuuld not unfold the fisherman's riddle. 11 Sophocles killed himself, •**fijf that a 
aaardv of his was hissed off the stage:" Valrr. max. lib. 9. cap. 12. Lu. 
■towed herself, and «o did "Cleopatra, *' when she saw that she was reserved for a 
triumph, to avoid the infamy." Antonius the Roman, w » k after he was overcoi . 
ha enemy, for three days 1 space sat solitary in the fore-part of the ship, abstaining 
fraea all company, even of ( leopatra herself,and iftgrwafu) fol very shame butc 
hinaaelt." Plutarch, vita ej)is. u Apollonins Rhodiua *' wilfully banished him 

nd all his dear friends, because he was out in reciting hii 
boob*.*' Ptmiua, lib, 7. cap. 23. Ajax ran mad, because his arms were adjudged to 
llrase*. In China 'tis an ordinary thing for such as are excluded in those famous 
tnal* of theirs, or should take degrees, for shame and grief to lose their wits, m MU 
<±s erptdit. ad Sinas, I. 3. c. 9. Hostratus |he friar took that book which 
Biffin had writ against him, under the name of R/tist. oitCVWIM viroruru, BO to 
bran, that for shame and grief he made away with himself, m Joviut it. A 

rare and learned minuter, and an ordinary preacher at Alomar in Holland, was ■ nr 
dsy as he walked in the fields for his recreation) suddenly taken with a lax or loose- 
bo*. and thereupon compelled to retire to the next ditch; but being "surprised at 
unawares, by some gentlewomen of his parish wandering that way, was so abn- 

i never after show his head in public or come into the pulpit, but pined 
twa> Lint-holy : \Pct. Forestus med. observal. lib. 10. observal. 12 

thatne amongst other passions can play his prize. 
I know there be many base, impudent, brazen-faced rogues, that will *.Yu/7d 
culpa., be i tli nothing, take no inlamy or disgrace to heart, laugh 

red perjured, >i initialized, convict rogues, thieves, Irai 
sare, be Whipped, branded, carted, pointed at, hissed, revilt ■<!. and derided 
us, they rejoice ut it, Cantores probos ; "babe and 
what tare the\ ? \V< have too many such in our times, 




*.'.h ' 



-" Eiclamal Meliceru periiM 
-Frnnlem de rei 




Tel a modest man, one that hath grace, a generous spirit, tender 
w.U l> deeply wounded, and so grievously affected with it, thai 
my ria d s of crowns, lose his life, than sutler the least defamation 
■ ha* good name. Ami it bo be that he cannot avoid it, as a nigh 

a montur. Mizaldus,) dies for shame if another bird sing better, he 

and pineUi away in the anguish of his spirit. 

mun.Ji »lr«-pi;tim. rrputant pro ' dunliir " Iltwlralut citciitlatua nden cr^' i" r ■ '' 

:• ucJini llbruro, qui inxribilur, Cpiglobe ob*cur<>rum 

VoOftalvm K*rr«i<tlii>e uxilaeaatlilt. In do- virorum. iloloro (loiul cl podore eiiuclalm. «t »rij»»iim 

rum nrilliunl, fringunl'ir Intcrfererll. •• Propter mborcm confuituf. .utlia 

nil drlirare, tic. ob eUfpirlonem, quod vill ilium 

m idtfaeln tiiml* ammo aimna. Plul. in rrmiinr an uior'nt. "Horsl. ■ P«. lmpu 

><> •nitnia aulTrre aw) II. Ill nt. Pa arrlcate. B. dici» vera P*. Veto 

Haw eiplii«an>, inotirm oM qiiipucin Pa furciftr. II fnrium opiime PS. and 

dil in iriumplium •.»■ fraud?. B. aunl mea lrt»c P» parrlrida B prrg* IS 

li fateor Pa. perjure H. vrra din 
|..rniil. . .,,!■ !• -Cf ilium B uccrriinr- P» fur U bubs. 
in/iuw II bombti. Pi. frnuii populi. B. I 
hi m«lr !»• \i • unum. B c»nii'rr< 

Pieiidnim | • «»rl: ' 

• vanirlinl from huitinn VtkTiftktWi 
m irnJu in tiamiiic mlu-J P--rsiu* ff4l. V. » Ceni. 1. * TUnta. 




« . t . I .It .< 5 



of Melancholy. 

Scbsect. VII. — Envy, Malice, Haired, Causes. 

F-vvv and malice are two links of this chain, and hoth, as Guianerius, Tract. 1 
cap. 2, proves out of Galen, 3 Aphorism, com. 22, w " cause this malady l-v them- 
selves, especially if their bodies be otherwise dispose*! to melancholy." *Tis V; 
teecai de TnranUi, and Feelix Platcrus' observation, w "Envy so gnaws many men' 
heart-, dial they become altogether melancholy." And therefore belike Solomon, 
Prow xiv. 13, calls it, '* the rotting of the bones, 11 Cyprian, minus occultum ; 

« " Picnli non Invenere lyrannl 

Mnju* lornte-Muni" - 

The Sicilian tyrants never invented the like torment. It crucifies their souls, withei 

•■ . i k i ■ s them hollow-eyed, ~* pile, lean, and ghastly to behold, Cyprian, 
ttr. 2. de tela ft fivorr. :J " As a moth gnaws a garment, so,' 1 sailh Ch 
" doth envy consume a man ;" to be a living anatomy : a " skeleton, to be a lean 
and "pale carcass, quickened with a "fiend, Hall in Charact." tor so often as an 
envious wretch sees another man prosper, to be enriched, to thrive, and be fortunate 
in the world, to get honours, offices, or the like, he repines and grieves, 

" "-iftialip'rhqti" videndn 

Succrasua linmniuro aujiplicmiuqui] luura t«l." 

He tortures himself if his equal, friend, neighbour, be preferred, commended, 
well; if he understand of it, it galls him afresh; and no greater pain can come 
him than u> hear i>f another man's well-doing; 'tis a dagger at his heart every su 
object lie looks at him as they that fell down in Ionian's rock of honour, with 
envious eye, and will damage himself, lo do another a mischief: At que ca&tl su 
dum supi r Imstr cadet. S^As he did in j&op^lose^one eye willingly, lhat his fellow 
might lose both* or that ricTi TnlnTin "QuinliTIan that poisoned the flowers in Ins 
garden, because his neighbours bees should get no more honey from them. His 
m note Lift is sorrow, and every word he ■peak* a satire : nothing fats him but other 
lneu's ruins. For l<i speak in a woi<l, envy is nought else but Tristitia de 
nlh n n, sorrow for other men's good, be it present, past, or to come: el gaudium 

. I nd : " joy at their harms, opposite lo mercy, "which gnOTOa at other men': 
mischances, and m is affe c lf the body in another kind ; bo Damascen defines it, lih. 

rthod.JU. Thomas. 2. 2. meat. 'AG. art. 1. Aristotle, /. 2. JViet. c. 4. et 10. 
Plato Phtlebo. Tully, 3. Titsc. Greg. .Yic. I. de virt. anima; c. IS. Basil, de Jnvi- 
dia. Piltdarus 0>t. 1. ttr. 5, and we find it true. 'Tis a common disease, and alni"-t 
natural 10 us, ai "TacittUl holds, lo envy another man's prosperity. And 'tis in most 
men an incurable disi ase. *'- 1 have read," saith Marcus Aurelius, "Greek, Hebrew, 
Chaldee authors; I have consulted with many wise, men for a remedy for envy, 
could find none, but to renounce ad happiness, and to be a wretch, and mist 
In- , --ver." 'Tis the beginning of hell in this life, and a passion not to be excused. 
'-'•• El * tv oilier sin haih some pleasure annexed to it, or will admit of an excuse; 
envy alonfl wants both. Other sins last but for awhile; the gut may be satisfied, 
Niger remits, haired hath an end, envy never ceaseth." Cardan, lib. 2. de sap. 
Divine and humane examples are very familiar; you may run and read them, as that 
of Saul and David, Cain and Abel, angebal ilfuin non proprium peccalum, sed frairii 
jrrnsprritas, saith Theodore!, it was his brothers good fortune galled him. Rachel 

id her sister, being barren, Gen. xxx. Joseph's brethren him, Gen. xxxvii. 
David had a lunch of this vice, as he confesseth, w Ps. 37. * Jeremy and "Habbakuk, 



I 

,', 
a, 

n. 




1 Mull»i vide mu« proptrr Invidiam el odium In 

incidluM : el tlloi poil»»imiirti quorum 

Mtpotl id haM BBJU mini. ""Invidm illlii'd h»- 

. !co ei cor rod It, nc in melancholic) paaliua liant. 

HOT. -Ilia vutlu* iiiinax. lorvut aspecm*, pallor 

• in hiliii- i r*»nnir. tlridof m deatitioa, &c. 

i i inra eofrodil rwltanatua tic, invidix eum 

t. '• i'ullur in in. 

Nu»quam rccla »ri.n. Ilvenl r 

hi -"ii alpreeca Imuzo, UtxJnm elm- 

i»ii». ra Minim -mm iu.v. ab) mm mentte, mm oil to 

aaanetroaiiH ntomtrun, dan Iim damnum, urlt, lor- 

let. din nil in t mac be el aqualorc cnnlfoit. Aimiiii. 
Douiin prlinL Advent. " Ovid flit pine* away 

■I ibe eight of anoiher'a success it la hi* special 

torture. '■'■ IKclara 13 tuuiii C«rc> rualcricutticcia 



In venerium niclla converlen». * Slaiul* 

Ua.lllil* aot eoaiparat, qui liquffimit nil \n.-r .n.tian 
.nil*, qua nln (aiidcnt el ornanlur. V 
■ill .Tilim t;iioilfiil, luiiit'iui iira'U'iiriinl iimunl )r 
dii. "Mtaericordla etiam qua 

<*«l. firpe mlicrsnltn rorpu* mala nffio - . . 
cap 13. *' Intiiuui tu«rtalitiii- cnlcia 

alkirein fcllcilalrru irjru oculis mturri, !n«t t. 1 
l I' ii i I,*>i!i rtialdicot, Gnecoa, llebrvn*. bbb> 

liiilui aaplantaa prn runcdio tnvidi 
renunriarc l.-ljciiaii, rt pcrp«lii6 mixr c.jr 
pre i mil ill nin r voi*atioiiein mrcinn tin bet, an I 
latent, iu>la mvidia uiraque cum, relifl 
liab. nt, Ira il> i. m ■-, u, |ula ••iliatiir, odiltfl 
babel, invidin nutiqunin qnti »ti 

auiulalio propter alultos. "llicr.l'J 1 





Mm. 8. 



Emulat'um, Haired, ifc. 



I«| 



repined at others' good, but in the en-.] ihey corrected themselves, Ps. 75, * fret 
rlf," See. Doniitian spited Agiicola for his worth, ""that a private man 
be so much glorified, "Cecinna mi envied of his fellow-citizens, because 
f WM aorr richly adorned. {^.Bnt of all others, w " women are most wi nk, oh ;>«/- f 
tkrilatiintm invid<e sunt fa-mina (Musctus) out amat, nut odit, nihil est IcrfiutH J 
' GramatrtiMJ. The)' love or hate, no median amongst them. Implacahtlcs plr- j 
lata, mulieres, Agrippina like, * u A woman, i! she see her neighbour more 
• gant, richer in tires, jewels, or apparel, is enraged, and like a lioness sets- 
her hoebend, rails at her, scoffs at her, and cannot abide her," so the Roman 
us did at Solonina, Cecinna's wife, M " because she had a better horse, 
furniture, as if she had hurt them with it; ihey were much offended, la 
•ort our gentlewomen do at their usual meetings, one repines or scoffs at 
b wei ' Y and happiness. Myrsine, an Attic wench, was murdered of her 
•• because she did excel the rest in beauty," Constanline, Agricull. I. 11. 
Erery village will yield such examples. 

ra*CT. VIII. — Emulation, llntml. Faction, Desire of Revenge, Causes. 

r of this root of envy "spring those feral branches of faction, hatred, livor, 
— Ulimi which cause the like grievances, and are, srrrtp amm,r, the saws of the 
tcsal, m censftrnaJ ionis plmi affect us, affections full of desperate amazement ; or as 
Cyprian describes emulation, it is**" a moth of (he soul, a consumption, to make 
another man's happiness his misery, to torture, crucify, and execute huns.lf. to eat 
at* own heart Meat and drink can do such men no (*ood, they do always grieve, 
ste <u and groan, day and night without intermission, their breast is torn asunder:" 
tad a little after, *" Whomsoever he is whom thou dbtl emulate and envy, he may 
twid thee, but thou canst neither avoid him nor thyself; wheresoever thou art he is 
wuh thee, thir js ever in thy breast, thy destruction is within thee, thou art 

t ea; id hand and foot, as long as thou art malicious and envious-, and canst 

led. It was the devil's overthrow;" and whensoever thou art thoroughly 



V t~:ttl Mi muJtc «*J». 




;his passion, it will be thine. Yet no perturbation so frequent, no 
' immon. 

A poiirr rmulaies ■ ponrr: 

■ iiiiili > nvi.'i annlher : 

A brccur cmulatm a brricnr ; 

A tinging man lit* broilin. 

orporation, and private family is full of it, it takes hold almost of 

■* men, from the prince to the ploughman, even amongst gowns, it is to be 

,aear> a i company but there is siding, faction, emulation, between two 

•ome si mult as, jar, private grudge, heart-bum ing. in the midst of them, 

two gentlemen dwell together m the counts v be not near kin or 

■krt! in marriage* but there is emulation betwixt them and their servants, some 

' grudge betwixt their wives or children, friends and followers, some 

It wealth, gently, precedency, ^.c., by means of which, like the frog 

m "JEaop, "that would swell till she was as big as an ox, burst herself at last;" 

they will *lret> I their fortunes, callings, and strive so long that the\ 

<>r otherwise in hospitality, feasting, fine clothes, 

to get a few bombast titles, for ambitiosd paupertate laboramus omncs, to outbrave 

new anothrr. they will tire their bodies, macerate their souls, and through conten- 

nauuial invitations beggar themselves. Scarce two great scholars in an age, 

•upra |iniic:|'ii aitolli. 



2 put! fi 
. (I MM 

'i in. •■ 
■ 
■ iinur 



| raccra mltrrlam, at Telul quntdatn p?rtr.ri urn admo- 
vrre carninrn. mcitationibua ct teimbu* »iil» adb.1- 
brre lortnrea, qui »<■ inir.iinU rrucialibii* tai 
Nun i linn laliboj tanu, n,.n p"lui poteii «»e jiirun- 
du»; auapiralur ■rmpr rt {> niinii, • i ilnliiiii din «l 
-. per lua ilnr inlrrnii<!ir<nc lacernlur 
-I lllr quern nnul:iri>. ftil inviilr. la la mlilnr- 
illuni tin- (uirrr« polul, at III nun le ublfunqilr fuC'-M- 
nuj ni 

Ml, inlliidn i n I u> mi In*, i. I if. 1 1 il' ►«. I 1' in. 
iiiinanle captlvua : npr *olalla tlbl ull I 

lode odium inrflt blue dlaboliM imer in Ilia aiaiini mumi 
- "Vol' i ypriun, Mf. 3. d< *'lo ■ 

"ir iiIki " Hrai'id up die* " Rama cupula bhumvCu Wnmr- 

*tw M kltcro a el Bli'Tuni felKltalcm mam ae diaicndvbal, Ac. 



ilium infiir- 



ptlk hriiudlne 

->runl. 

rt hvnf radix 




Catties (if Mtltmrhvltj. 



[Part. l.Sec. 




with bitter invectives lliey fall foul one on tlie other, and iJieir adherents; Scotists. 
Tli'imists, Heals, Noininals, Plato and Aristotle, Galeiiisls ami Paraaiaiinftj kc, it 
holds in all professions. 

Honest "emulation in studies, in all callings is not to be disliked, 'tis ingtnionm 
cos, as one calls it, the. whetstone of wit, the nurse of wit and valour, and those 
noble Romans oui of this spirit did brave exploits. There is a modest ambition, as 
Theinistuoles was roused up with the glory of Miltiades; Achilles 1 trophies move 
Alexander, 

■*" Ainlilrc teniprr stiilln cw M m tl f«t. 
Amiiiri' ]Hiii*|iiani ii«'si'H trrugantni ••si." 

Tis a sluggish hunn.r not to emulate or to sue at all, to withdraw himself, n 
refrain from such places, honours, ollices, through sloth, niggardliness, fear, bashful 
ncss, or otherwise, lo which by his birth, place, fortunes, education, he is called, apt, 
At, and well able to undergo; but when ilis immoderate, it is a plague and a miserable 
pain. What a deal of money did Henry VIII. and Francis I. king of Prance, spend 
at that '"'famous interview ? and how many vain courtiers, seeking each lo oulhrave 
other, spent themselves their livelihood and fortunes, and died beggars? ' Vdrian 
the Emperor was so galled with it, that he killed all his equals; so did Nero. This 
Million made *Pionys his the tyrant banish Plato and Philoxeiius the poet, because 
titty did excel and eclipse his glory, as he thought; the Romans exile Corioluuus, 
Confine Cainillus, murder Scipio ; the Greeks by ostracism to expel Arisiid. 
Alcihiades, imprison Theseus, make away Phoriou, Stc. When Richard I. and 
Philip of France were fellow soldiers together, at the siege of Aeon in the Holy 
Land, and Richard had approved himself to be the more valiant man, insomuch that 
all men's eyes were upon him, it so galled Philip, Francuni urebat Utgit viciunn, 
saith mine 3 author, tarn <rgre frrcbal Richardi gfor><im,ut carpcre dicla, cnlumniari 
facta; that he cavilled at all his proceedings, and fell at length to open defiance; lie 
could Contain no longer, but hasting home, invaded his territories, and profi 
open war. "Hatred stirs up contention," Prov. x. 12, and they break out at last 
into immortal enmity, into virulency, and more than Vatinian hale and rage; * they 
persecute each other, their friends, followers, and all their posterity, with bitter taunts 
hostile wars, scurrile invectives, libels, calumnies, fire, sword, and the like, and will 
not he reconciled. Witness that Guelph and Ghibdline faction in Italy; that of the 
Adunii and Fregosi iu Genoa; that of Cneius Papirius, and tinnitus Fahius in Koine; 
Caesar and Pumpey; Orleans and Burgundy in France; York and Lancaster in 
England: yea, this passion so rageth 4 many times, that it subverts not men only, 
and families, but even populous cities. "Carthage and Corinth can witness as much, 
nay, flourishing kingdoms are brought into a wilderness by it. This haired, malice, 
faction, and desire of revenge, invented first all those racks and wheels, strappadoes, 
brazen bulls, feral engines, prisons, inquisitions, severe laws to macerate and torment 
one another. How happy might we be, and end our lime with blessed days and 
sweet content, if we could contain ourselves, and, as we ought lo do, put up injuries, 
learn humility, meekness, patience, forget and forgive, as in T Goir8 word we ars 
enjoined, compose such final controversies amongst ourselves, moderate our passions 
in this kind, "■ and think better of others," as "Paul would have us, "■than of our- 
selves : be of like affection one towards another, and not avenge ourselves but have 
peace with all men." Rut being that we are so peevish and perverse, insolent and 
proud, so factious and seditious, so malicious and envious ; we do nwiCfM Oflgari 
maul and vex one another, torture, disquiet, and precipitate ourselves into that g«lf 
of woes and cares, aggravate our misery and melancholy, heap upon us hell and 
eternal damnation. 



r A?iuiilntln alii Inxcnb : Palrrrntni potter. Vol. 
■OrolIlM, fcplj. lib. I. ■• \nil.i[|..h always is a fnnlisli 
conSdcnca, never a eioiltful a mi:; .trice," '"•Anno 

161 ft Ix'tweeh Antes :>tnl Quiiie. ■ Sfinitian. 

■ Plaun n. » JatMWMi [ftraMna, l. 9 e. 13. do 

btlln«ni:. • Null* die* uniiim palcrtt li'iiiie n>- 

rofeai jEtetna Ixlhi pace aublnta c<tiiiiI. Jura/L 
odium, nee ante inviium euo deotiu, quam e»*e 



dralil. Faicrcntn*, vat. 1. * ltn iirrit hrc • tyrlt 

nintctrn ul urlies aulivertil ullqunndn, neleal pnpuUM, 
provincial Hllnigui Onrrntet rtdifftl in -•■lnudin 
morlalea vero miaero* in profunda iiiiferiaruui v»Ul 
■tbcimbHIttr tmntifkt. ' Cbrlhtto armalt K" 

maul imperii rimditintiiitcriii. Silsn Ostil 
3. Col. < Row. 11. 





Jhtger, a Cause. 

Si dsect. IX. — Jlnget) a Cause. 

■ T.n. a perturbation, which carries the spirits outwards, preparing the body lo 

-.-, and madness itself ; Ira furor brevis est, "anger is temporary madness-," 
milieus accounts it, one of die direr m « ..~ t violent passions. '"Aretcua 

ilolh Seneca, rp. 18./. 1 ,) of this malady. "Mag- 

aiaue give* the reason. Ex fr&manH im supra Madam calrfuni ; it ovmhaa ts their 
hnrfir«,aiid if it betiM>!'r«i|ii''iit, it lireaksoiit into nmiifot mndiu M, -aidi St. Ambrose. 
T» a known saying, Furor Jit lata Strpius palimlia, the most patient spirit that is, .. 
if he be often provoked, will be incensed to madness; it will make a devil of a saint: [S 
tod therefore Basil (belike) in his Homily it lrn\ calls it ienebras rationis. morbum ' 
aarsne, el Hamonrm prssimum ; the darkening of our understanding, and a hail angel. 
"Lactam m jlbilicato, lom. I, will have this passion to work this eili i -i.i apt ejsjly m 
ami women. "Auger und calumny (sailh he) trouble them at first, and after 
break out into madness : many things cause fury in women, especially it thev 
ite overmuch, or envy, be much grieved or angry ; these things by little and 
thorn on to this malady." From a disposition they proceed to an huhit, I 
is no difference between a mad num. and an angry man, in the time of his ) 
r,as Lactantiiis describes it, L. dt Ira Dei., ad Donatum, c. 5, is "s&va animi 
I rriul (enipeal of the mind; ** making hit sea sparkle fire, and stare, 
di in his head, hi s tongue stutter, his face pale, or red, and what more rilthy 
can be of a mad man r* 

'•"Mm i miw til Ira, fi-rvt-MMint anngtiine vrnse, 
I mi. i, ,i Qoffonlo ».TVii'n angue nili.i 

They arr void of reason, inexorable, blind, like beasts and monsters for the time, say 
sad do the) know not what, curse, swear, rail, fight, and what not? How can a mad 
stso d a* he said in the comedy, ■ Irani ti'lia non mm upxul me, 1 am not 

ui. m |f i!i. -i ftti be immoderate, continue long-, or he freipient, without 
provoke madness. Montanus, coiisil. 21, had a melancholy Jew to his 
he ascribes this for a principal cause : Iraarebalur hvibim dc causis, he was 
moved to anger. Ajax had no other beginning of his madness; and Charles 
that lunatic French king, fell into tins misery? out of the extremity of his. 
revenge ami malice, * incensed against the duke of Britain, he could 

■ eat, drink, nor sleep for some days together, and in the end, about the calends 
r, 1392, he became mad upon his horseback, drawing his '.*word. striking such 

near him promiscuously, and so continued all the days of his life, /£«»/., lib. 
Gal, ktst. A. !r end, urbis Mrros, /I.e. .17, hath such a story of Herod, 

ine mad, IT leaping out of his bed, he killed Jossippus, 
played many Mich bedlam pranks, the whole court could not rule him for a long 
'•for: -oiiiftimi- lie was sorry and repented, much grieved for that he had done, 
drjtrbuii «>a, by ami by outrageous again. In hot choleric bodies, nothing 
wo canaeth madness, as this passion of anger, besides many other diseases, as 
nltjs observes, cap. 31.2. 1. it bum. affect, oawsti ; Sangnimm imimnuit. f»l osjftsJ: 
t« "ValsjaJM controverts, Jlted. con/roe,, lib. B. contra. 8, many times kills them 
ivere the woffat of this passion, it were more tolerable., ID "but it 
and subverts whole towns,** cities, families, and kingdoms;" Nulla prxlis hu- 
. luris stetil. sailh Seneca, tie Ira* Kb. I. No plague hath done mankind 
to much harm. Look mto our histories, and you shall almost meet with no other 
falM/eet, but what a company " of hare-brains have done in their rage. We may do 
therefore to put this in our procession amongst the rest; a liom all blindness 
•f heart, from | -glory, ami hypocrisy, from envy, hatred and malice, anger, 

tad all such pestiferous perturbations, good Lord deliver us." 




■ i In morrorel incent »nlmi I " Srvu anlmi ipmpmi* tnntns tietUaa. duclut nl 
•lailin ard«>cant oculiot I renin I, lincua tltubet 

I CI iu Kp.int. ir. "Ovid. I' - 

fcrifii* Uritinnue Duel, ct In nlli"rieni irrnii, n*e 

| ill. .nil ce|>ll. nee quielpm. »il ' " ISW. 

cnmilei ou " '"■ »■•« 

i. up,. tapoteaa, eiililt ilr k 

I. .it .ml i. fcc. "An Ira [" HiirrlapJSgS 

'• Abcrnelhy. * A» 'I r I'.vMiAtA 

ir.mi * rflultorum rc|um»t , 



lUnchallciM rarll. \rri«ui Irii linmo- 
"OMlHrrto 

•«•», pSSltllM Yrtf l: 

• mil ln»t- 
■iuiton-i In iii.anura lamUtu cvnUuiil. 



Causes of Melancholy. 
Subsect. X. — Discontents. Care*, Miseries, Src. Causes 



ill.: 




\ i v.n rs, cares, crosses, miseries, or whatsoever it is, that shall cause anj 
ion of spirits, grief, anguish, and perplexity, may well be reduced to this 
head, I preposterously placed here in Borne men's judgments they may seem, j 

rtotle in his ■ Rhetoric defines these cares, as he (loth envy, emulation, N.r 
pvttf I ill ink. I may well rank them in this irascible row; being that ll 
rest, both causes and symptoms of this disease, producing the like incdnveni 
and arc most part accompanied with anguish ami pain. The common et\ no- 
; v will evince it, Cura quasi cor uro y Dementes curar, insomnes cura, dainnostecur 
.mrtltiees, carnifices, Etc. biting, eating, gnawing, cruel, bitter, sick, sad, 
quiet, pale, tetric, miserable, intolerable cares, as the poets "call them, worldly care*, 
and ure as many in number as the sea sands. !4 Galen, Fernelius, Fuslbc Plater, \ 
cus de Taranta, Sic, reckon tffiictions, miseries, even all these eontentii 
Taxations of the mind, as principal causes, in that lliry take away sleep, hinder con 
BOOtion, dry up the body, and consume the substance of it. They are not >■> mauv 
in number, but their causes be as divers, and not one of a thousand free from die 
or that can vindicate himself, whom that .lie dea, 



" Pei h.. milium <a|ii(s monitor ambulant, 
Pinning ji» ijinn tuiierna habeit*.'* 



" Over men'i head* walking atuft, 
Willi tender feet treading in »oft," 






Homer's Goddess Ate hath not involved into this discontented "rank, or plague 
with some misery or other. Hyg'tnus, fab. 220, to this purpose hath a pleasant Isle. 
Dame Cura by chance went over a brook, and taking up some of the dirty slime, 
made an image of it; Jupiter eftsoons coming hy, put life to it, but Curs and Jupitc 
could not agree what name lo give him, or who should own him; the metier war 
referred to Saturn as judge; he gave this arbilremeul: his name shall be Homo al 
humo, Cura cum possideat quamdiu Wat, Care shall have him whilst he lives, Jupi- 
ter his soul, and Tellus his body when he dies. Hut to leave tales. A general cssjse, 
a contnuuh i rmse, an inseparable accident, to all men, it discontent, 
win- tS0K no Other particular affliction (which who is free from ?) to nudist a ma 
in this life, the very cogitation of that common misery were enough to macerate, and 
make him weary of his life; to think that he can never be secure, but still in tl 
sorrow, grief, and persecution. For to begin at the hour of his birth, its "Pliny 
elegantly describe it, u he is horn naked, and falls e a whining at the very first: he 
is swaddled, and bound up like a prisoner, cannot help himself, and so he continues 
to his life's end. 7 ' Cujusquc fcrce pabulum, saith a Seneca, impatient of heat and ccU) 
impatient of labour, impatient of idleness, exposed to fortune's contumelies. Tos 
naked mariner Lucretius compares him, cast on shore by shipwreck, cold and com- 
fortless in an unknown land : M no estate, age, sex, can secure himself from this com- 
mon misery. u A man that is born of a woman is of short continuance, and full of 
trouble. 11 Job xiv. 1, 22. M And whde his flesh is upon him he shall be suirowfili, 
and while his sou] is in him it shall mount. All his days are sorrow and his travels 
griefs: his heart also taketh not rest in the night. 11 Kccles. ii. 23, and ii. II. "All 
that is in it is sorrow and vexation of spirit. Sl IngresB, progress, ragrest 
much alike: blii izelh on us in the beginning, labour in the middle, grief in 

the end, error in all. What day ariselh to us without some grief, cai 
Or what so secure and pleasing a morning have we seen, that hath not been "\errast 
before the evening?" One is miserable, anoi her ridiculous, a third odious. One 
complains of this grievance, another of that, diiquando nervi, aliquando pi <h | 
ant, (^Seneca) nunc disfillalio, nunc epaiis morbus ; nunc decsl, nunc stipe rest sanguis: 
now the head aches, then the feet, now the lunge, then the liver, Slc. Iluic i 
exuberat, ted est j/tidori degener sanguis, Sic. lie is rich, but base born ; he is noble, 



* Lib. 9. Iiiviilla e»t dolor el amhttlo pm dolor, A.c. 
B ln«<nnnc.« ClaQdianui. Trtotca, Vlrg. MertecM, I M. 

Ill | n>rr -I .i . iiiiiHii-. Ovnl ilaniiiupir. Iln|il1rlr, 
Marl I ' iilcn. Mam. itt. "Galen, I. 3 

lnMiiinrn fnuil inaXiniH iiu'lunrtio- 
indo viiilii- iniilm. el tmlirtiuriinihiia, «i lat>o- 
.'tbiu, uL cum- finnM • itriimventl. *Luclan. fo- 

dai. wOinni.i imperfecta, ronfusa. ct nerlurba- 

<ooe plena, Cardan. "Lib. 7. oil. Mil. cap, 1. 



homlnem miUnm, el ait vagitiim edit, nalun. Fl<ra at 

in III", ili'vliirliiijarel. *c. _ 'J«(i /'»- }irtju»i 

x*j fcimai |T|.^-J*ea», t<j ym< ■.!$■{'. 

tu er, nj^lfir tMQUit. Lachryi 

I in )iryiiian« iiinrnu, ir. -■•Ail Marin I 

Ihlna. - Inil in in ririilfl* prftrrfMiim l.ibnr. rvlluai 

dolor, error omnia i quroi triii.i|iiillnm qtirvn. qtira 

noil labor ioiuni aul auamiu ilitw eiumiat falmith 



i 

I 




Discontents, C ires, Sfc. 



171 




^ third hath means, but he wants health pennU. mure, at wH to manage 
d vex one, wife a second, &.c. Jfcmofaciti cum conditio* suA 
int* no man is pleased with his fortune, a pound of sorrow is familiarly mind 
fliaii at, Utile <>r no joy, little comfort, but "everywhere danger, 

in all pliiccs : go where thou w ilt, and thou shalt lim! discontents. 
Wo mt<, sickness, diseases, incumbrances, exclamations: u If thou 

the market, there ^saith "Chrysostom) is brawling and contention; if to 
..ivi ry and flattery, Stc. ; if to a private man's house, then ' 
-."" Kr, As In- said of old, M A*i7 Itomine in terra sj/tral miterum 
•tigij almaf No ci > miserable as man, so generally molt 

i body, iii miseries of mind, miseries of heart, in mil 
twak- : ho turns, 1 - as Bernard found. .Yuik/iikI ttntotio rsi nta 

kin mi super terrain* A mere temptation is our life, (Austin, can/eat. lift. 10. cap. 
-fxrfuorum malorum. ct quis potest mokstiot ft diffcultatis pali " Who 
ao r-MJii in - of it ? *** In prosperity we are insolent and intolerable, de- 

^Hp in adversity, in all fortunes foolish and miserable. " In ailvi r-it\ I wish for 
wot]- i iu prosperity I am afraid of adversity. What mediocrity may be 

bend? Where is no temptation ? What condition of life is free? * Wisdom bath 
labour annexed to it, glory, envy; riches and cares, children and incumbrances, plea- 
" diseases, rest and beggary, go together: as if a man were therefore horn (t 
lists hold) to be punished in this life for some precedent sins." Or that, 

a Nature may be rather accounted a step-mother, than a mother 

nil tli « red : no creature's life so brittle, so full of Nur, to mad, so 

onlv man is plagued with envy, discontent, grief*, COVetOUSneSS, ambition. 

Our whole life is an Iriisli sea, wherein there is nought to be expected 

but truipc«tuous storms and troublesome waves, and those infinite, 

• "Taiitnin tii.L l< >r ii iii (x laiui nepiclo, 
I i nun *u in. If cnalandi copm," 

on halcyon i m tunes, wherein a man ran hold himself secure, or agree with his pre- 

Mnir*uic; but as Boethiua infers, 4I There is something in every DIM of us which 

Mi..rr trial we seek, and having tried abhor: ■ we earnestly wi-h.nnd eagerly BOfatj 

tad are eftaoona weary of it. 1 ' Thus between hope and fear, suaptciona, angers, 

*httr spemque wutuwume, thnorti tnler ct iras, betwixt falling in, fulling out, &.c, we 

fcanfle away om a, befool out our times, we lead a contentious, discontent, 

tumultuous, melancholy, miserable life; insomuch, that if wc could foretell what was 

. . and u put to our • should rather refuse than accept of this painful / 

i In ■ ie world itself is a maze, a labyrinth of errors, a desert, a wilder- ^ 

. Su-., full of filthy puddles, horrid rocks, precipi- y 

heavy yoke, wherein infirmities and calamities over- 

nd fullow one another, as the sea waves; and if we scape Scylla, we fall foul 

dis, and !■• ual l< ar, labour, anguish, we run from one plague, one 

M burden to another, durum tcrvitntes srrvitutan, and you may as soon 

i from fire, moistness from water, bnghtneu from the 

aun,aa n»^ ontent, rare, calamity, danger, from a man. Our towns and cities 

anr but ao many dwelling! of human misery. M In which grief and sorrow "ins lie 

Wfht wrll observes out of Solon) innumerable troubles, labours of mortal men, anil 

are included, as in so many pens." Our villages are like mole- 

• many emmets, bn-y, busy still, going to and fro, in and out, and 




(9 




him. uMi|i' /ie tttufrn- nn»ri hominrm potiU cum Plntrini»tia arnot<:er«. 

rum l.lpviui. | n Lib, 7. cup. 1. Nun f Mil MMMTO, an Mdlnr parent 
i. .inr.i i... in in., .-in iifiinr noverc.i : i fr»- 

elliur vim. pavoi. corfuslo. rnnir, ninj--r. am nninmn- 
Inini muhlllo ilnin, luctut, nvaoli.i. uni mipi I 
■ BailpWc*. "1 prireive »nrh an nr«-»n o( M 

i' nn nitont or «*CBpf retniin "' ' |i« 
cnnaol. I V !>«-n><' furil* ru 
dat, inr«i •InfiilM quod Impriiii p*t.v 

■I ,unt 
' »n» vita Irniailol i|ii:un lniinanarnmirriinii.sti 

'.i 
inpiiiii ini.ri.i, omnia gcneili > '<»•• 

, hi quail fruendururu areltruui nuiu I 



. et puirnv ; >l 

I'.niiini privn- 

lii.ni.i 

pic >c l i ue " - 

■In ii 




i #/ Melancholy. 



[Part, 1. Sect 









• 



, at the lines of several sea-cards cut each other in a 

, but *(aa one follows it) by-aud-by sorrowful 

'Cssa aaUiiiiliiig , BOW paimil, iit-iimrrow crying out; now 

iting, trembling, halting," 1 ko. Some few amongst 

<i a thousand, may be Pullus Juvis, in the world's esteem, 

and fortunate man, ad invidiam felix^ because rich, 

otfice ; yet perudveuture ask himself, and he will say, 

x? » awe* miserable and unhappy. A fair shoe, flic soccus m 

'•m»L srW witit ubi urat, but thou knowest nut where it pinch- lit. 

rr uaaV coaion can make me happy: but as "Seneca well bath ii, 

attas Mi t A that doth not account himself happy, though lie be sove- 

.-ii : be is not happy, if he think himself not to be so ; fur what 

t«Mtt«t estate is, or seem to others, if thou thyself dislike it V* A BOO* 

■asas** <. « <x all men to think well of oilier men's fortunes, and dislike theii 

ajaasf mhenus, sua nimirum est odio sors; but " 'qui fit Mcca-iws, Stc, 

■ f - a M> amcr. what's the cause of it ? Many men are of such a perverse 

ut well pleased witlt nothing, (saith B1 TheodoreL,) " neither with riches 

complain when they are well and when they are sick, gnu 

and adversity ; they are troubled in a cheap year, in a barren, 
phtcity, nothing pleaseth them, war nor peace, with children, no* with 
V** £* die most part is the humour of us nil, to be discontent, miserable, 
at waaappy, as we think at least; and show me him that is nut so, or that 
. se. Ouintus Metellus his felicity is infinitely admired among 
•outuch that as M Paterculus meiuiiiueth of him, you can scarce liii'l of 
order, age, sex, one for happiness to be compared unto him : be had, in 
■mat, corporis ei ifortuna, goods of mind, body, and fortune, so had 
"Crassns. Lampsaca, that Lacedemonian lady, was 6Uch another in 
it, a king's wife, a king's mother, a king's daughter : and all the world 
in iit-ri of Poly crates of Samoa. The Greeks brag of their Socrates, 
-(ides; the Psophidians in particular of their Aglaus, Omni vitA 
«■*» ; i-iinn'is (which by the way Pausanias held imnnesihlfl ;) ike EUaMM 

.'.,-,i >'.iio. Curing, Fabriojus, foi tkeii composed fbrtnnea,and retired rattlm, 
of passions, tad soatempt of the world: y« t boomi af aU Ihsee wtn 
. ,<: free lioni discontent, neither Melellus, Crassus, nor Polyc rates, for lie died 
ill, and so did Catoj and how much evil doth Lactanlius and Tboodofal 
Socmles, a weak man, and so of the rest. There is no content in this hie. 
id, u All is vanity and vexation of spirit;" lame and imperfect. Iladst 
Simpson's hair, Bfflo's strength, Scanderbeg's arm, Solomon's wisdom, Abss- 
eity, Crupsus' wealth, Pasetis obufum, Caesar's valour, Ah 
01 Demosthenes' eloquence, Gyges' ring, Perseus' Pegasus, and Go 
Itor's years to come, all this would not make thee absolute; ffive the 
and true happiness in this life, or so continue it. Even in the midst of all our 
i, jollity, and laughter, is sorrow and grief, or if there be true happiness amongst 
Nix but for a time, 

-mm in piscc-m muller fonncaa ■tipcrnei" " A handsome woman with a fish'- i 

»air morning turns to a lowering afternoon. Brutus and Cassius. once rani 
oih eminently happy, yet you shall scarce find two (snith Paterculus) Steal fortuna 
!urms drsttturit, whom fortune sooner forsook. Hannibal, a conqueror all his 
hie. met with his match, and was subdued at last, Occurrit forti, qui magi: 
trit. One is brought in triumph, as Ctcsar into Rome, Alcibiades into Athens. 






»N«t CliytreuadeUl. Eurnpr. Lrl us nunc, mm tria- 

iie .pcraris, pauln pn»i diffident ; patient rmaV, 

«ra» ■•jut ins : nunc pnlleus, luhen*, currens. irdena. 

> i.uiiIk m«, trctm-na. ace. u 8ua cuique calaiuiiat 

Tfa Oraalma • Kptii. 9. 1. 7. 

> m n«nii»»imum non jndiral. lic«l impp- 

[i est bcatits, qui t« non puial: •] u ul 

•nim refer! quails status tuui *it, «i tilil vid»tur ma- 

•"II. .f ep I. 1. 4. *"II..f. Ser. I 

Lib, de rural, gr«c. affect, cap. 0. de provident. 

lullis nihil placet etqne adeo el divitin* danininl, el 

Daupcriatuin, do motbki eipoitulant, bene valenlei 



gravtter feruni, atque ul semel dicam. nihil aim de 
lat, kc. u Via. ulllua fentia, «-tnii., . 

min mvenlci cujui fclicitatem funim 
wm, Vol l. "P Creates MuU 

habultie dlciiur renim bonnrmn maxim i 
< in, quod enset noblllHiinti*. ehu 
niultiulmua, PoniUex mHomm. 
Iti.'Cia (ilia, Rnria uxor, It. B i- nt < i. r hi]i 

uiiquiiiii malt mil dull, nut fecit, nul tet.i it qui l«o« 
neinper feril, quod alitor fariun non ("'i "I 
luon. Ecclea. 1. 14. "Hut. Art Tool 







«. 10. 



Discontents, Cares, See. 



173 



honoured, admired; by-and-by his statues demolished. ha 

iswred, Stc. "Magnus Gonsalva, that famous Spaniard, was of fa 
p!c at first honoured, approved ; forthwith confined arid bank 

I plerunque scquunlur im acres ailumniir : 'tis 

his obWHalklU) pioVCNU enmities, and bitter calumnies, commonly follow 

" anions, One is born rich, dies a beggar; sound to-day, sick to-morrow; 

, fortunate and happ) , by-and-by deprived of his woods 

d by thieves, spoiled, captivated, u - they of 

under iron saws, and under iron harrows, and under axes of iron, and 




■ "Quid me frllcrm toilet jaclltii, urn In. 
•.Jui Ml lilll, itnhlli non cf»l lllo |rn.l 

it cr»t marched like Xerxes with innumerable armies, as rich as CraarMj nmv 
himself in a poor cock-boat, is bound in iron chains, with Bajazel the 
I ■ footstool with Aurelian, for a tyranniaing coflqtierof U» trample on. So 
•uahi ca said of a city consumed with lire, Urn 

utter mart mam citilatem et nuUam, one day betwixt a great city and DOM : 
uices from outward accidents, and from ourselves, our own indisrre- 
una. inordinate appetite, one day betwixt a man and no man. And which is worse, 
m if discontent* and miseries would not MOM fast enough upon us: homo homuii 
we maul, persecute, and study how to stinjr, call, and vex one another with 
I, abuses, injuries ; preying upon and devouring as so many •' ravenous 
ma jugglers, panders, bawds, cozening one another ; or raffing as "wolves, 
we take a delight to torment one another; men an evil, wicked, 
id "naught, not loving one another, or loving themselves, 

io* boapicable, charitable, nor soeiahls aa they ought to be, btri counterfeit, diaeenh 
Una, ambidexters, all for their own ends, hard-hearted, merciless, pitiless, mid to 
hcoeaH th«*m«clves, ihey care 1101 what mischief they procure to others. ^Praninoe 
when they had got in to see those costly sights, they then 
raid thrust out all the rest: when they are rich thernsi \\<>. m 
honour. J nil, and have even that they would, they debar others of those 

planum which youth requires, and they formerly have enjoyed. Me sits at table 
ma soft rruur at ease, but he doth remember in the mean time that a tired waiter 
tends brhn.'! him, "an hungry fellow ministers to him full, he is alhirst that gives 

1 and is silent whilst he speaks his pleasurt 

m£, Ph-no se proluit auro : he feasts, revels, and profusely 

lUeadV. hath variety of r 81 music, ease, and all the pleasure the world can 

.111 hunjrer-starved poor creature pines in the street, wants clothes 
10 cover him, labours hard all day long, runs, rule* lor a trifle, fights peradventure 
baa awn ck and ill, weary, lull of pain and grief, is in great distress and 

sorrow of heart He loathes and scorns his inferior, hates or emulates his 1 
nr»v .. r all such as are under him, as if he were of another 

•pecsea. a asti i-ir«>d. not suhjeel to any fall, or human intirinities. Generally they 
Itrve ruiu ■ in ; they tire out others' 1 bodies with continual labour, 

e, caring for none else, sihi nati ; and are so far many 

ir helping hand, that they seek all means to depress, even 

■'tier than themselves, those whom they are l.\ the 

lavs of nelarr bound to and help, as murh as in them lie-, they will let 

ta*jB rau-ruuiil, st.. and hang, before they will any ways (though it 

me : u so unnatural are they for the most part, so unregardfol ; 
ao li»n!-imrtr i<|. insolent, so dogged, of so bad a disposition 

And betnr ilishly bent one towards another, how is it possible In; 

that we irumld be di-r.nr. Hi of ail sides, full of cares, wims. and miseries ; 
not a sufficient proof of their discontent and misery, examine evi 




>, I turn Inter eo«. lul belli j>r i 



.:.. lamina et I 
:/- tilttlis lutfxi 






nr»- 



■ 



174 



Causes of Melancholy. 



■ Part. I. See. 




dition and railing apart. Kings, princes, monarchs, and magistrates seem to be most 
happy, but look into their estate] you shall "find them to be moat enmnibeted win 

cares, in perpetual fear, agony, suspicion, jealousy : that, as ^he said of a cri»\vn, if 
they knew but the discontents that accompany it, they would not stoop to take it 
up. QvSM mihi regnn rff/ftw (saith Chrysiisti.in j MH curis plenum 9 Wli.it kin^ 
canst thou show me, not full of cares? w "Look not on his crown, but consider 
his afflictions ; attend not his number of servants, but multitude of crosses/' J\*ihil 
aliud poleslas ctilmini.t, quam tempestus men/is, as Gregory seconds him ; sovereignty 
is a tempest of the soul : Sylla like they have brave titles, but terrible fits : sphn- 
dorcm tilulo y cruciatum animo : which made ,0 Demosthenes vow, si v>l ail tri/iunal, 
vel ad interitum duceretur : if to be a judge, or to be condemned, were put to his 
choice, lie would be condemned. Rich men are in the same predicament; what 
their pains are, slulli ncsciunt, (ntt M nlitml : they feel, fools perceive not, as I shall 
prove elsewhere, and their wealth is brittle, like children's rattles : they come and 
go, there is no certainty in ihem : those whom they elevate, they do as sudd« uly 
depress, and leave in a vale of misery. The middle sort of men arc as so many 
asses to bear burdens; or if they be free, and live at ease, they spend tin -mselves, 
and consume their bodies and fortunes with luxury and riot, contention, emulation, 
S.e. The poor I reserve for another "place and their discontents. 

For particular professions, I hold as of the rest, there's no content or security in 
any; on what course will you pitch, how resolve ? to be a divine, 'tis contemptible 
in the world's esteem; to be a lawyer, 'tis to be a wrangler; to be a physteJSB, 
'"jiurftt loin, 'tis loathed; a philosopher, a madman; an alchymist, a beggar; a poet, 
esvrit, an hungry jack; a musician, a player; a schoolmaster, a drudge; an hu>- 
bandman, an emmet ; a merchant, his gains ore uncertnin ; a mechanician, bn- 
chirurgeon, fulsome ; a tradesman, a 7a Har ; a tailor, a thief; a serving-man, a slave; 
a soldier, a butcher ; a smith, or a metalman, the pot's never from his nose ; a i 
tier a parasite, as he could rind no tree in the wood to hang himself; I can show no 
state of life to give content. The like you may say of all ages; children live m n 
perpetual slavery, slid under that tyrannical government of masters ; young nun, 
and of riper \ ears subject to labour, and a thousand cares of the world, to treat-hen,-, 
falsehood, and cozenage, 



X 



1 " Incedtt per IgncK, 

BttppoaiUM ciiiit, dooMO, 



"you IricatUlmu tread 

On Qreir, will) faithless n?n 



w old are full of nches in their bones, cramps and convulsions, siliccrnia, dull of 
hearing, weak sighted) hoary, wrinkled, harsh, so much altered as t! ninot 

know their own face in a trjass, a burthen to themselves and others, alter 70 yeans 
"■ all is sorrow" (as David hath it), they do not live but linger. I If they be sound, 
llu-v fear diseases; if sick, weary of their lives; .Yob eai virrrr, M d vnlrrt: ritti. 
One complains of want, a second of servitude, "another of a secret or incurable 
disease; of some deformity of body, of some loss, danger, death of friends, ship- 
wreck, persecution, imprisonment, disgrace, repulse, "contumely, calumny, a 
injury, contempt, ingratitude, unkindness, scoffs, flouts, unfortunate marriage, single 
life, tOO many children, no children, false sen'ants, unhappy children, barrenness, 
banishment, oppression, frustrate hopes and ill-success, &.c. 



*• "Talln il« Rrncre lioc nden «unt multn, loi|uuceni ut 
Prtimw vni. in Fibitjm." 



'But, ••wry various Instance to repeal. 
Would tin; even Fabius of Incessant prate.' 






Talking Fabius will be tired before he can tell hall of them; they arc the subject 
of whole volumes, and shall (some of them) be more opportunely dilated elsi v. 
In the meantime thus much I may say of them, that generally they crucify the 
of man, " J attenuate our bodies, dry them, wither them, shrivel them up like old 
apples, make them as so many anatomies f0 (ossa aiquc pellii all /<>'tv, Ud ruris macd) 
they cause tempus fwdum it squnlulum, cumbersome days, ingrataquc ttt" 
slow, dull, and heavy times : make us howl, roar, and tear our hairs, as sorrow did 

Ijiihru Ale lurtuqtie fero Regum turcidas rtl»i- | et urinn, mnlirornm ferriila prima, 
det arce» Koa vA Inquieta firlirHaa. "rim along i r rani or, nisi ad mod am mi nliendo. Tull • 

qnam rnilli* hitbet. S'<n liumi Jaeenlem toiler''* I I. 3. nd I. "Rnnis foils ideniijue ■■ 

Valer. I T. r 3. **Non ilia china s-i In Her. CtM, to rgroa, lim 

Vitain alfllciinne rtferlani, Don catenas satellltllta, qaoa nrmo nutlet frolices di : (6 4* 

fed curaruni rniililiwliiirin. "Aa Ftuiarrlt v- ■ ~ fi\>tr\w\.\i\n iajorta f'iriii.r 

Utah. " Bvcl. 9. luerub. 4. lubaect. 0. *• Slvrcus , "Alleuuanl visiles corpus mlscrabilr cure. «ri.>ui u« 




11] 



Am h lion, a Cause. 



175 



f table, and groan for the very anguish of our souls. Our hearts fail us as 

, P«al. xl. 12, " for innumerable troubles that composted bin j" end we 

to confess with Besekiaa, baiah lviii. 17, •* behold, for felicity I hud bitter 

lo weep with Ileraclitus. to curse the day si our birth with Jeremy, xx. 14, 

stars with Job • to hold that axiom of Silciius, ■* better never to havi 

the best next of all, to die quickly t 1 ' or if we must live, to aband.ni the 

Timon did; creep into caves and holes, as our anchorites ; cast all into 

i, as Crates Thebanus ; or as Theombrotus Ambrociato's 400 auditors, preci- 

oureelves to be rid of these miseries. 

>i :.-.), i XI. — Concvpiscible Appetite, as Desires, Ambition, Causes. 

-be • and irascible appetites are as the two twists of a rope, mutii 

the other, and both twming about the fieirt: both gooo\ as \ustir» 
Voids, /. 14. c. 9. de etv. Of i, au if they be moderate; both pcmioKMM if they be 
aorbitant. This conenpiseible appetite, liowsoever it may seem to carry with it a 
d»w of pleasure and delight, and our concupiscences most part affect us with COO- 
teaiand a pleasing object, yet if they be in extremes, they rack and wring us on the 
\ i saying it is, " Deeire hath no rest;" is infinite in itself, endless; 
tail aa **one calls it, a p er p etua l nick, "or horse-mill, according to Austin, Mill 
gaiif round uuu ring-. They are not so continual, as divers, f> iicius atomoi dnm- 
aogre possrm, saith "Bernard, quam motus cordis ; nunc ha>c, nunc ilhi COgiiOj yon 
may a» well reckon up the motes in the sun as them. * 7u It extends itself to evcry- 
- will have it, M that is superfluously sought after: 11 or to any 
fit desire, as Femelius interprets it; be it in what kind soever, it tortures if 
according to w Plater and others an BfpeCJal Cause of melancholy. 
niantur cogitationnsmea, "Austin confessed, that I 
cea w ith his manifold desires: and so doth "Bernard complain, u that he 
waM bf them a minute of an hour: this 1 would have, and that, and then 

IdtMire to be 6uch and such. 1 ' Tis a hard matter therefore to confine them, being 
lacy an *■> various and many, impossible to apprehend all. I will only insist npOB 
•aat i chief, and most noxious in dieii kind, as that exorbitant appetite 

tatdeauti of honour, which we commonly call ambition ; love of money, Which u 
"Osnesa, and that greedy desire of gain: self-love, pride, and inordinate desire 
•ry or applause, love of study in excess; love of women (which trfl] re- 
itself), of the other I will briefly speak, and in their order. 
•ud ness, or a dry thirst of honour, a great torture of the 

■>, piidi . and covetousness, a gallant madness, one "define* 
ion, Ambrose, "a canker of the soul, an hidden plague :" "Bernard, 
*••»« ler of livor, and mother of hypocrisy, the moth of holiness, 

aadestiM' ucifying and disquieting all that it takes hold of' "Seneca 

all* it, rem toltcilam. limidtwu vanam, ventosam, a windy diing, a vain, solicitous, 
and frarful thing. For commonly they that, like Sysiphus, roll this restless stone 
«W aiBbtnoa. are m a perpetual agony, still K perplexed, semper taciti, tritesque recedunt 
(Lor: -picious, loath to offend in word or deed, still cog- 

ging aod • ctng, capping, cringing, applauding, flattering, flei 

s, with all affability, counterfeit honesty and humility. 
'1 not serve, u ooec this humour (as "Cyprian deecribes it) possess his 
;. ambuUmis salsugo ubi bibulasn animam possidct, by hook and by crook 
obtain it, "and from his hole he will climb to all honours and office- 




sSi 



■»•* 




Mm rrrllii. rrumnl. • Optimum ni<>lc«liu« inqulelat, aecflum vlraa, DMtiffli cilia, Ac. 

I ■■ it ncun ra- aptoi. 126. »* Ep. W. *■ Nihil Infclirl 

"*Tlin. i]ii:miu> il* limm, quanta duliilain 

auiny ,ulii llmto. mil tn illi, & moli ' 'inru. 

"Semper aitonitu*. • dun qw nl dice 

live: ii'- ditpllceal hiiinlheili'm 
MMMv. * ' ) l'i Prolog ii 

unlvrrsia Irti 

il ctirllli. vial ■'• ap- 

ud alqiie plaudit, aduUliir: prr ttm ct atfu • Ulrtirla. Ill oiu- 
gradum ubl tdiiua paid sc ii ; in. di-< uu>: 
• Nihil luiinnn.' ru< ml. mini ! 



W. « Muiam aalnatiam. "Tiiit 

rem miindl In r 
'jr. Trad 15. 

'i. ■ 1 1., 



[Part. 1. Sec. 




Causes of Melancholy. 

be possible for bim to get up, flattering one, bribing another, he will leave no mea 
dim nay'd to win all." w It is a wonder to see how slavishly these kind of men su 
iect themselves, when they are about a suit, to every inferior person; what pains 
they will take, run, ride, fast, plot, countermine, protest and swear, vow, promise, 
what labours undergo, early up, down late ; how obsequious and affable they are, 
how popular and courteous, how they grin and fleer upon every man they meet ; 
with wh.it feasting and inviting, how they spend themselves and their fortunes, in 
Meting ilmt many times, which they had much better be without; as "Cyneas the 
orator told Pyrrhus : with what waking nights, painful hours, anxious thoughts, and 
biUenueu of mind, inlrr spemqne metimque, distracted and tired, ihey consume the in- 
terim of their time. There can be no greater plague for the present. If they do ob- 
tain their suit, which with such cost and solicitude they have sought, they are not 
so freed, their anxiety is anew to begin, for they are never satisfied, nihil aliud nisi 
imjxrium spirant, their thoughts, actions, endeavours are all for sovereignty and ho- 
nour, like :u0 Lues Sforsia that huffing Duke of Milan, "a man of singular wisdom, 
but profound ambition, born to his own, and to the destruction of Italy,'" though it 
be to their own ruin, and friends' undoing, they will contend, they may not cease, 
but as a dog in a wheel, a bird in a cage, or a smiirrel in a chain, so 'Budneus com- 
pares them; *they climb and climb still, with much labour, but never make an end, 
never at the top. A knight would be a baronet, and then a lord, and then a viscount, 
and then an earl, Sic; a doctor, a dean, and then a bishop ; from tribune to prator; 
from bailiff to major; first this office, and then that; as Pyrrhus in * Plutarch, they 
will first have Greece, ihen Africa, and then Asia, and swell with /c>op ? s frog so 
long, till in the end they burst, or come down with Sejamis, od PflBWJilS scalas, and 
break their own necks ; or as Evangelus the piper in Lucian, that blew his pipe so 
low, tfll he fill down dead. If he chance to miss, and have a canvass, he is in « 
hell on the other side; so dejected, that he is ready to hang himself, turn heretic, 
Turk, or traitor in an instant. Enraged against his enemies, he rails, swears, fights, 
slanders, detracts, envies, murders : and for his own part, si appelilum crplere rum 
potest, furore cnrrijiilur; if he cannot satisfy his desire (as *Bodine writes 1 he runs 
mad. So thut both ways, hit or miss, he is distracted so long as his ambition lasts, 
he can look for no other but anxiety and care, discontent and grief in the meantime, 
'madness itself, or violent death in the end. The event of this is common to be sees 
in populous riiics, or in princes 1 courts, for a courtiers life (as Biidauis describes it) 
u is a 'gallimaufry ofambition, lust, fraud, imposture, dissimulation, detraction, envy, 
pride ; ' the court, a common conventicle of flatterers, time-servers, politicians, 
or as "Anthony Perez will, u the suburbs of hell itself." If you will see such dis- 
contented persons, there you shall likely find them. 'And which he observed of tht 
markets of old Rome, 

"Qui perjurum comvenire vutt homlrrpm, mlttn In Cnmillum ; 
<im ■andMMI ci fflorioitim, apnil C'lunilria? nii-fiim ; 
It ilea, datnnoaoc inorno*. «ub baaitlcl quierllo, lit.'' 

'erjureil knaves, knights of the post, liars, crackers, bad husbands, See. keep their 

several stations ; they do still, and always did in every commonwealth. 



Subsect. XII. — Q,\*(yup'ta., Covetousness y a Catise. 

Plutakcii, in his '"book whether the diseases of the body be morn grievous tl 
those of the soul, is of opinion, u if you will examine all the causes of our miscric 
in this life, you shall find them most part to have had their beginning from t 
anger, that furious desire of contention, or some unjust or immoderate atlirtk 



"Turtx* melt amltitlo repem Inaerrlre, ui Rnmeriia 
Airarnf itn'"in hi qneranltun imlucil. " Phiiiin Inn 

Quln convlvemur, -i In <in> iioa oblectemiir, qiu*aiam 
In proinptu Lit nohla all, *.<•. "ojnvitm Insi I I 

vlr ainrulnri prndentU, aeil prnfiiTidn amtiittone, ad 
rtitiuin It ill* naiua. ' tJl Hpiteni nrhnrl ndharet, 

•ic Mnbilio, ki 'Mb. 9, de rontemplu mm 

rortiiilur-i mi M.icnn rnnatii ii imprlii niovunliir. mi per 
•mli'in rcnir.- ; rufklunt, nee ad flnem per- 

▼enmnt. \ ita Pyrrhl. 'Ainbitio In (nan- 

nlam facile delatnlur, al eicednl. Palrillii*. I, ■» tit '20. 
de rtgi* inntli. 'Lib. 5. do rep. cap 1. *lm- 

primi* rexo apptlltuf, feu concuplicenUa nlmia rcl 



alirujiia, honealic veHnhnneitK, phantnaiam la-dunl; 
iimle tnulil anit>nm»i, phil.iull, irali, avari, i 
Ftrlix Plaier, I 3. de mentis alien ' / 

eolluvica amblitonla, cnpldlintis. il 
turn\ frnudis. invidiam, tupTbla? Titannl 
•ula, et cnmrnune ciin»eritii-ulum a»»f mandi 
Ice. Budrna de aaae. lib. 5. "In ■ 

■ piaitiu* Cuml. An. 4. 8a "»T»« 

examine*, oinnea nii*eriB> raimat vel a I 
di"tidi studio, eel ab Injuria coplditnte. n 
aclei. Idem fere Chryaoalomua com. in e. 6. 
man. fer. II. 



12.] 



i 



Su\ M From • are wars and contentions amongst yon ?" 

•nk- tdd usury, fraud, rapine, simony, oppression, tying, swear- 

witness, &.c. ot from this fountain of eov< thai 

in keeping, sordity in spending ; that they are so wicked. 
icir neighbour, themselves; 11 all comes hence. "The d esira 

■ il, and they that lust after it, pierce themselves i 1 
Tim. vi. 10. Hippocrates therefore in Ins Kpistle to Crateva. 
s him thi* good counsel, that if it were possible, "amongst other 
cut up ilmt weed of covetousness by the roots, that there be no re- 
i know this for a certainty, that together with their bodies, thou 
all the diseases of their minds.' 7 For it is indeed the pattern. 
ttotoc of all melancholy, die fountain of many miseries, much diacosttcnted 
; tlii* •* inordinate, or immoderate desire of gain, to gel or keep BKJIN 
■tanv defines it : or. as Austin describes it, a madness of* the soul, tin . 
?; Chrysostorn, an insatiable drunkenness; Cyprian, blindness, sprei 
a plague .'j kingdoms, families, an "incurable disease; Btubnta 

habit, •** yielding to no remedies :"" neither £ecalapiae nor Plutus can cure 
, --ii 'h Solomon, and vexation of spirit, another hell. 1 know 
of opinion, that covetous men are happy, and worldly, wise, that tin re 
Jeasu ig of wealth than in spending, and no delight in the world 

'TV* rohlem of old, u With what art thou Dot weary ■ frith 

delectable ? Jo gain." What is it, trow you, that makes 
man labour all his lifetime, carry such great burdens, fare so hardly, macerate 
and ii ■ such base offices with so great palicnce, 

rly, and lie down late, if then were not an extraordinary delight in 
g of money ? What makes | merchant that hath no n. i /</r- 

to mi; rid, through all those intemperate '"Zones of heat 

voluntarily • Ten tare his life* and he content with such miserable famine, 

a slinking ship; if there were not a pleasure and hope to gel im 

mm the reat, and mitigate hit indefatigable pains f What makes (hem 
i. an hundred fathom deep, endangering their dearest 
damp** and filthy mih-II». w hill they have enough already, if they could 
labour, but an extraordinary delight tin 
i plausible at tir-t show, a popular and strong argument ; but 
n-idcr better of it, and he shall soon perceive, that it is far 
than he snpposeih ; it may be haply pleasing at the first, as most part all 
fen such men likely have some luvuin uttt nnllci, pleasant symptoms 
i must note that of '* Chrysostorn, w Tis one thing to be rich, 
"generally they are all fools, (lizards, mad-men, "miserable 
-ide-* themselves, sine arte fruendi, in perpetual slavery, fear, 
sorrow, and discontent, flus aloes quam mellis habent ; and are indeed* 
by their money, than poaaeaaon :" as Jl Cyprian hath it, mancipaii 
o in theii goods, as " Pliny ; or as Chrysostorn, asrrt dititi- 
s and drudges to their substance ; and we may conclude of them all, as 
king" of Cyprus, " He was in title a king of that inland, 
mind)) a miserable drudge of money : 




that 




libcttale carena 






lierty, which is better than gold. Damasippus the Stoic, in Horace, 

by fits, some one way, some another, but (hat 

r than the rest ; and he that shall truly look into their 

'> proxl- ruriil merralnr id Itnini. Hor. "Qii«j re rw>n ei 

irrfrle- IimiiiI Uiciuid farirmlo : quid miiime d«lc< 

t- |«.«.r» |l ,, '2 « I Mill ITIIDI lllllll 

fro)..- i DlTlllH ul aplnr atitn.iirn bomlnla Nmoribtn 

IdKil unm-ii!' r-iln. iiidlnJbna. anforlhm inlrincc punfanl, vriinl. <ru- 
re| in b in. «i. ad Dona I tip. 2. 

» 1.1b. P ■ »I.ib 9 tap. 4 tn»ul» n- . 

lie maiiripiiiiii. 
10. lib 1. * Danda en bellebon u.ulio pin mia> 
mi araria. 



Ida 



• 1 U* »V AbdeMl 



I l-.IIH 



■ 
-iLiiuj... 



Causes of Melancholy. 



[Part. |. 




states, and examine iheir symptoms, shall fad no better of them, hut that they ore 
all * fools, as Nabal was, Re rl mmdm I 1. Vtf'g. 15). For what greater follv can 
there be, or "madness, than to macerate himself when he need 00t? and when. 
Cyprian notes, " M he may be freed from his burden, and eased of Ids pains, e il! 
en still, his wealth increasing, u hen lie hath enough, to get more, to live baaj 
himself."' 1,1 starve his getthtSj keep hark from his wife *ud children, neither letti 
them nor Other friends use or enjoy that which is theirs by right, and which A 
much need perhaps; like a hog, or dog in the manger, he doth only keep it. he caa 
it shall do nobody else good, hurling himself ami others : and for a little m o 
pelf, damn his own soul ? They are commonly sad and tetric by nature, us Achat) 
spirit was because be COOld! not get Nahotlfs vineyard, (I. Reg. 22.) ami if he lay 
out his money at any time, though it be to necessary uses, to his own children's 
good, he brawls and scolds, his heart is heavy, much disquieted he is. and loath 
part from it : Miter abst'met it t imet ulu llor. He is of'B wearish. drv, pule consti- 
tution, aiul cannot sleep for cares and worldly business ; his riches, sail h Solomon. 
will not let him Bleep, and unnecessary business which he heapeth on himself; or if 
he do sleep, 'tis a very unquiet, interrupt, unpleasing sleep: with his bags in bis 
arms, 

"congeitla Undiqtie •ace 

tndortuit iriliioua," — ^— 

And though he be at a banquet, or at some merry feast, u he sighs for gre 
(as "Cyprian hath it) and cannot sleep though it be upon a down bed; his wearish 
body lakes in > rest, "troubled in his abundance, and sorrowful in plenty. 
for the present, and more unhappy in the life to come." Basil. He is a perpetual 
drudge," restless in his thoughts, and never satisfied, a slave, a wretch, u dust-worm. 
temper quod idolo .™ inuMiwty te&uhu obn mii y Cypr. prolog, mi srrmon, still seat- 
ing what sacrifice he may ofikr to his golden goOjperfa* ti nefat, fa h<w. 
his tronbh is endless, *eretcuai diviiiee^ lamen curtte netcio quid t emp e r et 
his wealth incroaseth, and the more he hath, the more ** he wants : like Pharaoh 1 * 1 
lean kme, which devoured Lhe fat, and were not satisfied. "Austin therefore define* 
covi t onani IS, (f}nirinjiliftft rrruri inlmmstam ct insatiabilem atpitlitati in, >\ dishoB- 
eBt and insatiable desire of gain; and in one of his epistles compares it to hell; 
"•* which devours all, and yet never hath enough, a bottomless pit," an ei 
misery; hi <{u<ni teoputwn uvurifiiP cadmerosl tenet tstphtrim&m mmtngitnl, and thai 
which is theit greatest corrosive, tbey are in continual suspicion, fear, a 
Il<' thinks his own wife and children arc so many thieves, and go about to cozen 
him, his servants are all false : 

" Rem »uam perilane, acquis emilirnrier, 
Ei i: i:i i tiim.it mnliiiuft fidem, 

1>C •»■> UftUo »i qua exit funis." 

Tiinidus Plutus, an old proverb, As fearful as Plutus : so doth Aristophanes and 
Lnctaii hritig him in fearful still, pale, anxious, suspicious, and trusting no tna 
""They are afraid of tetnpeets for their corn; they arc afraid of their mt 
tliey should ask something of them, beg or borrow ; they are afraid of thi i 
lest they hurt them, thieves lest they roll tlieui ; they are afraid of war and afraid 
peace, sfmid of rich and afraid of poor; afraid of nil." Last of all, they are afraid 
want, that they shall die beggars, which makes them lay up still, ant! dare in I t- 
they have : what if a dear year come, or dearth, or some loss ? and were it not that ] 
they are loth to m lay out money on a rope, they would be hanged forthwith, awl 
uuetimes die to save charges, and make away themselves, if iluir corn and cati 






" If his doors rreek, then out he ert"» i 
Hiii goods are gone, and he la quite 



■Lutce 'H 1 1 smile, har nnrte rripiiun unimam 

im. 'i'-« qiitdein mnrUlitius aunt dementia. 

™Bd.9 lib. 2. BSonerare rum sc |nw,it 

el rrlevare piiitderihiii pergil maim (iiruinli .im;<-i,ii- 

btM p. urn ii >!-i ujeubar*. *Non unlets, Don It- 

ii iji-i aitii qutdquam inipertit, possirfel ad hoc 

tiMtiiiii, in' | Idere alteri Ureal. &r. tlieron. ad 

A .-.- quod kabal i|«i .1 in quod ni>n halu-t. 

l.ir.ii in risiinn.i Inlinl hrrt ifih- 

nn* rl Into in orpui • nliliili ill, viti- 

lal in pluina. -' AtifttslaUUi ex abundanl'ia. eon- 

trinininr • < npiilenlia, info-lit priiscMiilliu, hnnla, in- 

i lr luliiria. "lllurum rouiiiitio nun«jjan> 



reaaat qui pecuniaa supplere diliirum '.m 
IS, c 17. » llor. 3. Od. it. Quo pt<t- 



Inner, tr 
»unl (Hit* 
itlHMUr iii|iiit. ll at an 

kuIii* ille proximua ncredal. qui nunc ■ ■ 
linn. »I.il>. 3 ill' lib. arbil Imi 

amare apneacli babendi. M Avarus i 

■tmilla, A:c. modurai nun linbet, h»c e^riii 
tuihet. "■ Krnain. Ailat cllll. 3 

NnJIi tiilriilfti mtiriiiiiii ("otinidaii 
malum vocal Burlpldei : nietuunl ■ 
iiicntuin, aiuicna ne rnient, tniml' <>■. ■« lTd*< 
nc rapiant, heltum tiiuenl. paean luueut, 
nn.di'1*, inflno*. ■ IJ ill t'liar. 



*. 13] 



f Gaming', 8fC. 



179 




■imny; thoe have abundance left, as "Agellius notes. * Valerius n 

of one that in a famine Bold a mottM for 300 pence, and famished bimi 
are their cares, *' griefs and perpetual G are. Tbi ae sj mptoi 

by Theophraatus in Ids chejectex of a covetous man; ""lying in bed. he 

ia wife i >he shut the trunks and cheats fasl .iled, 

whether th»- ii.di door be bolted ; and though she say all is will, In riseU) out 

bad ■ rt, barefoot and barelegged] to see whether il he so, with a dark 

BBTrhing- every corner, scarce Bleeping a wink all nighc" Luciarj 

i and winy dialogue called Gnlltis, brings m MycUlua ihe coblei 

limes Pythagoras; whereafter much sperch pro and coo, to 
the happiness of a mean estate, and discontents of a rich man, Pythagi 

■ illustrate by examples that which he had said, brings him to 
OHM at midnight, and after thai i<» Eucrutcs ; whom 
• . j up their accounts, and telling of their money, "lean, dry, 

|aW and anxious, still suspecting lest somebody should make a hide through 
nU,aml »■ t if a rat or moose did bat stir, starting upon a sudden, and ron- 

anf lo the door to see whether all were fast. I'lanuis, in his Aulularia, maki I "Id 
li via his wife to shut the doors last, and the firetobepul 
•dv should make that an errand income to his bouse : ■hen he washed his 
he was loath to fling away the foul water, complaining thai be was undone, 
the smoke got oul of his root'. And sj he wini rron hoi \ a crow 

h upon the muck-hill, returned in all haste, taking it for malum omen, an ill 
•fit. I f was digged up; with nuuiy such. He that will but observe their 

•hall rind these and many such passage- Dot feigned lor sport, but really per- 
veniied indeed by such covetous and miserable wretches, and lhat it is, 

«• " mi»infi»la (ihrr^nr,,, 

l i toeaplat norlaiti »-«■« mi >iverc folo." 

madness, to live like a wieteh, and die rich. 



. XIII. — Lore of Gaming, fyc. and pleasures immoderate ; Causes. 

ioW to si' erable wretches, oss shall 

Bart ig for an alms, lhat have been well 

•ecauVi!. and loan limes in flourishing estate, now ragged, tattered, and ready fa 

fid life, in discontent and grief of body and mind, ami 
•i immoderate lust, gaming, pleasure and riot. Tis the o 1 of 

si «ensoal epieurca tad brutish prodigals, that are stupilied and carried away bt 
■: " i'!i I'-i-ir several pleasures and lostS. CebeS in hi- table, St. Ambrose in Ins 

tenod h»>ok of Abel and ('am, and ainongai the rest Locian in Ins tract <>■ Mercr.de 
amia,\'i*. hath excellent well deciphered such nn -dings in his picture of 

Opclcntia, whom In dw< ll on the top of a high mount, much son 

by niaav ruiiors ; at their first coming they are generally entertained by pleasure 
ill the content that possibly may he given, so long ■ their 
- (ail, they are contemptibly thrust out a; a I aek 
4*x. headlong, and there hft to shame, reproach, despair. Lnd be at first that bad 
w nunj ■ , and followers, young and lusty, richly arrayed, and 

ight be had, with all kind of welcome and good re* 
ipt of nil, "pale, naked, old, diseased and forsaken, cun 
. and reaii- If; having no other company but 

ow, c.ncC derision, beggary, and contempt, which are his daily attendants to bis 
on had exquisiti music, merry con pany, dainty litre at 







-n Mall ll »i»lo. or raunr qtitd<]tinin fit qqod I- 

• in ciMMMM. Burnt I 81 < rental i 

nun B«ri~> '• 

Mqar «b aarn ma nl>nmdaiu aM nnl.i : Kimi. I 






l«otla In, ' i—i '■'" oiutt- 









180 



( idioly. 





first ; but a sorrowful reckoning in the end ; so have ull such vnin delights and their 
followers. *'Tristcs voluptti'viu <-jiius, el qui&quis volujttatum suarum reminisci 
volct< intelligei, as bitter as gall and Witt wood is their last ; grief of mind, madness 
The ordinary rock? upon which such men <lo impigne and precipitate thein- 
•. are ranis, dice, hawks, and hound*, hi.tnniim tcnundi studium* one calls it, 
kt sithsinictioncs : their mad structures, disports, plays, &c, when they arc un- 
wably used, imprudently handled, and beyond their fortunes. Some men i 
! by mad fantastical buildings, by making galleries, cloisters, terraces, wal 
"ii hards, gardens, pools, rillets, bowers, and such like places of pleasure; Inuiih 
ftoiiis, ^'Aenophou calls them, which howsoever they be delightsome tin 
themseives, and acceptable to alt beholders, an ornnment, and benefitiing B 
■n ; vet unprofitable to others, and the sole overthrow of their < ■>•-. 
lti his observations hath an example of such a one that became melancholy upon the 
like occasion, baring consumed his substauee in u unprofitable building, which 
would afterward yield him no advantage. Others, 1 say, are Sl overthrown hv those 
mad sports of hawking and hunting; honest recreations, and tit for MOM gn .! men, 
but not for every base inferior person; whilst they will maintain their falconers, 
. and hunting nags, their wraith, sailh "Salmulze, "runs away with hounds, 
and their fortunes fly away with hawks. 1 ' They persecute beasts so long, till in 
the end they themselves degenerate into beasts, as M Agrippa laxcth them, "Aclaei 
like, for as he was eaten to death by his own dogs, so do tiny devour therm 
their, patrimonies, in such idle and anneoesaary disporta, neglecting in the mean 
their more necessary business, and to follow their vocations. Over-mad 
times are our great men in delighting, and doting loo much on it. " u When 
drive poor husbandmen from their tillage,'" as "Sarisburiensis objects, Poh/crat. I. 
e. 1. filing down country farms, and wdiole towns, to make parks, and foresl 
starving men to feed beasts, and "punishing in the mean lime such a man thai sh; 
moles! their game, more severely than him thai is otherwise a common hacker, Of 
notorious thief. 1 ' But great men are some ways I o be excused, the mes 
have no evasion why they should not be counted mad. Poggius the Florentine ie 
a merry story to this purpose, condemning the folly and impertinent bu 
such kind of persons. A physician of Milan, saith he, that cured mad mi 
pit of water in his house, in winch he kept his patients, some up to the kn 
10 the girdle, some to the chin, pro mndo insania:,VLS they were more or less afleCl 

them by ehanee, that was well recovered, stood in the doo. mg a 

hint ride by with a hawk on his list, org}] mounted, with his spaniels after hi 
needs know to what use ull this preparation served ; he made answer to kill cert 
; the palieur demanded again, what his fowl might be worth which he kill 
in a year; he replied 5 or 10 crowns; and when he urged him farther what 

home, and hawks stood him in, he told bim 4ll0 crowns; with tin 
bent had be gone, as he loved his life and welfare, for if our master come 
thee here, he will put thee in the pit amongst mad men up to the chin : I 
madness and folly of such vain men that spend themselves in those idle spo 

ling their business and necessary allairs, Leo decinius. that hunting 
imirli r!i>. ommended by ^Jovius in his life, for his immoderate desire of hawk 
and bunting, in so much that (aa he saith) he would sometimes live about CM 
weeks anil months together, have suitors '"un respected, bulls and pardons , 
to Ins own prejudice, and many private men's loss. *° u And if lie had been hv chaj 
crosse.-! in his sport, or his game not so good, he was so impatient, that he we 




•» ll.).ihnn. '« In Orr.iin.in Quid ftl mine oatrn- I 

: .|i<i unfit* vl nrgentl ■! -ihub inuiilra cdifi- 

ciin, luqnll s «> 8«ri#liurlrn<i» I'nlyrml. 

• ti II o iritiirr* nmttc? ndhMC ifisllltilliiiitfNi rrrin- 

iiii lici" Invenlnir qutti|iiant enrum 

n, c( til cmln •obrina' 

unij'i ,in e.iniir I Ht. M nvnlanl opM cum 

»' Insii-iiij venatorum atulilita, «i mpar. | 

w.irani n en , qui - 1 • i • ■ • ninniui vi'iint i.inl Inala- 

.unt. Ipa "ii limnanllale in fern* ite. 

ut Ail-on. fcc .Inn. in Oviil M.-nmnr. 

' Arri|i|iu ili< v mil selrnt. lii.itiinii vi'niimli mini iiiii, 
di'm 4 ih'V illhua iircrnliir aerirnla* siihtrahunl prn-il la , 
•Uxlicu, agrimlonui przcludumur cylvc el pran pu- 



inribua ut suB'Tiiilur paacua foria. V 

ren* agrlcola •■ puai.iol. ••Am - 

rpntur (itru oltr, (linn rem httbeaul vaiandi 

Inn: l(iU«. ill p.ieiua augcaniur praMtla nuhn 

to. Sartabarii "Ftn* qu • 

rqiiinre*. I ainM de Cuil. Cinq qui 36 1 

inalrltei depopulutiia c»t id fori ii 

Paria '•Tom. 8 do viil* HloMrhlM, I 

Laaak III. *» Vonalioiillni* iuti" |«nli(. ■ 

pi ■HCtiplhl. '"Ami iiildii Her unions inn imp 

liana hidn, in tunnmi iirpe viroe ac*>rbia*ii 

i... in- .,,M-r ir-l, it Incrcdibllfl e»l quail rullua .min 

que tiubiiu doloreiu uacuudiaiiique pra-lcici. k.t. 




ho, 13.] Love of Gaming. 181 

miscall many times men of great worth with most bitter taunts, look so 
be to angry and waspish, so grieved and molested, that it is incredible to relate 
But if he had good sport, ma I" en well pleased, on the other side, 

with unspeakable bounty and munificence he arootd reward nil h 
and deny nothing to any suitor when he was in that mood. To 
His the common humour of nil gamesters, as Galataeus observes, if they win. 
ae era living axe ao jovial and merry, but *'if they lose, though it be but a I 
t»© «>r three games at tables, or a dealing at cards for two pence a game, they are so 
teaty that no man may speak with them, and break many times into 
p as s ions , oaths, imprecations, and iinlwawining speeches, Hide differing from 
for die Ufc Generally of all gamesters and gaming, if it be exct 
ranch we may conclude, tlmt whether they win Of toss fox the present, their 
are not Alwtrra fartuna, ted insidicc, as that wise Seneca determines, not 
:. 'fta, but baits, the common catastrophe is "beggary, " Ul patu ptfat*), sir. 
lizait aU a pceuniam, as the plague takes away life, doth gaining goods, for u omius 
tmiu mopes tt t£l 

■"Alea Srvlla vorai. pprcin rrrtimima fcirti. 

intenta l~ini» aiiniiiim «|nin|iif | »• t H . 1 .1 mergit, 
FtOkla, furax. infinm. inert, Turiora, runia." 

Fora Utile pleasure they take, and some small gains and getting* now and then, their 

wives and children are ringed in the meantime, and they themselves with loss of 

Wiry and eotd rue it in the end. I will say nothing of those prodigious prodigals, pcr- 

4nia pecunia genii os, as he * taxed Anthony, Qui patrimonium am mla fori rabtm- 

masmUtuni. Faith "Cyprian, and "mad Syberitiea] spendthrifts, Qaifita mm <••'.-.•- 

test patrimonia ctrnn , that eat up all at a breakfast, at a supper, or amongst btv 

~es, and players, consume them*) Lvsa m U instant, as if they had llung it into 

• ith great wages, vain and idle expenses, &.C., not themselves only, but even 

ill 6ru friends, as a B rat. ly swimming drowns him that comes to help him, 

by •srvtYolup a h ing they \s ill willingly undo all their associates and allies. 

'Inttt preunLiti as he snilh, angry with their money; 7, "what with a wanton CI 

tongue, and a gamesome hand, when they have indiscreetly impoverished 

mortgaged then a its, logethei with their lands, and entombed their u :.. 

■•sessions in their bowels, tie j no ij lead the rest of their days in prist n. 

timet they do ; they repeat at leisure ; and when all is gone begin to be 

but Sera est in J 'undo parsimonw, 'lis then too late to look about; their 

m misery, sorrow, shame, and discontent. And well they deserve to be infa- 

and discontent. ' 3 C(tiamidiari in jimphithcatro, as by Adrian the emperor's edict 

Bsy were of" old, decoctortt bnnorum morum, so he calls them, prodigal fools, to be 

sasbely ahameii. ted out of all societies, rather than to be pitied or relieved ' 

ise Tuscans and Boetians brought their bankrupts into the market-place inn bier 

»ua an empty parse carried before them, all the boys following, where they sat all 

ixs rxtrumitan: be infamous and ridiculous. At" J Padua in Italy they have 

• stone called Lb »l turpitude, near the senate-house, where spendthrifts, and 

asm as dttdaim non-payment of debts, do lit with their hinder parts bare, that (>y 

oCdugrare Others may be lernlied from all tUCfa vain expense, or borrowing 

they caii till how to pay. The n civilians of old set guardians over such 

'-.a* th*Jf (fid over madmen, to moderate their expenses, that they 

not so loosely consume their fortunes, to the utter undoing of their families. 

not hrreoinit those two main plagues, and common dotages of human kin!, 

sad women, which have infatuated and besotted myriads of people ; they gc 

ly together. 

""Qui vino imlulfrt. qnemque alea deroquit, illc 
In Vcncrein ['Uirrf 



' — I m ail— ■ h»»f » natura in«tlume«t. aldntaal 
\ • «< <t n*| 't *J«*I 



Sa iii ilu4i.hu, L mm. in c Uiligrfo. 




Spmiitiui'iiin ml •*• liatuinl furiir*m. el in.pt 
nrutna rtvna furnini fuiurn i-i dJve/anria, L'hrya. t 
"Pnacaaiu. Juataa I. IdcKlra. **Senoea. 
n In Sal II. s< • /iimpna : ot rr.«rriil« tola 

nam i exitui — i 
I a. A.irim.i. H Akl »!'• Ai- 

if, lib. '>. Ore. disc. 
Ii*. 
I hat the tie mnii 
■-»«J h> veuerjr." 



Causes of Melancholy. 



Pan. 1. 



Sec. I 



mm is sorrow, saith Solomon, Pro. xxiii. 39, to whom is woe, but to such i 
U love* drink? it causeth torture, (vino tortus et ird) and bitterness of i 
ijtrtc 8 ! . 21. Vnnnii fur oris, Jeremy calls it, 15. cap. wine of madness, as well lie 
. for insanirc facit sanos, it makes sound men sick and sad, and wise DMO "'mad, 
10 say ami do liny know not what, Accidii hodie terribilis cams (saith W S. A 
hear ■ miserable accident; Cyrillus 1 son this day in his drink, Mali 
nrqui't r <>]>j>r , m rinlarc voluil, patrem accidit feri\ ft duns alius M 

rlriu vulnernrit. would have violated his sister, kilfpd his father, 8tr. \ 
saying it was of him. Vino dari Ictlitiam et dolorem, drink causeth mirth, and dri 
causeth sorrow, drink causeth "poverty and want," (Pmv. xxi.) shame and 
Mulli ignobiles coascre ob vini potum, el (Austin) amissis honoribus profit a. 
run! : ninny men have made shipwreck of their fortunes, and go like rogues ai 

t, having turned nil their subs latice into aurum polnhile, that otherwi- 
have lived in good worship and happy estate, and for a lew hours 1 pleasure, for thei 
Hilary term's but short, or w free madness, as Seneca calls it, purchase unto thei 
selves eternal tediousness and trouble. 

That other madness is on women, Apostatare facit cor, saith the wise man. 
hmniui cerebrum mintut. Pleasant at lirst she is, like Dioscorides Hhododapliiip.it) 
Eur plant to the eye, but poison to the taste, the rest as bitter as wormwood in i 
end (Prov. v. 4.) and sharp as a two-edged sword, (vii. 27.) " Her house is the way 
to lull, and goes down to the chambers of death.'" What more sorrowful can be 
said? they are miserable in this life, mad, beasts, led like u "oxen to the slaughter" 
and thai which is wane, whoreinasters and drunkards shall be judged, ami! 1 
(MM, Hthfa Austin, pirdunt gloriam, incurrunt damnatinncm ozternam. They UN 
grace and glory; 

•» * lirevi« ilia volupraa 

Abrogat elvmuin cidi ifccua" 

they gain hell and eternal damnation. 

I MA. — -Pkiiftutia^ or Self-love, Vain-glory, Praise, Honour, Immodera 
Applause, Pride, over-much Joy, fyc, Causes. 

Self-love, pride, and vain-glory, "cacus amor sui, which Chrysostom calls onr rf 
die devil's three great nets; **" Bernard, an arrow which pierceth the soul through, 
and slays it; a sly, insensible enemy, not perceived," are main causes. V. 
neither anger, lust, covetoaenen, fear, sorrow, &.c, nor any other perturbation ran 
lay hold; this will slily and insensibly pervert us, Quern non gala ricit, Philautia, 

:!i Cyprian i whom surfeiting could not overtake, self-love hath i 
come. * u He hath scorned all money, bribes, shifts, upright otherwise and sincere, 
I', i inserted himself to no fond imagination, and sustained all those tyrannic;]! 
Cnpteceneei of the body, hath lost al! his honour, captivated by vain-glory. 1 " Chry- 
•ostom* tup. I». Tu sofa ammum mentemqm prruris, gloria. A great aaai 
HM of our present malady, although we do most part neglect, take no notice of it 
ihis is a violent batnrer of our souls, causeth melancholy and dotage. This pl< 
N{aa**irTg huinour; this soft and whispering popular air. Amabilis insania ; this d< li 

frenzy, most irrefragable passion, Mentis gralissiwus error* this acceptable disease, 
which so sweetly seti lipon us, ravislieth our senses, hills our souls asleep, puf&up 
.mi hearta bi to manj bladders, and thai irithont all feating, *iMotnuchaa*lfc 

thai are inisalT'ected with iu micr so much a> once pnveive it. or think of ai 
We commonly love him beat in this "malady, that doth us most harm, and are w 
willing to be hurl; an ultitumihm nostris libenliir favemus (saith "Jerome ) we l««v 
him, we love him lor it: "0 B»nci<iri sttdve, suave fin/ a ft tali Iutc Irihm , T»j 
io hear it. And as "Pliny doth ingenuously confess to bis dear frie ■ 



.i I'm goat) ilnm In qua »*\k nanfnagiinn la- 

mi Pro*. 

rnnij<-*.cUil.4.<enl. 1 Pm. 41. n 8«r.nai 

Ljaeiat -in ios ban "■•aniuin 

* Mi'lmi'lfr, 

* Pi ii i i ea e. " 1 

mn Mali out r !■>• aternal |tnrj W » anavonly lifc" 
»' l|..r w S«*iti» n»» ammani |H'nr(rut, lovitH 

pcuttnl, ted nvii ton mlhgil vulnu«*uj>. caul. "Uui 



Sinnciil pi'i'iimarum c«iiHi'iii|ilinii Iib'kmiI, *\ n 
cllinliiinif lnli'is iii'imli *r iumil*VTirriiil, "I I 
carport ■ euncupiAarnliaaicuaUniM'rinl.hi mull 
a vana elnrm omnia pordMaruaa. " lla< com 
i ..- < i << '•■ dd Mi ■ Uii • 

■J l.ypi. Ep ail Iliiiirinfiiiiii. "tip lili. V. O 
liuli hirniua exiauuiu, mantiM tam«a i 
de nobia. 




> II 



Villi a: 5 lf-toee, SfC. 



Ift-'i 



»»»U l!iy writing* are most ;i but llicisc especially lljal speak of US." 

ia Maximus, -'•• I cannot > xpress bow pleasing it is t.i me to hear 
tU rommrni!i<! M Though we smile t<» o . at Nasi Lroniealljt when (iara- 

omiums, as many princes cannot choose but do, Quum 
uir quid nihil intra te r> pert rial, when they know they corneas far short, as a mouse 
loan rlrphauii, <jI any such virtues; yet it doth us good. Though we seem 
ones to be angry, "**and blush at our own praises, yet our souls inwardly rejoice, 
it pafls us up;'" y Xu/allar suanhis, blandus damon, "makes us swell beyond our 
bound*, ami forget ourselves." Ilr i w.i <laughters are lightness of mind, imfli 

. do! ex. hiding those other concomitant vices, which "lodocus 
Lore rmcr, hypocrisy, peevishness, and curiosity. 

Now the common cause of this mischief, ariscth from ourselves or others, **we 

«t s< passive, h proceeds inwardly from ourselves, as we are active causes, 

ban n» ••■•• .. •■ mimj) conceit we have of our good parts, own worth, (whiol indeed 

our, grace, valour, strength, wealth, patience, mi . kness, 

ity. beauty, temperance, gentry, knowledge, wit, science, art, learning, our 

aincs, for which. Narcissus-like, we ailmire. flatter, and a|»- 

vea, and think all the world esteems so of us; and as deformed women 

bat t» 11 them they be fair, we are too credulous of our own good 

uses, too well persuaded of ourselves. We brag and venditate our "own 

all others in respect of us; Inftuti scienita, (esith Paul; our wis- 

■ning, all our geese are swans, and we as basely esteem and vilify other 

Den's, as we do over-highly prize and value our own. We will not suffer them to 

i* vv-un./x. no, not M lirtns; what, Jl fcc— I ronl'rrlur ' lliey are JMbflSti 

Mutttl. tvhets pnr sf, nits and llies compared to In-. me\. cable anil Hipcrcdious, 

irrojjMiit worship* ihOQgfa indeed they bl lar before him. (Jul". 

i , valorous, and fair, pulled up with this tympany of self-con- 
ceit; "as that proud pharieee, they are not (as they suppose i " like other inni."' of 
i purer and more prteiotM metal : ' Soli rei gerendi sunt tjtowoo&f which that wise 
.: x medittmlur omnn qui prius negoliumyhjd JV»ci quendam 
I so arrogant that he thought himself inferior to no man 

philosopher, that neither held Alexander's acts, or any 
; um pen, such was his insolency; or Seleucus king of Syria, 
to contend with bin bat the Romans. *Ens solus ttfjptM mtus 
de imperio crrlurrt. That which Tully writ to Aniens Ions; since, is still 
yet true poet nor orator, that thought any other better 
- ib lor the in ist part are your princes, potentates, great philo- 
oriographers, authors of sects or heresies, and all our great scho. 
'Mirrum ilennes ; *a natural philosopher is a glorious creature, and a very slave of 

rumour, fiune, and pepttlai opinion f n end tl gb they write de c<>ni>-mpiu florim^yei ss 

w ill put their names to their books. Vohlt el fames mt $cmper >I> </», 
•sab Trrbrli holly consecrau tl myself to yon and fame. •• 

is all my study to raise my name.* 1 Proud T Pliny eeeondl 

Bin; Qvamquam <> Bu and "rious 'orator is not ashamed to confess 

ia an Lnritl- Irdeo incrcdiliili ru/ii'li'tat' , N.c. •* I burn 

»u men tame registered in thy book, Out of this foun- 

ptO Ci rd all those cracks and brags. l0 spr ramus cur/itimi fui.ji ." mta 

trrvanda cuprcsso — ■ — JVba untutn wc tinui f>rnr jtrnna. n < in 

trrra mutrat.or longius. AU purvuin nut hunuli Stedo, nil mOTtaiU lofU Of . Dicnr qua 
riWrnj o6tirtf.it .iusiduts. Exegi monumtnlum are perennius. lumquc opus cxegi. 



-iL « 
»« uiu-» Si Uc 
. I »-•«. IV I" 



ini in 

I ||M u|.. 
U<lu Kripaii, «t 



Alexamlri (rata inf. r .-.-i, |„. 

V.wnu* lib. I ' 

nin. IImh ij in)ii <■ in l'"i u aiii Oralui ■; 

quam w ni< I> rini ^riiitrrirrtur 'C'oiimiI, nl l'.n 

macliium iinimli ehilna>>chiif (lone animal, ri iKipiila.. 

11* aunr ,'i rumo'iim vcnalr nianriiii.ini. < 

-.... Di<-t><i< ar 

ira Inj la VMOaar«. Mtdu-it, aW. 

I [ '■•-•■■■• li iiiriiin — -ri|,l>«. Ini> i In 

M.italla, ll»rU» «l l!l>« anfCV 

baiur. II. .. »n 

" Cat, Vil. I. X Jauiquc opus ix . 
lb. 1-. 



184 C<W86$ of Mtlomck [Part- 1 . Sec. 2. 

quod nee Juris irn, nee i^nis, ttc. cum venit ilk dies, &.c. parte tamrn meliorr met 

super alia perrnuis nstra ferar, nomenque crit indelebih nostrum. (This of Ovid 1 

paraphrased in English.) 



" And when t nm dead and gone, 
Mi i orfjat ' n'l "iiiilcr a iiona 
K] l.nuc shall yel survive. 



And I (lull he alive. 

In tin** an v wurk» for evrr. 

My (lory » h o 1 1 pefaevef," fcc 



Ami ihat of Enuius, 

■ V inn me lachrymi» rteenret, nrque funera fletu 
Paxil, cur? vulitu ilocln per ora virum." 

kt Let none shed tears over me, or adorn my bier with sorrow — because I am eter- 
nally in the mouths of men." With many such proud strains, and foolish Hushes 
too common with writers. Not so much as Democharis on the "Topics, but he 
will be immorlal. IVportUJ defama\ shall be famous, and well lie i!< 
he writ of fame; and evcrv trivial poet must be renowned, — — U P petit 

cltieisreer i-t//^/.'"' k ' lie seeks the applause of the public." This puffing humour 
is, thai hath produced so many great lorries, built such famous monuments, slrot 
castles, and Mausolean tombs, to have their acts eternised, u DigiiO monsfrari, 
dicier hie est;" "Mo be pointed at with the finger, and to have it said 'there 
goes,'" to see their names inscribed, as Phryne on the walls of Thebes. I'hry 
fecit ; this causelh so many bloody battles, u £t nodes OQgU oigilart ■ 
"and induces us to watch during calm nights. 1 ' Long journeys, u Mag1t>m iter it 
tendo, sed dot mihi gloria vires," u I contemplate a monstrous journey, but the lo 
of glory strengthens me for it," gaining honour, a little applause, pride, self-love, 
vain-glory. This is it which makes them take such pains, and break out into those 
ridiculous strains, this high conceit of iheuisrlvi IS, to '"scorn all others; ridicu 
fastu et intolerando conic mpt u ; as "Palamon the grammarian contemned V'arr 
tecum et natas et moriturus litems jadans, and brings them to that height of into- 
lency, that they cannot endure to be contradicted, "or hear of anything but their own 
commendation," which Hierom notes of such kind of men. And as "' Aumiij well 
seconds him, *' His their sole study day and night to be commended and applauded." 
When as indeed, in all wise men's judgments, tptibus cor sapii, they are "mad, empty 
vessels, funges, beside themselves, derided, ct ut Came I us in prove r bio qu<;r, m 
nun, vtiam quits ha be bat aitrcs amisit^ "their works are toys, as an alni.it! < 
date, ' 9 outhnris pereunt garruUtittc sui y they seek fame and inuuortaliiy, but nap di: 
honour and infamy, they are a common obloquy, fff ffttffff. and come far short of thai 
which they suppose or expect. w O puer ut sis vitalis mctuo, 



ity 



' ll.nv tiuirli t dread 



Thy dayi are uliurl, gome lord shall strike llioe dead." 

Of so many myriads of poets, rhetoricians, philosophers* sophisters, as *'Eusebi 
well observes, which have written in former a«;es, scarce one of a thousand 
remains, nomina et libri simul cum corporibus uitcrirrinit, their books ami bodies I 
perished together. It is not as they vainly think, they shall surely be admired a 
immorlal, as one told Philip of Maccdon insultingly, after a victory, that his shadow 
was no longer than before, we may say to them, 



" No* demirnmur, wd nnn cum dr-si<Ju vulpo. 
Bed velut Harpy**. C»rgoiiaa h el Punaa." 



1 We marvel loo, nol a* ihe tuIrj.i 
Bui a* we Gorgon*, Har|ne«, ur 1 



5 

nd 






Or if we do applaud, honour und admire, quota pars, how small a part, ta 
of the whole world, never so much as hears our names, how few take notice i 
how slender a tract, as scant as Alcibiades 1 land in a map! And yet every ni.m must 
and will be immortal, as he hopes, and extend his fame to our antipodes, when as 
half, no not a quarter of his own province or city, neither knows nor bean of him' 
but say they did, what's a city Lo a kingdom, a kingdom to Europe. Europe to the 
world, the world itself that must have an end. if compared to the leasi visible star in 
the firmament, eighteen times bigger than it? and then if those stars be infinite, ui 
there lie a sun, as some will, and as this sun of ours hath his planets abo' 
him, all inhabited, whut proportion bear we to them, and where 's our glory ? On 



» In lll». P. "De ponlo dejicwe. 

lit), drgrnm. i»\ilitl IthelMef audiunl. nipi lande* 

mti. i« R|iii. 5fv Nihil Blind die* nuclmque eogi- 

lanl rn.i ut in Kuril ll "in* HudetltUr nli In IbOa. 

"Uuk major duiuviiiia. aut dici, ant exeogilan potnl, 



quam air. nli f lorinin rrunari ' iManiajn i.l-ini doraia 
iniiL'.' i/ir a dm. Austin, cona. Mb. II] 
<'riun*l.i» In the iiiiviI who loM In. rar. wrbtl 
locikinf fir a pair of Inn I. 4. Jl 

»»Iior. Sal. 1, I. ». »» Ub. com. Tnil..* • la. i. 



I. Subv 11 



Vabt-glory, Pride, Jby, Praise. 



Mrs* J.i 

lutimum victor Romania hnhebat, as he cracked in Petronius, all the world was 
•nder Aagustus : nn.l sn in Constantine^s time, Eusebius brags he governed .'ill tho 

world, umrrrtum mundum praelari admodum admimstr/uit, 

tmftrmkwi «*'■ i of Alexander it is given out, the lour monarchies, S.c. when 

at neither Greek* nor Romans ever had the liftconili part of the now known wild. 
MT half of thai which was then described. What bra^gadocioce m th 8] and tre 
3imF ewosa ©reel* hie it nobis scrmo, as M he said, "pudfbil audi nomini.s, how short 



bow little a while doth this fame of ours continue? Every private proi 
every small territory ami city, when we have all done, will yield as generous .spirits, 
t* hravt imrnnjiM iii all respects, as famous as ourselves, Cadwallader m rl 
Rallo in Normal idy. Kolnn Hood and Little John, are as much renowned in Sher- 
vaod, aa Carasr in !!>>m.\ Alexander in Greece, cr his Hepfl 
ssaaitfav poputus in txtmpfttm <•/ admirationem reniet, every town, city, hook, ii full 
af b- i-. senators, scholars j and though "Pllf/OM was a worthy captain, 

• food man, and as they thought, not to be matched in Lacedamioii, yet gj his mother 
•nay mid, p lures habit Sparta Bract/da meliorcs, Sparta had many better tin a than 
r«er he was; and howsoever thou admirest thyself, thy friend, many an obscure i< I- 
km t never took notice of, had he been in place or action, would have done 

owrh better than he or he, or thou thyself. 

i kind of mad men there is opposite to these, that are insensibly mad, and 
know go! of it, such as contemn all praise and glory, think themselves most free, 
»tu»a u indeed they are most mad : calcant scd alio fastu: a company of cynics, 
«rh an are monks, hermits, anachorites, that contemn the world, contemn themselves, 
contemn oil titles, honours, offices : and yet in that contempt are more proud than 
inv own living whatsoever. They are proud in humility, proud in that they are not 
mo dc mm gloria contempta, vaniiis gloriatur, as Austin hath it, con- 
lp. 38, like Diogenes, inttts glorianiur, they bras: inwardly, ami feed 
nanm-lvr* fat with a self-conceit of sanctity, which is no better thai) bypoctiay. 
TVt go ra sheep's russet, many great men that might maintain themselves in cloth 
\ md seem to be dejected, humble by their outward Carriage, when H iil- 
■vdly Uiev are swoln full of pride, arrognncy, and self-conceit. And tlierefore 
&aeee advisoth his friend Lucilius, "«ia his attire n , outwanl ueiioaa. 

■penally to avoid all such things as are BOM u<>i iMc in themselves : as a rugged 
aan\ hirsute head, horrid beard, contempt of money, coarse lodging, and whatso- 
ever leads to fame that opposite way. 1 ' 

madness yet proceeds from ourselves, the main engine which batters us is 

Bom others, we are merely passive in this business : from a company of parasites 

1 Batterers, dial with immoderate praise, and bombast epithets, (losing title-, tolsfl 

■ so bedaub and applaud, gild over many a silly and undeserving man, that 

■ay eJap luru quite out of his wits. Res imprimis viohnta est, as ffieroan notes, this 

Ooeinoo. apptau M violent thing, luudnni placinlfi. a drum, fife, and trumpet 

tie ; that fattens men, erects and dejects them in an instant. v Palma 

Sffcta xmcrum. donata nducil opimum. It makes them fat and lean, as frost doth 

sssjea. "-And who is that mortal man that can so contain himself, that if he be im- 

■eesraleiy commended and applauded, will not be moved?'' Let him be what he 

val, those parasites will overturn him : if he be a kin*:, he is one of the nine won 

a man, a god forthwith, ^cdiclum Domini Deique nostri: and they 

unto 

■>" (Jivin.M si lu patiari* Iiofvrr*, 

I i|Mi aabiuiu* aantaaqtu i,n nimuu ua' 

I" be be s soldier, then Themistocles, Epaimnnndas, Hector, Achillea, duo fuJmina 
icrrarum, Stc, and the valour of both SctptOt is too little for him, he 
a mwiettuimui. multis trophaus < \alura dominus, although 

tleatus, indeed a very coward, a milk-sop," and ;ls he said of \ 

■ 8"»lhur«. »• Pulran. i i I Inle lnuni |m>iluin, «•! qiiicqui.1 ad lanilrm pnrrcra n» 

• ritii' « Kfitl I »ii« ^ IV r. »ijin vrtn lam h*n 

H novii. ul *nin * — i.ln« i 
inn, ■ -,.il ' IT .. Si. ),h 

.ii ttilliujlj rrnl *iiJcun«-ct»Ve attaulu • 




186 



Causes of Jllluncholy. 



[Part. 1. 







postremus in pvgna, primus in fuga, and such a DM as never durst look his enemy 
in the face. 11" he he a big man, then is he a Samson, another Hercules; if he pro- 
nounce a speech, mother Tully or Demosthenes ; as of Herod in the Acts, "the 
voice of God and not of man :" if he can make n verse, Homer, Virgil, ice. And 
then my filly weak patient takes all these culogitims to himself; if he lie a tcbobf 
ho commended for his much reading, excellent style, method, fee*, lie will » viscerate 
himself like a spider, study to death, Lmalfi/as attmjji tiris Jitnonia pennas, pea- 
o>rk-iike he will display all his leathers. If he be a soldier, and so applauded, bit 
valour exiolkd, though it be impar cottgressus,a& that ofTroilus and Achill • / 

in r, he will combat with a giant, run first upon a breach, as another ■ Philippus, 
he will ride into the thickest of his enemies. Commend his housekeeping, and tip 
will beggar himself; commend his temperance, he will starve himself. 

" l>iirinta<inr- urtu, 

QMtiL, el itiitiiinmiin gloria ralcar liabel."" 

he is mad, mad, mad, no woe with him : impatient consortia crt7, he will over 

the M Alps to be lalked of, or to maintain his credit. Commend an ambitious man, 
some proud prince or potentate, si plus ccquo laudeiur (saith M Erasmus) cristas eri- 
git, criiit Itominem, Dcum se puitit, lie lata up his crest, and will be no longer a man 
but a (iod. 

« " nihil e*t quod credere de »e 

Nun amlel «] u u m lAtitlnlur ilii« a?i|na pnlr»tas." w 

How did this work with Alexander, that would needs be Jupiter's son, and go like 
Hercules in a lion's skin ? Domitian a god, " ( Domimut Dens noster sicjitri jubrt.) 
like the I'-rsian kings, whose image was adored by all that came into the city of 
B&byion. Com mod us the emperor was so gulled by his Haltering parasites, that he 
must be called Hercules. ^Antonius the Roman would be crowned with ivy, car* • 
ried in a chariot, and adored for Bacchus. Cotys, king of Thrace, was married to 
41 .Minerva, and sent three several messengers one after another, to see if she were 
come to his bed-chamber. Such a one was ** Jupiter Menerrales, Maximums, Jovia- 
nns I hot ■lest.imis IWculeus, Sapor itie Persian king, brother of the sun anil i 
and our modern Turks, that will he gods on earth, kings of kin;,"', Cod's she 
commanders of all that may be commanded, our kin<rs of China and Tarlarv m this 
present age. Such a one was Xerxes, that would whip the sea, fetter Neptune, stultd 

. and send a challenge to Mount Athos ; and such are many sottish p 
brought into a fool's paradise by their parasites, 'tis a common humour, incident to 
all men, when they are in great places, or come to the solstice of honour, have done, 
or deserved well, to applaud and flatter themselves. StuUitiam sunm proJunr, &.<•., 
(sailh "Platcrus) your very tradesmen if they be excellent, will crack and brag, ami 
show their folly in excess. They have good parts, and they know it, you nerd BCt 
tell ihein of it; out of a conceit of their worth, they go smiling to theniM I 
perpetual meditation of their trophies and plaudits, they run at last quite 
tote their wils." Petrarch, lib. I de conttrnplu mundi, confessed as much of himself, 
and Cardan, in his fifth book of wisdom, gives an instance in a sruiili 
low-citizen of his, "one Galeus de Rubeis, that being commended for refining of an 
instrument of Archimedes, for joy ran mad. Plutarch in the life of ArtriM i\«s. hath 
such a like story of one Cbamus, a soldier, that wounded king Cyrus in buttle, and 
"grew thereupon 60 ""arrogant, that in a short space after he lost his wits," 
men. if any new honour, office, preferment, booty, treasure, possession, or pati mionv. 
I t kupetato fall unto them for immoderate joy, and continual meditation of it, can- 
not sleep * T or tell what they say or do, they are so ravished on a sudden ; am! with 



n l.iviiu Gloria laiituni claim. Hon lift, in moli'ii 
WMtr« til una, i|ihh) roinnU>ti»iiinri»con>pi<-i M-pnaiian- 
irni.« naroffpccuntitrtia, acrafiuin toswil. »"A|i- 

5i iirinr nr.iwt apacti, anil glnry iiu-lnrim mtliin 
t an ntnnrnw iiiipulaa. N *■ I tanciia, *-i wrva* curre 
pnr / ipot. Aoda Allqatd, kc. ui pasrii pi ir.-n«. t\ £§, 
Hainan.' fi •'•«. Juv.Bal. 10. M In mnnir Knoiiu. 

v J i, i n n I. Sat. i, K " There i» nniliing ulncli nver- 

j.hwit will not preaiiine In i.iirieiiir nf itarlf." 
-• Bnl inn. r. IJ in f>"ii>iliano. *>BniMiiijiii. »An- 
i.iiiiM- ii. i :i--!'iiiiii<'rii'vi- pvactul I J brum m palrnn 
«(!• ii. in jn-sii. «-i |irn il.ii He vt- ii'liinvit radlmlUM !«'■- 
<l' 1,1 . i enroll - .1 "Oi.ir- 

iiixjji; succinclua curru Vclul Lilit-r puirf fWtUI M 



Al< tmi.lrir. IVil.r. vnl p.nt. •■ V nuptial 

aiiiini. tenia ftirur* pereiuu, ui nirtliir 

viili'Tntjin mi ill ih'» iii I linluim» vcniKvrl. ' 

Ii I- u l> «Spq«»> 

torque mpirhia furmiin. Liviua Ii. II. < iin.-ul.im r»i. 

vivi<la Hrp«* inirenia, luxuriare imr i*i ei 

Inaque Mawin pvnilui ami*ifg«. Huan 

i iimii j'^H.'iil li'iiiiniiM 
rivi? nohlrr | .1 h in vviilh.i.. in in-truawatl 

(.''Mrlrar iillin Arrlilini'ill* .lirtl prir ln.ll 

'■■ Inunla pattuxxjn n 

tfltlll I.TlHIl 

Ilir. Furliiiinrn r 

Dlrea nb vxiii progrediani iucu Autamaa. 



iinqun rcpeail 




>,.'.-. IS. 



Study, a Cause. 



187 



transported, there is no rule with (hem. E|ttimiiiondn8, therefore, the 
aext day aAer his Leuctrian victory, * came abroad all squalid and subuuss," and 

rno other reason to his friends of so doing, tlinn that he panahrad himeeH the 
before, by reason of his good fortune, to be too insolent, overmuch joyed. That 
■ j fQueen Kaiherine, Dowager of England, in private talk, ( 
licfT^ mat " u she would not willingly endure tbc extremity 
but if n were so, that of necessity she must undergo i ■.. one, 
be in a«)\ i ause comfort was never wanting in it, but still counsel and' 

were defective in the other:" they could not moderate themselves. 




I talk,/* 
uly Of J 

e, she j 

nl urn}' 



misery o. 



of JjBOnungy t>r overmuch study. Wiih a D ig n tUtg * of the 

y Scholars, and why the Aluses are M> Ituuhidy. 

\a btstit. lib. iii. sect. 1. cap. 1. Fcclix Plater, lib. iii. de mentis 

al»iuit. I i. Trad. pott, dr mvlunck. m//. 3, speak Of a M peculiar I'm v, 

• lucii rrnsara by erejetueh study. Fernelius, lib. I, cap. IS, M puts study, rnpaMD 
|*Ui>" . and continual meditation, as an especial cause of madness: and in his 86 
tmnL cites the MM VOnts, Jo. Armlunus, in iil>.\), liluxsis ad Alnansorem* cap. 16, 
aaoegst oilier camM reckon* up stadium vekemens: so doth Levinus Lemnius, lib. 
iiOceul.nat. mirar. lib. I, cap. iii. ""IfaOJ men i.saith lie.i D0CB6 to (his maladv 
by continual " study, and night-waking, and of all other men, scholars are QOOt 
Mt to it:" and such Khasi* adds, ••'thai have commonly the (in est wits." ('<»ii. 
-ilius Ficinus, de saw!, luvnda, lib. I. cap. 7, puis melancholy 
laongwt one < ■ ita principal plagues of students, 'tis a common .Maul unto 

• VJM all. and almost in some measure un iusepurable companion. Varro belike for 
tat cause calls Trtxtes Phihsophos ct I ■ ran, tad, dry, tetric, are common 

spuhrtit to scholars: and "Patritius therefore, in the institution of princes, would 
eothsve them to be great students. For (as Muchiavel holds) study weakens their 
bodira, dulls the spirits, abates their strength arid courage; and good scholars are 
Km good soldiers, winch a certain Goth well perceived, for when his countrymen 
see, and would have burued all their books, he cried out against it, by 

*an mrati mid do it, ''- leave them that plague, which in time will consume 

til tl.nr vigour, and jiirits." The "Turk led Cornutus the next heir 

from the < ause he was so much given to his book: and 'tis the common 

tract of the world, that learning dulls and diminishelh the spirits, and so per conse- 
forms produce lb melancholy. 

Two iii.uu reasons may be given of it, why students should be more in! . 
tlu» malady than others. The one is, they live a sedentary, solitary life, 
fiat from bodily exercise, end those ordinary disports which other men use: and 
BBSiy times tf discontent and idleness concur with it. which is too frequent, they are 
to litis gull on a sudden : but the common cause is overmuch study; 
as " Festus told Paul; hath made thee mad; -lis that other extreme 
wbtch cflecta it. Bo did Trincavelius, lib. 1, consil. 12 and 13, find by his at 

i ills, a young baton, and another that contracted tin.- malady 
by mo vehement study. So Forestus, obscrvat. I. LO, osWrv. 13. in a young i 
tt buttvaine. Unit was mad, and suid Mu he had a Bible in his head :" Marsilius Ficinus 
it tatut. turiul. lib. I, cap. I, 3, t, and lib. 2, cap. 16, gives many reasons, "»• why 
sjadrou dote mote often than others." The first is their n • other men 

aim \[«ii.|»« 3|. Brack 

rwC inr r'-iin-i'iti.* i|ui iwrtn Ha 

vilrvoram lib- ■ i er»plttr» MarlJ.nqiit 1 •piritu* . i 

i. »ll. •!.... >.il.iii ..■ I 1 .til arm . 1'ii. i.uian i.i.i. H' I ii im bid 

: in "Knulu lurk. II. -i. <■■ V 

I.i.i. in.. i. .1 . 

., ,> . I |... I., n- ' 



-* oti tir^lijf^it viuc*«utiir. 
.ii. i. CGuparl 



Causes of Melancholy. 






x. 2. 



look to their tools, a painter will wash his pencils, a smith will look to his hammer 
anvil, forge ; a husbandman will mend his plough-irons, and grind his hatchet if it 
be dull ; a falconer or huntsman will have an especial care of his hawks, hound* 
horcM] dogs, N.c ; a musician will string and unstring his lute, &c. ; only schols 

ii instrument, their brain and spirits (I mean) which they daily use, and by 
which they conga overall the world, which by much study is consumer I saith 

Lucimi ) nc funicnhim nimis inlctuhnda ulitjttandit abrumpas : "See ihon twist nol 
tin ropi so liard, till at length it "break." Facinus in his fourth chap, eft 
other reasons ; Saturn and Mercury, the patrons of learning, they are both dry planets: 
and Origanus assigns the same cause, why Mercurial ista are so poor, and most pari 
beggars; for that their president Mercury bad DO better fortune himself. The desti- 
nies of old put poverty upon him as a punishment; since when, poetry and beggary 
are (icinelli, twin-born brats, insejMirahle companions; 

M"And tolhinloy if every scfinlnr poor; 

GnvusguliJ Irmii I hern runs fcwfflf| to I lie Ixior :" 

Mercury can help them to knowledge, but not to money. The second is contem- 
plation, "** which dries the brain and extinguished) natural heat; for whilst the spirits 
are intent to meditation above in the head, the stomach and liver are left dcxilute, 
and thence come black blood and crudities by defect of concoction, and for vant of 
exercise the superfluous vapours cannot exhale," Sic. The Bame reasons are irpeated 
by Ciomesius, lib. 4, cap. 1,«V sale ^JYymannus oraf. dc Imag.Jo. Voschi.is, lib. 2, 
cap. 5, dc pfste: and something more they add, that hard students are commonly 
troubled with gouts, catarrhs, rheums, cachexia, brudiopepsia, bad eve.J, stone and 
colic, ST crudities, oppilatiotis, vertigo, winds, eonsutiipiions, and all such diseases as 
come by overmuch sitting; they are most part lean, dry, ill-coloured, spend their 
fortunes, lose their wits, and many times their lives, and all through immoderate 
pains, and extraordinary studies. If you will not believe the truth of this, look 
upon great Tostalus and Thomas Aquinas's works, and tell DM whether those mea 
took pains? peruse Austin, Hierom, ficc, and many thousands besi<!< ■-. 

" Qui BUpil ontalam mrsij rnntmerrp tnclam, /■ tlo lhat di'sirrs ihis wished ronl lo Ruin, 

Muli. i tuUl, IMtqM pui-r, auJavit el ulsil." I Must aweat and freeze before be can attain."" 

and labour hard for it. So did Seneca, by his own confession, ep. 8. Mw Not a da) 

that I spend idle, part of the night I keep mine eyes open, tired with waking, and 

DOW slumbering to their continual task." Hear Tully prO Jtrchia Pacta: " whils 

others loitered, and took their pleasures, he was continually at his book," so tie 

that will be scholars, and that lo the hazard (I say) of their healths, fortttDi a, \\n.«, 

and lives. How much did Aristotle and Ptolemy spend? unius regit: 

say, more than a king^s ransom; how many crowns per annum, lo perfect in is, the 

one about his History of Creatures, the other on his Almagest? How much time 

did Tbebet Benchorat employ, to find out the motion of the eighth sphere? fore* 

\ em and more, some write: how many poor scholars have lost their wits, or become 

dizards. neglecting all worldly afliiirs and their own health, wealth, eaM and h m CSSfato 

gain knowledge lor which,after all their pains, in this world's esteem they arc acc< >unted 

ridiculous and silly fool?, idiots, asses, and (as oft they are) rejected, contemned, 

derided, doting, and mad. Look for examples in Hildesheitn s/>ic 1. 2, ilr mania rt 

tUiirio: read Trincavellins, l.'A^eint.til. :tt">, rt <:. 17. Montanus, ctrtatil. 2'.i'A. 

dc Juti:c. genii, cap. 88. Mcrrurialis, consil. 8G, cap. 25. Prosper 7 "t n In* 

Book dr. atrd bile; Go to Bedlam and ask. Or if they keep their wits, yet thev are 

esteemed scrubs and fools by reason of their carriage : "alter seven J iv" 

"ntniua oiriiurmin Mlt, 

ricriiinqiii.' i'l rjujin popull qualil." 

u He becomes more silent than a statue, and generally excites people's laughter." 



"» AroiB <l intin lifn I Mm iiniliimla Dinnc. Si 

n | u.i in uw a i .-I hi. -i i- 1 1 ... 1 1 1 - 1 . ii. Ok hi. *' l'.|.ii. un i 

• ■ . l i itirtfiitt calnri'tii 
uiilnnii. mi. muli' rrr< lirum li'ijnlimi . I nn'iin I'Vaihl 
quiHl i ■•* iinlam lioliruiii. Accmiil Oil line, quml nalurit 
in riinliiii|il.-i(iiii>p, rerrhrn pmr-ii* ciTiIiijiiu lulinln, 

i lirparqiie deaUliirt, un<U rt. allinenUi Btkta 

r.» u*. ».iiij'ii» rraMUa .'I nifi-r eiliritur, rkim niinin olio 

.|Mrl|in in|.firc*ni xbnlant. '•Or*. 

bruiu cirin *lur, corpora itciiiiin graciietcwul. n Stu- 



(linn giint Caceelici el rjiinn,iuim benr colored 
dabililab itta, mi ti| 

KiipiTftntiuii'*. J>». VoKlnuf pari': •; cap ... . 

*Nutlnii iniiii (ii-r nliiiui i|ji-»i»ii, | 

iTrilini, noli »rr« miiniin. unl nculoa i.»ca- 

urnttfaq n . in nvprrum >l* 111 ■ £- ■ ■ I , llanuvi 

chiiti Ikiheiinia. iibi l.'ilii. ■ • 

man of TnloM, ^Oarilinallm t5w 

vifiliiuj. el iliulurna (ludia lacln, M 



Subfl. IS.] 



Stud;/, a Cause. 



lay 



cannot ride a horse, which every clown can do; nalnle and court a 
•irve at table, cringe and make conges, which ever- common swasher 
Jt hot populut rifot, &c, they are laughed to scorn, and accounted silly fools 
Yea, many times, such is their misery, they deserve it : : 'a mere 

.1 m. re MB. 



'Utwtirw capilr. el Ortntea lumine terram, 
Murmur* turn •.torn d rabiou •ilentia rodunl, 
Ais«- i verba IhI>.IIo, 

U» aikiiu minium; id oinilum ail potae nsTerli." 



- n •• who do lean awry 



ii^ni 



TlH'it head*, piercinf the earlh with a nil q 
WAto, I'V theuwelve*. they gnaw their murmuring. 
And a» 'twere balinrliig 

Lnrh nnnl upon lhi?ir out •treichril lip, mid when 
'] ii< ■>■ nwdllat* Hi'- iraum ■•! old -n't 

J Aa, 'Out of nothing, not hint can be brnucht ; 

I Ami that which it, can ne'er bo turn'.) to mmgrl 

they go commonly meditating unto themselves, thus they sit, such is 
i and gesture. Fulgosus, /. 8, c. 7, makes mention how Th. Aquinas supping* 
king Lewis of France, upon a sudden knocked his list upon die table, and 
(ried, comclutum est crmtm JMnnichcrns^ his wits were a wool-gathering, as they say, 
iad his head busied about other matters, when he perceived his error, he was much 
'ahoahrd. Such a story then is of Archimedes in V r itruvius, that having found out 
the mean* to know how much gold was mingled with the silver in king Iln-rona 
crown, ran naked forth of the bath and cried nppOi 1 have found: ™ u and was coin- 
nonlv to mi' "t tn his studies, that he never perceived what was done about him : 
■hen the my was taken, and the soldiers now ready lo rifle his house, lie took no 
bourc of ii Bernard rode nil day long by the Lcmnian lake, and asked at last 

Taw he was, Marullus, lib. 2, cap. 4. h was Democrats carriage alone that 
matl< itea suppose him to have been mad, and send for Hippocrates to cure 

htm ! been in any solemn company, he would upon all occasions fall a 

kavkuig. Theopliraslus sailh as much of Ueraclitus, for that he continually wept) 
■ad I tadflOMM I.aiii]i<ai-ux, because he ran like a madman, "saying, 

*ktcauw Ifiii hell as a spy, to tell the devils what mortal mm did.* 1 Tourgrc 

•tadents are Commonly no better, silly, toA fellows in their outward behaviour, 
•bwmJ. ridiculous to others, and no whit experienced in worldly business , it*- >. .m 
aanetW the heavens, range over the world, teach others wisdoiD| and yet in bargains 
«odcixnr:i e circumvented by every base tradesman. Are not these men 

fooli ; and how should they Lie otherwise, M but as so many sots in schools, trhtB 
>,m *hf well observed) they neither hear nor see sin di tilings as are commonly 
practised abroad:" how should they get experience, by what means? w " I knew 
a my time many scholars," saith £neas Sylvina (in an epistle of his to Geepec 

ror), " excellent well learned, but so rude, so silly, that 
thty had i moo civility, nor knew how to manage their domestic or public 

•tea,'' **Pagi ^as amazed, and said Ins farmer had surely cozened bun, 

thihi! ••card him tell thut his sow had eleven pigs, and his ass had but one foal. 1 ' 
To«y the be*t of tl <ion, I can give no other testimony of them W 

lata th >t of I'hny of Isxus; *"** He is yet a scholar, than which kind of men | 
■ aothin* so simplest) sincere, none better, they are most pert harmless honaatj 
it, plain-dealing men." 
w because they are commonly subject to such hazards and inconveniences as 
°°bfr, madness, simplicity, &.c. Jo. Voschius would have food scholars to be h 
and had in some extraordinary respect above other nn 
than the rest, that adventure themselves and abbreviate their lives tor the 
good*' But our patrons of learning are so far now-a-days from respecting 
. tag that honour to scholars, or reward which tin 
tallowed by those indulgent privileges of many noble princes, that afici all 

; but. i» Tlirmntn. earn, i* IVirmnu*. Kan nrbilr i.'ih- 

iie a great «iino< fieri, quia nihil 
ii •i*M 'ji'il vanai au'lmrtt aut vi lent. *N«iri nn-i« ill»l i 

i, lilt rir j.i. 

nt, an) at nihil en Htiai 

noranl. 01 

», o.innm a 

■ 
fa hominum. nlhl 

•' J » i r •• prim rgia. mi m . 
in abbrcnaul situ vu. 




ia anno* dnlii. 
Mopaluui tjualii, ll-n, tp. I Id. -J. 
•I* enaUaaae. '•Hi 

ita 'tploi 

at .aim* raaaaae, drUturuiB acmuni bu« i 




100 



Causes of Melancholy. 



[fart. 1 



Sect. 2 



pains token in the universities, cost anil charge, expenses, irksome hours, lab" 
tasks, wearisome days, dangers, hazards, (barred interim from ail plnaiT 
other men have, mewed up like hawks all their lives) if they chance to wade till 
thorn, they shall in the end be rejected, contemned, and which is their greatest m 
driven to their shifts, exposed to want, poverty, and beggary. Their uunilio" attend- 
ants are, 



1 Pdllcnlim inortii, lurtn*, eonrque Inbm-que 

'-, ci tTval-rofiili f»nii-». el turpit cg-'sta*. 
Turril>ilei visu forme" 



" Grief, lolHiiir. curr, pile liekiic**, miatfiw, 
F*.v. fililiy pfivcrtv crim. 

Terrible inonKer* lo be Men with ryra." 



If there were nothing else to trouble them, the conceit of this alone were enough 
to make them all melancholy. Most oilier trades ami professions, after some seven 
T0UB t apprenticeship, are enahled by their craft to live of themselves. A merchant 
adventures his goods at sea, and though his hazard he greit, yet if one ship return 
of four, he likely makes a saving voyage. An husbandman's gains are almost cer- 
tain ; qvibus ipse Jupiter nocerc non potest (whom Jove himself can't harm 
"Cato's hyperbole, a great husband himself); only scholars me thinks are most un- 
certain, uurespected, subject to all casualties, and hazards. For first, not one of a 
many proves to be a scholar, all are not capable and docile, M ex omniligno non fy 
Mercurius: we can make majors and officers every year, but not scholars: kings 
can invest knights and barons, as Sigismund the emperor confessed; universities can 
give degrees; and Tit quod es, ri popuia quilibvt esse potest; but he nor they, nor nil 
the world, can give learning* make philosophers, artists, orators, poets ; we can soon 
say, as Seneca well notes, O virion banum, o diriltin, point at a rich man, a good, a 
happy man, a prosperous man, sumptuose vestiium, Calamistratum, bene o/' ruVm, 
magna tempari* impendio constat hmc laudatio, b virum Uterarvm* hut 'tis not so 
easily performed to find out a learned man. Learning is not so quicklv pot, though 
they may be willing to take pains, to that end sufficiently informed, and liberally 
maintained by their patrons and parents, yet few can compass it. Or if tbi 
docile, yet all mei^s wills are not answerable to their wits, they can apprehend, but 
will not take pains; they are either seduced by bad companions, vel in f/mllam ifli- 
pingnnt, tiel in pociilum. (they fall in with women or wine) and so spend their time 
to their friends 1 grief and their own undoings. Or put case they be studious, indus- 
trious, of ripe wits, and perhaps good capacities, then how many diseases of body 
and mind must they encounter? No labour in the world like unto study. It may 
he, their temperature will not endure it, but striving to be excellent lo know all, ilny 
lose health, wealth, wit, life and all. Let him yet happily escape all these hazard?, 
ink stiniSj with a body of brass, and is now consummate and ripe, he hath pro- 
fited in his studies, and proceeded with all applause: after many expenses, he is fit 
for preferment, where shall he have it? lie is as far to seek it as lie was (after twenty 
years' standing) at the first day of his coming to the University. For what courM 
shall he lake, being now capable and ready ? The most parable and easy, :nul about 
which many are employed, is to teach a school, turn lecturer or curate, and for thai 
he shall have falconer's wages, ten pound per annum, and his diet, or some small 
stipend, so long as he can please his patron or the parish; if they approve him not 
(for usually they do but a year or two) as inconstant, as ■ they that cried ■ Hosanna" 
one day, and tk Crucify him" the other; serving-man-likc, he must go look a new 
master; if they do, what is his reward? 



1 II. >r i|iinnue te innnrt in (M la iloceatein 

Oci U|>ct rlUeim* in Vict* Irlki mii- 



" At «»■>( Ifiy snow-ttliitr nco in nihnrri - 
Bball i"ii in i- iin-ir |ramm 



Like an ass, he wears out his time for provender, and can show a stum rod, tag* 
trihim rl hiccnim, saith *" T iluilus, an old torn gown, an ensign of his infelicity, 
hath his labour for his pain, a mntlirum lo keep him lill he be ileerepul, ami that 
all. Grammalicus lum est falix, 8fc. If he he a trencher chaplain m a genii) 
house, as it befel *" Euphormio, after some m 5 service, he maj 

nave a living lo the halves, or some small rectory with the mother of the 
length, a poor kinswoman, or a cracked chambermaid, to have and lo hold during 



*Virj«. li. .V.n. rtpluUrih . viti <•}<»*. Cerium I rllur. "Mil. '-'I. Tlnr. epi». 9U. I. J 

■yrieoralionii lurrum, Jtc, wUiicitimniK finnl rim- ]. di: content, ■nior. •"Satyricon 

mli-m el jHDcmitutcs. fici el tVtta qvutenuM ■*<»» ■'**- I 






Subs. 15.] 
i time, 



r, a Cause. 



191 



Bu- if he offend his pood patron, or displease his lady mistress 



' DOMtKI rinnlii v.lut irtiu at> llornilr Caeua, 
ir<|iic furii', ■■ quid tentaverit unquam 

..." 




Berenice did by CWus. he shall be dragged forth of doors by the heel*, away with 
htm, ■k.I his forces to some other studies, with an intent to bo ii tecret'u to 

•>kti'. nobleman, <>r in each B place with as ambassador, be shall find th.it theae per- 

NBJ n*e like apprentices mir under mother, and m so many NeuYaWmi's -hops. 

when the mister is deed) the foreman of the shop commonly steps in his place. 

poet*, rhetoricians, historians, philosophers, " mathematicians, sophislers, 

lie. ; they arc like grasshoppers, sing they must in summer, and pine in the winter, 

»:tt is no preferment for them. Even so they WCT C nt first, if you will believe 
that pleasant In which he told fair Phaedrus under a plane-tree, at the 

lank- ■boot BOOB when a was hot, and the grasshoppers made 

isoue, he sweet occasion to tell him a tale, how grasshoppers were once 

idnkrii BBMcians, poets, &c, before the Muses wrere bora, and lived without nest 
i and for that cause were turned by Jupiter into grasshoppers. And may 
•gain, In Tythoni Cicadas, aut Lyciorum ranas, for any reward 1 see they 
■ r dee in the mean lime, I would they could live, as they did, 
t any viaticum, like so many *' iiuuiiicodiata*, those Indian birds of paradise, 
•mmonly call them, those 1 mean that live with the air ami dew of h 
•ad need BO other food ; for being as they are, their w " rhetoric only serves them to 
one their bed fortunes," and many of them for want of means are driven to bard 
from grasshoppers they turn humble-bees and wasps, plain parasites, and 
mak* the muses, 1 1 - tlisfy their hunger-starved paunches, and pet a meal's 

mat T .'!i, 'tis the common fortune of most scholars, to be senile and 

•lain pitifully, and lay open their wants to their respectless pali > 
Cardan doth, as "Xilauder and many others : and which is too common in 
dedicatory rpistles, for hope of gain, to lie, (latter, and with hyperbolical culogiums 
ami commendation*, to magnify and extol an illiterate unworthy idiot, for hit 

•t, whom they should rather, as "Machiavel observes, vilify, and roil at 

for his most notorious villanies and vices. So they prostitute themselves 

or mercenary tradesmen, to serve great men's turns for a small reward. 

Thejrarr like ** Indians, they have store of gold, but know not the worth of it : far 

lani' pinion, "" King Hieron got more by Simonidea 1 acquaintance, 

I by his; 11 they have their best education, good institution, sole 

qualification from us, and when they have done well, their honour and immortality 

mm os: we are the living tombs, registers, and as so many trumpeters of their 

• s without Homer? Alexander without Arian and Curtius? 
vao bad known the Caesars, but for Suetonius and Dion I 

" Before great Afunwmii'-'i r ; 

Helen J kings tin [rial a. he, and hra»c. 
Wliri*r huf' <tainVJ 

[m I he Mnall eompaaa "f a grave: 
In <in<ll>'f« mirlii ih- . at, unknown, | 

\ - bmri Hi- > li iil to make all lima (In ir . a 

thry are more beholden to scholars, than scholars to them - , but they undervalue 
i and so by those great men are kept down. Ix-t them have that eucyclo- 
ihe ! i the world; they must keep it to themselves, ""live in 

• rcept they will submit, 11 as Battens well hath it. u eo many 
r°»i»! j-.i i*. so many ensigns of arts, virtm ^. be slavishly obnoxious to some illilemte 
potentatr. and live under his Insolent worship, or honour, like parasites,'' 1 (/ui tan- 
fHa w«ir pancm comrdunl. For to say truth, artrs fur n»n Stmt l.urrn- 

it that great astrologer could foresee, they be not gainful arts 
r, u<i esurientn el foam HctT, but poor and hungry. 




Vii*nint Crtc* ante Afamemnnns. 

> 1>i lea 
I rr»«lnr ifn 

arenl <|uia rate aaj I 




A. I 1 » An chl «.lr» 



»> Alilr.ivaiulii. , r.m«iil.'i no) iiu if OH 11 wartS, 1 I'lur.i ■•« Sim.iniitia 



n. Iiul. i 

•» tJH 
Platarcli 
ae •■ viit 
•retvra p"iiu» vnup 



r-i 



rllale Hi. r in mi n Ih 

..1.9 ">|. 

• fere JMrl. nil mill". 



ikn.iw nul IlicH sltrtif 111. Ihrt t I Jt onlcuilrt, t\fum tottlkl' 



192 



Causes of Melancholy. 



[Part. 1 . B 



' Tht- rich phtsirian. hnnnnr'd lawyer* rid*. 
VVInUt (lr- pool Kholar fi"'I» il bj 



1 D*t Galrnii* <>p"». Hat Ju*tinianu» honoref, 
ius el apecie3 eOflUf If* pede»:" 

Poverty is trie muses' patrimony, and as thai poetical divinity teachcth us. when 
Jupiter's daughters were each of them married to the gods, the muses alone wen 
left solitary, lldicon forsaken of all suitors, and I believe il was, because they hod 
no portion. 

on Mm rul.l.* cur vlnt in ipvuiti 7 " Why did Calliope live ao long a maid? 

H«m pi tiJul dotia, quod Bttawnnt, crat." Uccaufc the luid no dowry i« be paid " 

Ever since all their followers are poor, forsaken and left unto themselves. Insomuch, 
tliul as 'Petro&ins argues, you shall likely know them by their clothes. " There 
came," sailh he, *' by chance into my company, a follow not very spruce to look on, 
that I Gould perceive by that note alone he was a scholar, whom commonly rich 
men hata \ I aaked him what he was, he answered, a poet : I demanded again why 
he was so ragged, he told me this kind of learning never made any man rich/' 

i"Qin Pxlugo rredit. mafnoae frnnri- i.iliit 
4i ii | i [i .i- . i roaira psiit, peajcinfilnr BBfo: 



Vili-f adulator ptcto jncel eariai natro. 
Sola pruiloaii liitrrti r 



' \ mi rrhunt s gain t» crcnl. that gi>e» to «■; 

I ill in L'i'ld ; 
A BltttafH Itai In.iM in BtVTC BKS] j 
itir only raypil i • 






All which mir ordinary students, right well perceiving in the universities, bow unpro- 
fitable these poetical, mathematical, and philosophical studies are, how little respeeV- 
ed, how few patrons; apply themselves in all haste to those three coi 
professions of law, physic, and divinity, shining themselves between them, ' reji 
these arts in (he mean lime, history, philosophy, philology, or lightly passing 
<>\er, a^ pleasant toys litiiit"; only table-talk, and to furnish them with discourse. 
They are not so behoveful : he that can tell his money hath arithmetic enough : he 
is a true geometrician, can measure out a good fortune to himself; a perfect astrolo- 
ger, that can cast the rise and fall of others, and mark their errant motions to hi 
own use. The best optics are, to reflect the beams of some great man's favour and 
grace to shine upon him. He is a good engineer that alone can make an instt 
to get preferment. This was ihe common tenet and practice of Poland, as Croat! 
observed not long Bince, in the first book of his history, their universities wer 
generally base, not a philosopher, a mathematician, an antiquary, kc, to be found 
of any note amongst them, because lluy had no set reward or stipend. Inn era j em 
betook himself to divinity, A«c solum in volis habens, opimum saardotium* a goc 
parsonage was their uuti. This was the practice of some of our near neighbours, ; 
* Lipsius inveighs, "■ they thrust their children to the study of law and divin 
they be informed Blight, or capable of such studies." Scilicet omnibus < 
iuitistut spes lucrij el fot *J cumulus tiuri, quant quicquid (Ircrci Lrtttmqut. 

ili r lira/lies scripserunl. Ex hoc numero dcinde reniunl ad gubernaculu rcipub. ink 
sunt i emulliit rcgum, o pater* o patria? so he complained, and so 

others. For even so we liml, to serve a great man, to get an ollice in some bishop's 
court (to practise in some good town) or compass a benefice, is the mark we sht 
at, as being so advantageous, the highway to preferment. 

Although many limes, lor aught I can see, these men fail as often as the rest 
their projects, and are as usually frustrate of iheir hopes. For let him be a doctor 
of the law, lent civilian of good worth, where shall he practise and i 

tiate? Their fields are so scant, the civil law with us so contracted with pi 
tions, so few causes, by reason of those all-devouring municipal laws, qu 
illi/cratius, sailh 'Erasmus, an illiterate and a barbarous study, (for thottj 
never so well learned in it, I can hardly vouchsafe them the name of schol 
they be otherwise qualified) and »o few courts are left to that profession, si 
office*) arid those commonly to be compassed at such dear rales, that I ki, 
how an ingenious man should thrive amongst them. Now for physicians, tliere nr 
in every village so many mountebanks, empirics, quacksalvers, paracelsians, a- the! 
call themselves, Caucijici el aanicidm, so s Clenard terms them, wizards, alchemist 
poor vicars, cast apothecaries, physicians' men, barbers, and good wivi 



.hi, «•!<•£■ lilt, i hi Batyrleon, intra! aritex, 

culm ii p| "«. i«t (in ili 

nou lilrrntu • ilmli'i raiiaw Milan I, i;«o 

laquil I'ni'tn i tin ne? 

Propter In if ■ . nt in uhqiiam 

djviuin fi.-i.it. »i*«lruuiu» Arbiter. >OppruMua 



paitpurtale aninmi nihil riimiutn, am • il 
poteal. .ni.ii'i.itiiif. || 

mini prrntilii In Iiii ad vtl* eorti lu 

BtfliMra, noa odiaaa rnopil, Una. 

ii 4. £p. 81. • Ciccrox. dial. 

lib .-. 




193 

1. that I make great doubt how they shall be maintained, or who shall be 
the:' ptirnta. lit-* ides, there arc ho many of both sorts, and some of them such 
aarpes, bo covetous, so clamorous, so impudent ; and as ' he said, litigious idiots, 



"Qilaut ln«w*<<* •ffiiKu arrnftnur cil. 
r parikm •<•■ n 
mica litrrarli mitt, 

nun ll,-» I 

in Itrnptia, 

toga 1 1 vultures, 




l have. m> (kill but j>ratinr irroftnei 
. »urh a purw-milkine nadoi 

tanmera, that liauni Una ocn. 



\ 



cannot well tall how to live one by another, but as be jetted in the Comedy 

n si i many, • major pars populi aridd reptant fame, they are 

a great part of them, and ready to devour their fellows, • Et noxid 

alhdit. i u mullitudc of pettifoggers and empirics, such impostors, 

astta honest man knows not in what sort to compose and behave himself in their 

axMty, to carry himself with credit in so vile a rout, sciential nomrn, tot sumptunis 

•lispudcat, postquam. Sec. 

Left of all to rune to OUT divine-, the most noble profession and Worthy of double 

imour, but of all others the most distressed and miserable. If you will not believe. 

at. hear a brief of it, as it was not many years since publicly preached at Paul's 

ows, "by a grave minister then, and now a reverend bishop of this land : H We that 

up in learning, and destinated by our parents to this end, we suffer our 

lha grammar-school, which Austin calls magiuim lyrannidem, et grave 

and compares it to the torments of martyrdom ; when we come to the uru- 

l wr live of the college allowance, as Phalaris objected to the Leontines, 

hbi( rtxjjv Ufuiv xol »<*tau< needy of all things but hunger and fear, or if we be 

partly by our parents' cost, do expend in unnecessary maintenance, 

-Trees, before we come to any perfection, five hundred pounds, or a 

" marks. If by this price of the expense of time, our bodies and spin! 

aataatece and patrimonies, we cannot purchase those small rewards, which are ours 

by W»t, and the right of inheritance, a poor parsonage, or a vicarage of 50/. per 

■aan, but we mast pay to the patron for the lease of a life (a spent and out-worn 

Hi) nlbcr in annual pension, or above the rate of a copyhold, and that with the 



bred 



and loss of our souls, by simony and perjury, and the forfeiture of all our 
rm rite, in esse and posse, both present and to come. What father after 
i while will be so improvident to bring up his son to his great charge, to this necea- 
arjr beggar} f What christian will be so irreligious, to bring up his son in that 
war*- which by all probability and necessity, cogit ad turpia, enforcing to 

•a, wi!) anting 1< simony and perjury," when as the poet said, hmitatm ad 

lac abatcii df pottle megabit : "a beggar's brat taken from the bridge where he Bits 
ibfpng, if he knew the inconvenience, had cause to refuse it." This being thus, 
an* £<_>: we fished fair all this while, that arc initiate divines, to find no better fruits 
i uar labours, " hoc est cur italics, cur quis non premdeat hoc est f do we macerate 
•aorltta for this ? Is it for this we rise so early all the year long ? !,u leaping (as 
We. i we heat the bell ring, as if we had heard a thuuder- 

0J©> 1 ' If this be all the respect, reward and honour we shall have, a frangc leva* 
rilaam, et teinde Thalia lihcllot : let us give over our books, and betake ourselves 
■ tacne other course of life; to what end should we study ? M Quid me litkrulas 
aaktaocarrc parenies, what did our parents mean to make us scholars, to be as far 
» »atk of preferment after twenty years' study, as we were at first: why do we 
»k« aarh pain* antum insanis juvat impallcscere chartist If there be no 

•a* hope of rewur i r encouragement, 1 say again, Frange, leva calamos, 

flataaatf Thalia hbellos ; let's turn soldiers, sejl our books, and buy swords, guns, 
tat 1 pikea, or »top bottles with them, turn our philosopher's gowns, as Cleanthes once 
<*i rein millers' coals, leave all and rather betake ourselves to any other course of 
1st, than to continue longer in this misery. " Prctstat dentiscalpia radcre, quam 
*5fT«nu monument ix magnttium. Javorcm emendicare. 
Tea, bat tnothink* I hear some man except at these words, that though this br 

. ear. 4. *Plautm. I » T*cf». Sat. 3. '« E lreln«iai!leBt«a, ad ««bitum u« 

* Jnh. Itna-ann 4 Xnv<>nit>ri> timiabuli plauauin quail ruliuioa tcinii I. "Marl 

» «•» pfiaiad fcy AfaoM UartOtM I '• Mirt. »&il Hemp. 

25 H 






104 



Causes tif Mtlanc/nh/. 



[Tan. 1. 




true which J have said of the estate of scholars, and especially of divines, that 
miserable and distressed at this time, that tin- church suilirs shipwreck of I 
and that they have just cause to complain; there is a fault, but whence proceeds 
If the cause were justly examined, it would he retorted upon ourselves, if we were 
at that tribunal of truth, we should be found guilty, and not able to excuse it 
That there is a fault among us, I confess, and were there not a buyer, there would 
not be a seller; but to him that will consider better of it, it will more than mani- 
festly appear, that the fountain of these miseries proceeds from these griping patrons. 
In accusing them, J do not altogether excuse us; both are faulty, they and we: yet 
in my judgment, theirs is the greater fault, more apparent causes and much to be 
condemned.^ For mv part, if it he not with me as 1 would, or as it should, I do 
ftscribfl the cause, as "Cardan did in the like case; mm hifnrtunio potiits quam Ma- 



rvin srrfrri, to l7 mine own infelicity rather than their naughtiness: although I have 
been hallled in my time by some of tliem, and lrave as just cause to complain u 
another: or rather indeed to mine own negligence; for I was ever like that A: 
der in !H Plutarch, Crassus his tutor in philosophy, who, though he lived many yean 
familiarly with rich Crassus, was even as poor when from, (which many wondered 
all as when he came first to him; he never asked, the other never gave him any- 
thing ; when he. travelled with Crassus he borrowed a hat of him, at his return 
restored it again. 1 have had some such noble friends' acquaintance and scholar*, 
but most part (common courtesies and ordinary respects excepted) they and I parted 
as wp met, they gave me as much as 1 requested, and lhat was — And as .ih-xanitr 
ab Ji/r.r<tndro Genial, dicr. I. 6. c. 16. made answer to llieronimus Massaimis, that 
wondered, quum plurtx igTUtVOS et igtwbilrs ad dignitatis et saccrdotia promotes quo- 
tidic rid/rri, when other men rose, still he was in the same state, eodrtn 
fortmi't cui mtrcedem laborum studiorumque deberi putaret, whom he thought to 
deserve as well as the rest, lie made answer, that he was content with his pn 
estate, was not ambitious, and although objurgabundtis svam segniticm . cms 

obsrunr aortU homines ad saccrdotia it pottfifioatut i B< i '•'■■■•■'. <Nr- he chid him lor hi* 
backwardness-, yet he was still the same : and for my part (though I be not worthy 
perhaps to carry Alexander's hooks) yet by some overweening and well-wi- 
friends, the like speeches have been used to me; but I replied still with Alev 
thai I bad enough, and more peradventure than I desi rved ; and with Li 
pbista, that rather chose (when honours and offices by the emperor were offered 
him) to be talis Sophista, quam talis Magistrafus. 1 had as lief be still Democ 
junior, and prtvus priealus* si mihi jam daretur optio, quam talis fortasse Doctor, 

talis Dtm i m t S . Scd quorsum Ikp.c f For the rest 'tis on both sides fnfimt 

detestandum, to buy and sell livings, to detain from the church, that which God 
nun's laws have be&towcd on it; but in them most, and that from the rovriuiisne* 
and ignorance of such as are interested in this business; I name covt i U> 

first place, as the root of all these mischiefs, which, Achan-like, compels thera U> 
commit sacrilege, and to make simoniacal compacts, (and what not) to then 
ends, "lhat kindles God's wrath, brings a plague, vengeance, and a hear] 
upon themselves and others. Some out of lhat insatiable desire of filthy lucre, tot* 
enriched, care not how they come by it per fas et tufas, hook or crook, so 
have it. And others when they have with riot and prodigality embezzled their 
estates, to recover themselves, make a prey of the church, robbing it, as M Julw 
apostate did, spoil parsons of their revenues (in keeping half hack, "as a great mm 
amongst us observes:) "and that maintenance on which they should live 

of, barbarism is increased, and a great decay of christian prof, 
who will apply himself to these divine studies, bis son, or friend, when after great 
pains taken, they shall have nothing whereupon to live? But with what event do 
they these things ? 

■ " Clncaquc Intl* viribim vpnamini, 
Al utile inc. is accidil oiturrriina." 



>« Lib. 3. rie e<wa. f I U*d no roonry, I wanted im- 
pudence I could nnt ■nntb. U-mrM-.rinj, (lnw-mblr 
noil prtndf'tl nliia. if., vii ditnm. ad palpatidUM et 
•dul.iniluni panitui iuaqlaiu, rcc-udi nnn pot*.. 
Mntai "l aim culi*. el flfigi nolo, utmnqiir mule i 
Muti uiirutii el oliacuriu mile ilililccam. >' Vit. Cr&MJ, 



I. jurtirare polml ulrum pannrrinr 
ad CraHiiin, *c. >*[)eucn hat" 
iii'Tli'in arlernam aco.ui runt. uln» a 
Srrcuriiia in Joiuam. " *'\ic 

j ■ j.nrd Cook, In Ilia Bcporta, i 
fol. U. » Eunpidea. 



r:im ,1fii«i 






"i 



15.] 



Study, a ( 



toil and moil, but what reap they? They are commonly .minrturuite families 
that use it, accursed in th> ir progeny, atul, a* common eipe 

i ^ a w l'n in all their proceedings. *WItb what boa (as a he quotes out of Auat.) 
caa they expects blessing or inheritance from Christ in heaven, that ili-fnmd ( 
of Ins inheritance bess on earth ?" 1 would all our nmoniacal patrons, and such aa 
would wad tho««' judicious tracts 6f Sir Henry Spclman, ant] Sir James 
late elaborate and learned trcati*. I Mr. 

srhi en of that subject. I SJ Mould read, 



ivouldb 



d be lo small purpose, clamrs licet el mar .fundus; thundi r, lights*^ 

I and damnation, tell them 'U* n sin, th< it believe n ; denounce 

mi terrify, they bsve ** cauterized consciences, they do not attend, as the 
lassr, tbsy stop their ears. Call them base, irreligious, prataoe, barbsroc 
sis, epicure*, (as some of them surely are) with the bawd in PLum*, 
hi, they cry and applaud themselves with that miser, 'smiul ac nummos nort- 
hs* is area : say what you will, quocunque modo rem: as a dog harks at the 
i^ to no purpose are your sayings : Take your heaven, let them bass money. A 
. profane, epicurean, hypocritical roul : for my part, let them pn it zeal 

mtr vdL countsdstl world's eyes, bombu 

their grenlnesa with churrh spoils shine like so many peacocks ; is m 

behalf, that I shall never think better of them, than ili.it 
tfcrT are rotten at core, their bones are full of epicurean hypocrisy, and atheit 
are worse than heathens. For as ; 
f. Rom. lib. 7. Trimum locum* Ike. "Creek- banana ol reli- 

r ntrs,and dare not break ihem Ibr fr^r of offending their pods; but our simo- 
tawal contractors, our senseless Achans, our stupitied ■ nor 

Crvil, they bate evasions lor it. it is nu *in, or not due jure d< n, no 

pmi*in.s.c. And though they l>e daily punished for it, and the) per- 

ssne. that as be asiil. lr.>^t ;iini fraud come to foul ends; yet a* : n>l- 

l»«*s u .S'ulla es jtaend sH c<" itsflli ■detVOW maliiia h 

trrtnt ftumdii qwd pttfti v are ratlier worse than hotter, — ir.im atque ani- 

sv»# a ertmine xumunt, and the nunc thej ire - <>rreetcd, the more ib but 

ke them take t) , "Rod* coper vites, go on still as thin begin, 'n, no sin, 

1*1 ^Baa rejoice secure, God's vengeance will overtske iheui in the sod, seal thasa 
■VfnUffl goods, as an ea. will consume the rest of tbeir substance; 

«■ m annm Thohmanum, and will pKx Iter effects. "" Let them lay it up 

•afr, aad make their conveyances never as close, look and shut door," saith < nrv- 
frsud and coveiousness, two most violent thieves are slill iu eluded, 
Okd a hide fain r\il gotten will subvert the rest of their goods. 
taaag s piece of flesh now ready to be sacrificed, swept it away wTlh 
ssrrisd ii to her nest; but there was a burning coal stuck to it by chance, which 
SBsvaraa consumed bet young ones, nest, and all together. Let our siuioniacal 
tSBrrb-ebopping patron*, and sacrilegiotsl borfpes, look (bf BO bitter S UC CO SO, 

a •rroml cause is ignorance, and from thence conteaspt, tuecessii odm i ab 

yaaraiifiJ rulgi ; which u Junius well perceived : tins halted and 
Bf proceeds c*>: .mure; as they are themselves barbarous idiots, dull, illiterate, 

aid proud, so they esteem of other?. Sint Meccrnatc*, turn detrumL Flacee Maronrs: 
La there be bountiful patrons, ami then will be painful ■eholarain all Itut 

»!<•« tbsy contemn learning, and think ihesaselvi 

VMr ami read, scramble at u piece of evidenOBj 01 how SO i inch Lalifl M tltal 
fons aad, M qui nrtctt dixsunuLirr, ncsc.it oirerc, they are unlit '■■• do i rOir country 
•Tisae. to perform or undertake any action or employment, which may tend to the 
ptcsj oi* a commonwealth, except it be to fight, ot fualice, u ith i 

aaassnse, which every yeomsn can lik< And so they bring up tbeir clul- 

<tea, radr as they are themselves, unqualified, uutaught, uncivil most part. u Qvi* i 







icllluti 



n lir m«l« 'I ii.ua nil in. * 



mm at 
lulu* i lima 

r 



196 



Causes of J\l: Uuichuhj. 



[Part. 1 




M 



nostra juventutr legitime instituitur Uteris? Quis oratores aut Philosaphos tangitf 
quis historiam legit-. M»m rerum agendarum quasi animam f pracipitant parentis rota 
tua, fyc. 'twas Lipsius' complaint to his illiterate countrymen, it may be ours. Now 
shall these men judge of a scholar's worth, that have no worth, that know not what 
ngs to a student's labours, that cannot distinguish between a true scholar and • 
drone i or him that by reason of a*voluble tongue, a strong voire, a plaiting 
and some trivially polyanthean helps, steals and gleans a few notes from other men 
harvests and so makes a fairer show, than he that is truly learned indeed : tl: 
Units it no more to preach, than to speak, * u or to run away with an cm] 
w a grave man said : and thereupon vilify us, and our pains ; scorn us, and all lea 
mg. "Because they are rich, and have other means to live, they think it concei 
them not to know, or to trouble themselves with it; a litter task for younger b: 
thers, or poor men's sons, to be pen and inkhorn men, pedantical slaves, and no whit 
beseeming the calling of a gentleman, as Frenchmen and Germans commonly do, 
neglect therefore all human learning, what have they to do with it ? Let maria 
learn astronomy ; merchants, factors study arithmetic ; surveyors get them BUllWilf 
■pectacle-makcrs optics ; landleapers geography ; town-clerks rhetoric, what shoi 
he do with a spade, thai hath no ground to dig; or they with learning, that have 
use of it ? thus they reason, and are not ashamed to let mariners, apprentices, and 
the basest servants, be better qualified than themselves. In former tin r 
princes, and emperors, were the only scholars, excellent in all faculties. 
Julius Caesar mended the year, and writ his own Commentaries, 

■" fulfill inter (incltft «ein|» i r. 

Slcllarum ctsliqur plagu, aupcruque meant." 

"Anlonius, Adrian, Nero, Scve. Jul. &c. * Michael the emperor, and Isacius, we 
so much given to their studies, that no base fellow would take so much pains : Orio 
Perseus, Alphonsus, Plolomeus, famous astronomers; Sabor, Mithridates, Lysii 
chus, admired physicians : Plato's kings all : Evax, that Arabian prince, a mot 
jeweller, and an exquisite philosopher; the kings of Egypt were priests of old, chose 
and from (hence, — Idem rex kaminum, Pktehique saccrdos: but those heroical lime 
arc past; (he Muses are now banished in this bastard age, ad sordida lugunohi, 
meaner persons, and confined alone almost to universities. In those days, BCftoll 
were highly beloved, *' honoured, esteemed ; as old Ennius by Scipio Africanus, Vi 
gil by Auguatoa; Horace by Mecrenas: princes' companions; dear to them, as An 
creon to Polycrates ; Philoxenus to Dionysius, and highly rewarded. Alexa 
Xenocrates the pliilosopher fifty talents, because he was poor, t'iwi rerum, aut er 
Mtione prdshwtcs rin, mensis olirn regum adhibiti, as Philostralus relates of -Vina 
and Lampriditis of Alexander Si virus : liimous clerks came to these prince* 1 
velut in Lyra-urn, as to a university, and were admitted to their tables, quau Jir 
tputi< (iccumbettles ,• Archilutis, that Macedonian king, would not willingly no with 
out Euripides, (amongst the rest he drank to him at supper one night, and i 
a cup of gold for his pains) deler.tahts porta: suavi sermons; and it was fit it shoult 
be so; because as ^ Plato in his Protagoras well saith, a good pliilosopher as 
excels other men, as a great king doth the commons of his country ; and 
"quantum Mis nihil decs/, H minimi egere so/rnr, fl disciplinas quas pr< 
a contrtnptu vindicare possunJ, they needed not to beg so basely, as Bug 
** scholars in our times to complain of poverty, or crouch to a rich chuff for a Hieal'i 
iin.ii. but could vindicate themselves, and those arts which they professed. No« 
they would and cannot: for it is held by some of them, as an axiom, that to ke 
them poor, will make them study; they must be dieted, as horses to a race, not 
pered, ""Jilfndos volunt, nmi saginomlos, ne mclwris mentis flammul a extinguatur; 
fat bird will not sing, a fat dog cannot hunt, and so by this depression of theii 
"some want means, others will, all want fl encouragement, as being forsaken ilflM 



■In King, In ins U»t Irclure on J.maii. m 
rwhi rervreiul li>rd biili»|i nf J/m ^ Qui bin 

cawt el itiniiri, bi barliarn f,i»i^ r ■ i •-- r » a enoUtunaal, 
ii lib. m. "P|i»riinii rViticili tie reuuaniniia. 
1 Anal. Fmiiii lin iitirjiiiunnin anri 
■ Uraiiiiiiniii'i« nlitn el dialifUcin Juriau. 
bun <|>ii »pacime:i rriidilionli (kMrnenl eailvin dieni- 
Mu ui.icma docreveruul taipvretori-s, quibua urna- 



bant lwf(>a«, Kniiwi cp. Jo. Fabio epta. \ 

bu<. vir ci l')iiliM<i|ihui muni* pr» mm inter alio* I 

ne«. qumn rat iiielilus inter pbbHu*. 

ra-fui. Poemalum. «'Sorvile nomen eVbi>!»n« J« 
Scnrca. •• Hand facile energuM, fee. *im 
quml noetia nb bora Kdiali qua iumuo f»l> i 
avdebal, qui ilocct obliquo lauam deduct) 
lemon m erect. Juv. Hat. 7. 




Study* a Cause. 



197 



mned. 'Tis an old saving, Sint Mrcamatet^ non deerunt Flacce 
and 'tis a true enyiti j still. I«J oftentimes I may not deny it the 
f in oanrlrfs. Ouracudemi lend in neglecting patrons, as 

>w*iltix< king ill choice rf them ; n \a oblatos out ampfat- 

ttptas, Bf il we p t ;i . non studemus muluis officii* Javon . 

do not ply and follow linn as we should. Idem mihi accidil JldolesctnA 
t -u\h Erasmus) acknowledging his fault, et gravissime peccaxi, and so may " I say 
BT«lf, I haw I so peradventure have many others. We did not 

mp m& rrr. umgnatum favoribus, qui captrunt no* ampleetiy apply ourselves with that 
■Sadie* ■■ we should : idleness, love of liberty, immodicus amor libertaJis cjffcil ut 
in. cwm j- m he confesseth, et pertinaci pauperatc colluciartr, bashful- 

arM. mrlari :i"l\ . amorousness, cause many of us to be too backward and remiss. 
So tame offend in one extreme, but too many on the other, we are most part too 
famnl. too solicitous, too ambitious, too impudent; we commoulv complain dirsse 
Mmxcmate*, of want of encouragement, want of means, when as the true defect is in 
esjrown want of worth, our insufficiency: did Maecenas take notice of Horace or 
had shown themselves first ? or had Bavius and Mevius any patrons? 
-mm tpeamen d'nt. saith Erasmus, let them approve themselves worthy first, 
■affimuiv qualified for learning and manners, before they presume or impudently 
and put themselves on great nu n U too many do, with such base flattery, 
rolloguing, such hyperbolical elogies they "lo usually insinuate that it is 
i U> bear and M, Immodica laudts concihant invidiam, potms i/uam ffimfffftl. 
commendations derogate from truth, and we think in conclusion, non melius 
3a. pejus de l<iu<lant>\ ill of both, the commender and commended. So we 
, bat the main fault is i\\ their harshness, defect of patrons. How beloved of 
ed was Plato to Diooysius ? How dear to Alexander was 
r, Demeraius to Philip, Solon to Cmesus, Anexarcus and TrebathM to lugus- 
to Veepatian, Plutarch to Trajan, Seneca to Nero, Simouides to Hieron? 



b&« boootmd 



*" Sml h*e pri<i» fucr«r, nunc rcconrfila 
Bnuetil qiifetw," 



*••';:.-' 



Ki tpe* % el rutin studinrum in C<r*are tantum : " as he said of 

my now, he is our amulet, our "sun, our sole comfort and refuge, 

,./»•/( ntms muni/icus. Jacobus pacijicus, mysta Mu- 

Grande dmis, columtnque nostrum: a famous scholar htu»- 

le patron, pillar, anil suslainer of learning: hut his worth in this kind 

. that as Palerculua "I Cato, ././//; ipsum laudare nefas sit : and 

s 'in U enrmina, konnrqw ,r<< runs annalium, non ha 

jmdemda ; t he is now yne, the sun of ours set, and yet no 

, ^ i nulla sequoia est. We have such another in his room, 

miter. Jtvulsus, simili frondesrit virga metallo. and long may he reign and 

ih nneasyri n* 

l*t me not . and lie against my genius, 1 may not deny, hut that we 

•an* a sprinkling of our gentry, here and there one, excellently well learned, like 
Ihsec Fufgeri in German y , Dubartus, Du Plessis, Saihul, in France ; Picus Mira.ii- 
lUS, Barn: i/ipnrrnt rati nantcs {ft gvrgtit vasto. But they 

•*» but (cm in respect of the multitude, the major part (and Bome again excepted, 
th*x »rr indifferent i arc wholly bent lor hawks and hounds, and carried away many 
base* •'! mperate lust, gaming and drinking. If they read a book at any 

base i ti quod est interim olti a venattt* pocult*, alea, scortis) 'tis an English Chi 

de (iaul, !*.(-.. a play-bonk, or some pamphlet of 

Vtm,J that at such seasons only, when they cannot stir abroad, to drive away 

W 1 . 1c discourse is dogs, hawks, horses, and what news? If some one 

Wrr been a traveller in Italy, or as far as the emperor's court, wintered in Orleans, 

<urt hi* mistress in broken French, wear his clothes neatly in the n> 

some choice outlandish tunes, discourse of lords, ladies, towns, palaces, 




. I. «j*»c I. " Hail I fane »• other* [ arc caMtnd In CVtar alnnc » tirmn fi qnpin nnq 

tir»»r1 I Miftll lr»v« Iwnty h**-n •• | Plwlno hie n<»i^r. n>lo intuitu lu 
•• mi il> ■Calullut, I " Pub .il •» B«tu« •cumu (vimm 

• All «ur o»{«» »nd Kiilucmcnit la ilu.lv | »nnii ouumunii in ilia PuTVua*. liLV.M 

r2 



."• 







c> MM ■ 



■ 



tf Melancholy. [Part. 1. 

be admired : * otherwise he and they arc 

natter ami the man, but worshipful title*; wink I 

,.,,,■ - - w ii r lottos excepted m& hkm AthoM»Bw U »ae bi 

^gl ■&»** m** must be our patrons, our governors too sometimes, state 

..vn freat, and wise by inheritance. 

„ nv ivr* I sav again) Vo» 6 Patrithu sanguis, yon that are worthy sen 

.•it. 1 1st i— ur your names and persons, and with all submissiveness, pre* 

- ceajeirre oml service. There are amongst you, I do ingenuousl; 

-deserving patrons, and true patriots, of my knowledge, beside 

I invt r saw, m» doubt, or heard of, pillars of .linon 

h, bounty, learning, forwardnesa, true zeal in religion, and goot 

tf ai: .-ughl Lo be consecrated to all posterity; but of your rank 

r a debauched, corrupt, covetous, illiterate crew again, no better than stock* 

-.i -Mr Deum, mm mihi videri dignos ingenui homiuis appelL 

ipiis Me thrax qui hoc ncgel? a sordid, prol 

r, irreligious, impudent and stapid, I know not what epithets to give thrm, 

.Ltlniiiultrs of the church, and the ruin of a commonwealth; 

■> Uirv are by right of inheritance, and put in trust freely to dispose of rack 

'•> i-i> u> the church's good; but (hard task-masters they prove) they take awijr 

<\\ , :tiid compel them to make their number of brick : they commonly 

uii ends, commodity is the steer of all their actions, and him they pr 

pision, as a man of greatest gifts, that will give most; no penny, **no 

is. JYisi prrccs aurofulcias, ampliu* irrilas : ut OrfolMi 
itdanta and officers must be bribed, feed, and made, as Cerberus is will 
him thai goes to hell. It was an old Rying, Omnia RamiT.rcnalia, full lliu 
il at Heme,) 'tis a rag of Popery, which will never be rooted miU there ««* 
tope, no good to be done without money. A clerk may offer himself, apn 
"worth, It. uning, honesty, religion, zeal, they will commend him for it; Ml 

laudator et algtt If he be a man of extraordinary parts, they will flock i 
off to hear him, as they did in Apuleius, to see Psyche: multi mortal's r 
ad videndum saculi decus, speculum gloriasam, laudalur ab omnibus, spcclatur oh > 
nib'ix, urr quisipmm non re r, non rcgius, rupidus ejus ivip/i/irium pc/ilor arccdit; mi 
tur fuidem dicinam for mam onirics, scd ut simulacrum fabre politum mirantur; 
BOrttl men came to see fair Psyche the glory of her age, they did admire her, i 
iiu ml, desire her for her divine beauty,and gaze upon her; hut as on a picture; 
would marry her, quad indotala, fair Psyche had no money. " So they do by If 

Voui 1 1 • N i j i - 1 1 have now loarn'd of Utter ijjjn 




■ ilnlir it jam iluc* nvnrua 

'I'. mi mi .iiimiuiri, Iniiliiui la injure diserloa, 

t7f 1 1 1 1 r- r I Jlllliillla Ull'tll" 



'I" admire, commend, 
T» l»i-ar and iee a WWlhj <. n* 
A* children do a peacorJc'a ft 



1 1- • hull have all th ■_ ! words thai ma] be given, "a proper mam, and 'tis pit] ' 

htith mi preferment, all good wishes, but inexorable, indurate as he is, he will 
him, (hough it be in his power, because he is indatalus, be hath now 
Or if lie do gffe him entertainment, let him be never so well qualified, plead arfin 

nguiniff, Sufficiency, be shall serve seven years, as Jacob did for Rachel. beJM 
he shall have it. •' II he will enter at first, he must get in at that Simoniacal gale,i 
oil' soundly, and put in good security to perform all covenants, else he will DOt< 
wild, or admit him. Put if some poor scholar, some parson chaff, will oiler bin 
some trencher chaplain, that will take it to the halves, thirds, or accepts of win 
will give, be is welcome; be conformable, preach as he will have him. In 
before a million of others; for llie best is always best cheap: and then as Hie 
said to Uromatius, pat- II i dignum operculum, such a patron, such a clerk ; the i 
is well supplied, and all parties pleased. So that is still verified in our age, which 
"Chryaoatom complained of in his time, Qui opulent iorcs sunt, in ordinrm para 



■ Quia en I m senrr. Iiune que Induiui 



ri«-, ■•! I'lurlirii nullum- lu.it >mi. i 

I often nn'l (villi my»< If, n:i.l Bun- 

llh diver* worth) jentli men in I 
Willi lllfrflor. il not I" he [ i r . lerr-d mr iln.r. 
learning in many ■<< ""' nrmleiiiir*. 
Mutt, i 

«/-. M r. P 

Bun.ru omasa ianrjuani ungues di£iluti[ue. tuua. Juv. 



"'Juvenal. 



a la ran Baal On, 



«i«,»aia anno I 

enrdn. iitri vel arftvnli uialk-o vniolliaa. kt. 
burtanata PoMerat, Ub, 5. e. 10. "Juveii. 

•» Bufa li I l>..ii*a .■(>. -, 1 

■ibiquf. ciinmariiiui r.i, MQu.itu 

Itua ad owueo; *anpiini*aut Sm 

.i.| ..• Dei. UolOOl. **ijb. cuiiiraCn 

de Datnla anidsro. 



Study, a Cause. 



10l> 




v. ft ifmt tanquam ctmrt ad mr-nsan suas enutriuni, eorumque impudrnlr.t 
tmK[U4trum eananim rr/iqitux di/fi rtiunl, ii'lrffll pro arbitro a lurh 

these lecturers, and fawning parasites, like so many dogs at their tables, 
the I guts with tJu" ollals of their meal, they abuM them at ilicir 

ami make tin m ray wlint they propose. """As children do by a bird or a 
in a string, pull in and let him out as they list, do they by their trencher 
prr- inland then wits, let in and out as to them it seems best. If 

i he precise, so must his chaplain be; if he be papistical, his clerk must be 
be turned out. These are those clerks winch serve the turn, wiiuin 
lerlani. and present to church bring*, whilst m the meantime we 
y men, like so many hide-bound calves in a pasture, tarry qui out 
away as a flower ungathered in a garden, and are never used ; or as so 
llrs, illuminate ourselves alone, obscuring one another's Light, and are not 
at all, the least of which, translated to a dark room. Of to soin>' coun- 
toaefiee. where it might -hum apart, would give a fair light, and be seen over ail. 
lie wailing here as those sick men did at the Fool of "Belhesda, till the 
the water, expecting a good hour, they step between, and beguile us 
preferment. I have not yet said, if after long expectation, much nrp use, 
names ir-elves and friends, we obtain a small benefice at lust; our 

begins afresh, we are suddenly encountered with the flesh, world, and devil, 
new onset; we change a quiet life for an ocean of troubles, we come to a 
house, which before it be habitable, must be necessarily to our great damage 
li -I to sue for dilapidations, or else sued ourselves, and scarce 
yet adUrd, we are railed upon for our predecessor's arrearages ; first-fruits, tenths,' 
tsnudus*. arm msUutlv to be paid, benevolence, procurations, ^c and which is most 
to to feared, we light upon a cracked title, as it befel denarii of Brabant, for his rec- 
tory, and charge of his liegnue; he was no sootier inducted, but instantly sued, crpi- 
vailh lie) strrnut hltgarc, el implacalnlt l>iU» CtmJligtTe: at length after ten 
'.as long H -»'2'", when he hail tired himself, and spent his money, 

l was uun to leave all lor quietness 1 sake, ami gi?6 it up to his adversary. Or else 
i pled on by domineering officers, fleeced by those greedy 
to get more fees; we stand in fear of some precedent lapse; we fall 

. |»eevish puritans, perverse papists, a lascivious root of 

Epicures, that will uol be reformed, or some litigious people (those wild 

of Epnesus must be fought with) that will not pay their dues without much 

v long suit; Lain clt ricis oppido inft'sti* an old axiom, all 

• a that is had from the church, and by Midi uncivil, harsh deal- 

UVy make their poof minister weary of his place, if not his life; and put case 

quiet honest men, make the best of it, as often it falls out, from a polite 

academic, he must turn rustic, rude, uielancliolise alone, learn to forget, or 

I many do, h -• chapmen, fitc. (now banished from the 

|T, all commerce of the muses, and confined to a country village, as Ovid was 

M fto Po I daily converse with a company of idiots and don is. 

interim quod attitui {mi emm immtUHi ab lute nortt stiinus) tdttn n/itus 

n nobis, it si rum multo gravius, crimen objici jiotot: nostrd imm culpa 

ummtra incuria, nostra aruriln'i, quo i tarn frcqucntes , fctdaque Jfo/li in Kulcxid 

iu/hitj, (templum est vreuale, deusque) tot iCrdtt inn lumtur, t<inta grassc* 

impirtas, tuntu meouitia, tarn insamu muerianm Buriotu, it turfmntm "*tuo- 

jui.i' i [Acadtmicorum imprimis) vino sit. Quod tut H 

./*/, >• miliar turn ; ultra milium hoc in cnrsiinus, tt qudvis contu- 

■ igni, qui pro vinli mm on urrinuis. Quid • n m firrt 

mtrnwus, quum tut indie* situ diUctu pauprres ali/mni, terra" filii, tt c<jus- 

tut i m admittantvri qui n dcfinitiimtm, 

ique unam a>.t nltrram munnnter tdidirr nut, it prn m rt tut anno* is 

:isu<rint, mill rtftrt quo profrctu, ouahs drmum sint. <rrx 

t,altatorn, compotorrs, indigni, libidinis rolui>tatumqut admin > <ns* 





ii rogillil, IM«»- 
-I IpN «M»l< 

>• ■ IiIh'Jiiiv *u« pendera mqaum 



I 

J««n ruAVtitu id Inrure daroorlai, pralinM «10fiM«i 
•decrtknu*. 4c. paU multo* Ut»ac». »a\uv^». te 



Causes of Melancholy. 



[Fatt 







Penelopes, nebulones, Alcinoique," modb tot annus in academid insumpstrint, et it 
pro togatis vniditarint ; Uteri causa, ct amicoritm JsUtrceSSU nrmtaiitmtur ; addo 
(titim it mn^nificis iiunuunquam tltg&l morum it sciential; et jam valtdi/tiu 
muniaiihus liisci littrris, amplissime tonscriptis in coram ^ratiain hutiaruntur , 
iis, qui Jidvi suw et < / 1 >t imationis jacturam proculdubio fmiunt. Doctores eaira 
professures {quod ait ^ille) id uuuui curant, ul ex professionibus frequent ibus, 
turnultuariis potius quara iegitirnis, cummoda sua promoverant, ei ex disaeodio pu 
lico suum lac-taut incremeiitutii. Id solum in cutis habent annul plcruniquc magi 
tratus, ut ab auipiciitiitm niiiiuro ""petunias emungant, ncc multuin interest qui lint 
iittratorcs an literati, muilo pingurs, nitidi, ad asprctum speciosi, et quid ttfi 
dicam, pecuniosi sint. ''l'Jtilosophastri licaitiantur in artibus, artem qui non hubnit, 
Eosque sapientes esse jubeut, qui nulla praediti sunt sapientia, et uibil ad gradu 
prasierquam velle adl'erunL Theolagastri (sulvant modo) satis superque du<.ti,ptr 
utnnes honor um gracilis evehimtur et atcendunt , At que hinc Jit quod tain vilcs scurra, 
tot passim uhota, literarum crepusrulo positi, larva; pastorwn, circumforanei, vagi, 
barbi, fungi, crassi, asini, meriini p/cus in sacrusanctus thiulogice aditus, illotis 
pedibus irrumpant, prater invereeundam frontem adferentes nihil, vulgaris quas- 
dam quisquiliiK, ct scholarium quadam nugamenta, indigna quir eel ncipiuntur in 
triviis. J foe illud inttignvm genus hominum et fanulicum, imtigum, vagum, ventrii 
mancipium, ad stivam potius relegandum, ad haras apt in* quam ad aras, quod dici- 
nas hasce literas turpitir prostituit; hi sunt qui pulpita comphnt, in aden nobilium 
irrepunt, et quurn rtliquis vitm destituantur subsidiis, ob corporis et animi eg' 
tcm, aliarutn in repub. partiuni minimi eapaces sint; ad sacrain hanc anchoram con- 
fugiunt, sacerdotium quovismodb captantes, non ex sinceritate, quod ^Puiilus ait, 
«ed eauponantes verbum Dei. Ne quia interim riris bonts detructum quid putct, quos 
habet ecclcsia Anglicana quamplurimos, eggregii dodos, illustrcs, intacta fama 
homines, et plures J'orsan quam quams Europa procincia; ne quis djlorentisimis 
Acadcmus, qua tiros vndiqwique doctissimos, omni virtutum genere suspiciendos, 
abunde produevnt. Et multo plures utraqiic habitura, multo splendidior J'utura, si 
non ha sordes splendidum lumen ejus obfuscarent, obstaret corruptio, et cauponuntes 
quadam harpy a, proletariique bonum hoc nobis non invidercnt. Nemo enim tarn 
coxa mente, qui non hoc ipsum videat: nemo tarn stolido ingenio, qui non intelligat, 
tarn pertinaci judicia, qui jwn agnoscat, ab his idiotis circumforanei s, sacrum pollui 
Thevlogiam, ac Colettes Musas quasi prophanum quiddam proslitui. Viles amma» 
el eflronles [sic enim Lulherus ^alicubi vocal) lucelli causa, ut muscfe ad mulctra, 
ad nobitium et heroum mensus advolant, in spem sacerdotii, cujuslibet honoris, officii, 

in quamvisaulam, urbem te ingcrunt , ad quodtis $e ministerium camponunt. 

" Ut nereis altenis mobile lignum Ducitur" Hor, Lib. II. Sat. 7. :i oiTam 

Bequentes, psittacorum more, in procdne spem quidviseffutiunt : obsecundantes Para- 
siti '"(Erasmus ait) quidvis docenl, dicutit, scribont, auadent, et contra conscieatna 
probatit, non ut salutarem reddant gregem, scd ut magnificam sibi parent fortunnm.. 
Opimones quasvis et decrela comra verbum Dei astruunt, ne non oifl-nd .nit pntro- 
num, sed ul relineant favorem procerum, et populi plausum, sibique ipsis 0|>es ncctt* 
mulent. Eo etenim plerunque ammo ad Theologiam accedunt, non ut rem ditinam, 
sed ut suamfacient f non ad Eccletaa bonum promovendum, sed expilundum ; qua- 
rentes, quod Paulus ait, non qua; Jesu Christi, sed qua? sua, non domini thesaurum, 
Std ut sibi, suisque thesaurixent. Nee tantum Us, qui rilirric fort una. rt ahjecta, 
sortis sunt, hoc in vsu est : sed et medios, sumtnos, elatos, ne dicam Episcopos, hot 
malum incasit. ni, Dicite pontijices, in sacris quidfucit turnout" "BUmtMa swpe 
viros transversos agit avarilia, et qui reliquis morum probitutc pralucerent ; hi facem 
praftrunt ad Simoniam, et in corruptionis hunc scopulum impingentcs, non tonde 
pecus, sed deglubunt, et quocunque se conferunt, expilant, exhaurivnt, abradant 
magnum fama sua, si non anima naufragium facie ntes ; ut non ab injimis ad sun 
mos, sed a svtnmis ad infimos malum promandsse videatur, et illud verum sit que 
tile oliin lusit, emerat ilie prius, vendere jure potest. Simoniacus enim (quod cum 



*iim Acnrl. cap. A. ™ Awlptamu* pocumsm, 

dvmillniiiii* .ipiiiuiii id npnH Piilnvinoi, I'nl <. n II, >« 

|.rnl.-.ti prrttflnii, in i'hil<>w>|>liiitlrn Comirdi* 

litim, hi ,*:.Jt- Uki*Ii Uiuo, publicc bablla, Anno 



1617- Peh. 16. nen. Mrnip. IHV. rh. 

"Coiiiiniut. In Gal. "Hmnaitw, *• Eoch 

| " Lulb. iu Gal. ™ Pen. fiat. i. "SailiML 



Study, a Cause. 



201 



tiieom) praiiam non accepit. si non accipit, non nabel, ct si non , 

potest esM ; tantum tnim ubsunt istorum nonnulli, qui ad rlavum .' nec 

to reliquos, ut Ignitus impediant, probe ribi conscii, quibus artio<? n J. a 

tin qui ob literas emersisse illos credat, desipil; qui ?ero io§ lrt 

JiUoaii*, experientiir, probitBtis, pietntis, et Musarum id esse prctium pulal (qil> 

promittitur) planiasime insanit. Utcunque tel undecunqut 

: ru m ducat, non ultra qiurram, ex his primordiis co-pit vitiorum < 

ulamitas, omnc miscnarum ugmen in Ecclesiam amehitstr. lime tarn 

"\c ortiT querela, fraudes, impostures, ab hoc fonte se derio&rmU 

•Ve quid obiter dicam dc ambitione, odulatione plusquam united, nr 

ctrnio laborent, dc luxu, de faedo nonnnnquam viler, cxrmplit, quo iumnullox 

compoln Hone Si/lmrtlica, kr. hinc ilk squalor acadt m 
Came rise, quum quiois homunculus artium ignarus, hie artibus 

itnr ct diteteal, ambdiosis apptllalionibus ins tultts 

august ut vulgi oculox jierslnngat, bene se habeal, ct grandia gr. 

quondam ac amplitmitnem pret sc ferens, miramque toltjcitudiat M, barba 

rtrttmdus, toga nilidus, purpura coruscus, supt llrctilts sphndore, tt famulorwn 

-rime consptcuu*. Quales status (quod ail "illc) qn;c W !ibn« 

c.iiuuiuf uujiumiiiiuf, vt-liit ooeri oedentM ndeatur. ac ii iacodaraot, quota twwm 

mm aat carcnleft. et nihil saxeam adjuvent firmitali'm : atlanles vidcri volunt, quum 

l<ipid*w, umbratiles rrvcra homunciones, fungi, forsan cl bardi, mini a 

intrrrm docti vin, et vita: sanctions ornamenlis prctdili, qui 

>rtc servianl) minima f arson salario amlcnti, pat 

nunrupati, liumilcs, obscuri, multoque digniores licit. $m ntcs, inlumorali 

yam pfiratam agant, tcnuique srjmlli sacerdotio, rel in eoliegas Mil M wter- 

§ ' nolo diutius hunc movere senlinam, hinc 
lachrymtt: lugubris musarum kabitUi, ''/line ipsa rtUgtO i t/it»d cum Srcillic 

urn ct contemptum adducitur, abjrclum saccnJ 
austm >t j-utidum ""putidi dictcrium de clcro usurpare) puudum vulgus, 

,ntde, sordidum, mc lanclwhcum, miscrum, despicabile, contcmnendnm.** 




■ 

nan, aw *.•- . 
«**•►« a* 



U dr A» 

•* C'ani|iiuii. 
|A>» nvllil'-r ar. 



r lib. 5. 



H.il.. 

Ilu> 
.i„,l 



III! 



•hM' and* 



• ni> introduce 
firiuiu and tat- 

n.itr Hicm nr- 
l*vr M* we cl- 
ip"!, fe'llllllll'd 

mil to MMMfy 

I lie ruatlMMfy 

n.r imiIi whm 






iTii»» 10 be. Idiot*, inderi. 
, *UU, MttWtlialt, 

'■K»k of life 
it****' wife: 
l'jiikI 1 ! irudi. 



■ p*aw«l lb* »ti|>.il«lr,l j./ri't.) in NM 
■ft. «-4-.1 lli^ni-rli .-lllli-r 



toaax IVf »«<»io • nr 

**»h««f i»i - 
"Wqillllll ■ 

■•Jtoit* Mvtain • 

- Otrtnnj and pr 
"HIMI .W-it nni Hi" 




Utof ■*■ lanctt or hi 

fji. piffoilm, wortn lb* 



1 piin king. The Phii(wopha»tu' an- aAMltoi to a dfgrea 
' in Arti, because iliey have no aeqaajalaaoa with uu-ni. 

I Ana Hi- y are dcaired lo be wi*o nirn. In'i-nu— iln-y arc 
endow til with no wiadom. an.l bil 
free, • ». ipt U»e wi»h l<> liavn ii 
eoatic (only let iliem pay) Hi 

vcaik'Bic boaear. Ilrur/- it i« Miat an many 
tnle baaboaa, ao many idiot* rvi-i . i in tlw 

IWilajM of letter*, the im-re g\h»i* nt •• li->!.ir*. waa> 
dercr* in the market place, vagrant*, barbel*, ■gal* 
nwinr. il"lii. awe*, a )rro»liri» rn-r..l. Willi unw<i»lied 
fn:i, break lata the sacred |irecincte ol llini|..->, Ikiiid- 
in? mil hi nj alimg with thfi.-i hit un lu 
«• tin.- r«t| 11 lull' I Jliiil OhjIisIi *-hu|n-Ur' lit liiiirnlil>e>, 
uiiwurihv nf rcapoct ev<io at the crn**inc at tan In.'li- 
wny*. Tin* ■• the unworthy, lasr.int, ecttiptanai rare. 
Oiler for the li-«e »ly (horaini ih«u ih<- almr (araiD), that 
baaely priH-tiiiiir iliiiiK' lilrrm in- thrsi are Ihry who 
All the pulpit*, creep into the palace* of our nobility 
after all nlber prntperl* of esastened "ail tlit-in, owm( 
to their iiiiim'iliiy of l»>dy an. I nnnd, and 1 In ir boinf 
■ in i|iahli< 1 if *u*laining any < 

wealth; In thu Mcred refufi dariaklnf the 

nffirc of the nmiiatry. not fnnn <ior>-ri<y. tml •* Si. 
Paul aaya, huekftenng the word of Ood. Lr{ nut any- 
one tii|in>>>! Itiul 11 i« lirn- ml 1 I -I |o ,1. ir.nl from 

my eiemplary mon of whuli H11- 1 linrch of 
K'ifland may b<ia«t. learned, riiiimnt , and of *|nilles* 
in that than in any 
vllvr ehuuh of Eni'.; • : arned 

■iiihi'khim which eoiKtani' ■*•* ^nJoed 

with every fnnn of vinue. And lle-w aaarloarie* would 

a »lill greater number of inestimable rcliolar* 
ln-reaflir if mrdiilint* did nut obaMfl tlo «|ilfinlld 
iivht. corriipti I r.riaiii truckling bar 

'•■igiir* envy dtsui Ineii . Nir can 

any one be ao blind a* not to pHfjelv* lhi»— aajrao »lo- 
inl a* not 10 Hndaratand it — a-" *n iwrsMsa n- 
ackn«>w1rdr«t Imw air i 

rialt-.l hi llii' - 
1 trr»l^; 1 

[of a church living, any olUM.ot Ixinuut . Vk& ft 



202 



Causes of Melancholy. 



MEMB. IV. 




r -CT. I. — Non-necessary, remote, outward, adventitious, or accidental cause* : a 
first from the Nurse. 

Of those remote, outward, ambient, necessary causes, I have sufficiently di<r-ourscd 
in the precedent member, the non-necessary follow 5 of which, saith *■" ' Fuchsius, no 
art can be made, by reason of their uncertainty, casualty, and multitude; sn called 
'•Tint Decenary" because according to m Fernelius, "they may be avoided, sn>! 
without necessity*?' Many of these accidental causes, which I • -n? of here, 

miijlit have well been reduced to the former, because they cannot be avnfcled, but 
fatally happen to us, though accidentally, and unawares, at some tunc or ■ 
rest are contingent and inevitable, and more properly inserted in this rank 
To reckon up all is a tiling impossible; of some therefore most remarkabl 
contingent causes which produce melancholy, I will briefly speak and in 1 

From a child's nativity, the first ill accident that can likely befall him in this kind 
is a bad nurse, by whose means alone he may be tainted with this " malady from his 
cradle, Aulus Gellius /. 12. c. 1. brings m i'havorimis, that eloquent philosopher, 
proving this at large, ** u that there is the same virtue and property in the milk as in 
the seed, and not in men alone, but in all other creatures; he gives instance in a kid 
and lamb, if either of tin in suck of the other's milk, the lamb of the g 
kid of ihe ewe's, the wool of the one will be hard, and the hair of tie 
Gitvldw Cambrensis Rinerar Cambria, I. I.e. 2. confirms tliis by a notable example 
which happened in his time. A sow-pig by chance sucked a hrach, and wl 
was grown ""would miraculously hunt all manner of deer, and that a- 
ratlier better, than any ordinary hound." His conclusion is, ""'that men and bewts 



I 



any public IimII or rily ready lo accept of any employ- 
ment liiul may iiIIm. 

•A thing uf wood and wlrea by other* played." 

Fi flowing lite pilule an Ihe pnrrol.they »lu tier nut Any- 
thing 111 bopei of reward: olwcquiou* paraiite*. hji 
nua, tench, aay. write, admire, approve, contrary 
t.i Uf tr conviction, any) liiripc you plea*c, not to benefit 
the people hut M improve their own fortune!. They 
euberrllie in »ny opinion* and deciaiun* contrary I' the 
wind u[ li.nl, ihat liny may mil orti-mJ their patron, 
hut retain the favour or the great, the applau-e or the 
multitude, iin.i Utereby acquire nche* n Ibunaalvwf 
for tin y apprortch Theology, not thol lliey may pciforita 
1 duly, hut make a fortune : nor to prinrni. Hi. 
■tereat* of liw church, but to pillage it: reeking. u» 
■ «, not the llmigf which are of Jpiw Chrlet.btM 
»rni imiy be their own: not live treaaure of their Lord, 
but Hie I't.ni linn ill of Ihemeelvet nml llnir ftMoWMft 
Hat .i.i.-n (.tun evil belong lo those of humbler birth and 
fortune* only, it poeeeaeee Uk> middle and big her rank*, 
to**i>li* 1 ;.r;if r ./ 

•0 Pootitta, tdl the efficacy of gohi in aajracl mat- 

*l" Ainrun nfleo lead* the hirlte»t men arlray, and 
men, ailiuirulile in nil other respect*: these And a aalvn 
fur aiiiKiuy ; ami, sinking aginiKt Una rock ol rnrrup 
tioii. 1I1. > 90 not »h.-ar but flay the flock; nod, wher- 

<wr ibei in. plunder, i-xhauvt. raze, making »|np- 

wrerk nf their reputation, if not of their enuls also. 
1 nnpenrx ihnt this mnlady did im! flow from 
Hi.' linn l>l-»i in tin- liiilii-nr clnoaea, hut rirc ccr», mi 
tiiii 1 in. aura li ime iIMdnhIi ^nltee m jeet— •' he 
light tlr-t, therefore ha* the beat rich) To Ml I n 
: Btmnniac (that I may una the phra>e"l"sv "i i 

rec- ived a favour; aince he nan nut reri iv.-l • n in 
11,. 1 BMBaa 'no- . Mini tinea hi Sang ant paateaa mie 
• inn So 1 11 r Ina u ad are nana of hmuk- 

1I10 arc placed at the helm from promoiirif mlicr*. Unit 
i|i|. uly oimirurl them, from n riihymiiiirfunr 
the mean* by which ihvtaeelve* obtained tin- 
Tor hr who imagine* Hint live) emerged from liiwli ob- 
arurity through ll»-ir h ariimn I* deceived; j in It'll, 
1 auppoai 1 promni ion in tic lbs reward ofgenlue, 

rn..li| . ui-ri.M.. .• |,r.il'i!y. pi. 11 , nri I |.n. irv 1 vil.irt' 

luriiorlv « B» ilic raw, hut huh ailayi« ranuly prontiaedj 

1 lln« nr «i tin- malarl) onn- 

ill rml further inquire; but from Iheaa lw- 

kiiiiiiii'.'-' Ho- mi inimii of viciHj, all her calamitk-a 

a. hi nut. rn-a have In «'ii hrouKbt upon ihel'liiir> I 

audi (ri-quiiit tela •'■T>irci>ny.cumpla'rit* l fraud, impoa- 



laraa ■from Itria onefxiinuin apring all ittm 
Iniqilfliea. I -liiill not pre«» the q 

rily flattery, lc— it they may he r.ha 
luiury. bare eiamplea of IU-, \< In 
wanton Jrinliins parltea, 4c. Yet ; m 
deinic Hiitalnr, the muaea now look rail, - 
fellow ignorant of Iho art*, by ill • 
|ir iiiioit-il, and crow* rich, dialinguiblieil by amti 

ml purl'-l up by ln» numeroui holt 
«hnwa himself lo the vulgar, and by hi* - 1 i 
display* u apo cl ea of HMJcaly. a reumrka' 
li'liuig down a flowing tieard,drckc'd in -a hrilliial l«S> 

■ nl will! pur|i1e. and rt-npetted alw OB aecuaat 
ol' Hi" .pltniliiiir if hi* hniuehold and Numb*! ul in' 
aervaui*. There aru certain sluii II uend 

eilirt" f* mat eeem lo sink undo) Uiiir load, ami alaw* 
to (i.-r*plrc. when io reality they are void ol' - 
and do not contriliute to live alii »i lb 

men woulil ui-li 10 look like Atia«i>», win 
batlaf than atulue* of aione, iuMgniflcan 
ilia, little diOcrtnl from 
iarneil man, endowed with all Hint rnn i 
holy lite, mi- ii niiii nave endured tin- baaj nf ■■ 
by aome unjost lot obey l hem' dizzar<l» 
hI'Ii With a mifternble *alary, known hy limn - 
laliona, homble, ohacure, allbough eun ■ 
needy, leading a prival'- lifi- witltoal In 
• live in ionic poor beni ticn 01 in 
tin m i i.iu-j.- i-hnmrH-ra, lying hid inglnrlnualy. 
mo unwilling to «nr thin aink any lon«i i 
hence trmee ten ra.thi* melancholy Imi-ii of 

i inn I may *|x'ak with 
Cino i* tiroiiL'liil intu ilMrrpute .ii ■ .nd 111 

■•■iBhjiTl; (ami unrr tin- : <nr>K 

out and um; a Hllliy Willi i < i toUal 

crowd, i r, lord id. melaoi holy, laiaara 

** I'rurlll Mb. 'i Nulla araconaliliii pnwt " Uh. 

I.e. lit. de mnrli'Tiim cnuaia. Quaadrclmano llgel Ml 
nulla necurailalv iiiiinur. "(iu 

reri-na servnlut oihirem Tefta dial, 1 1 ■ r 
valet ad Qiigemlai cor porta atqae animi «imititudia 
Via el iialuM ■.riiiinii. rir qn.'ipie lai - 
Vi|ii- ill iii lininiiiiliu* mvlinn, to.1 in , 
inmlv. r-inii- Nniu <i ovlunt lade tut- . 
Hi.' ii i alerentui 

illiaca|iillum gigni aevrrionrn i m I 

prreequnrc'in' ad miroeulum ii*»iu'- lagAa " r»" 

animal qundiibel quatn humo ah ilia cojua lacta n«Ul 
tur, imluiiiiii conlrulnl. 



1.1 



JYttne, a Cause. 



203 



her nature and conditions by whose milk they are fed." Phavorinua 
•r, and demonstrates it more eviilem '"'"misshapen* 

MM, impudent, "cruel, or the like, the child that racks upon bat 
e eo loo;" nil other aflectiona of the mind and diseases sre almost 
t were, and imprinted lata the temperature of the inlknt, by the W 
sy. melancholy, &c. Cato for some such reason would I 

Inliirrn rack npon liis wife's breast, because by that means they w 
! Iik tin- better, and m all likelihood agree with them. A ni" 

:;iat the minds are altered by milk cannot he given, than licit of 

he relates of Caligula's cruelly; it could neither be imp ther 

r, hut to his cruel nurse alone, that anointed her papa with blood still w 

ili made I such a murderer, and to express her cruelty to a hair: 

■ ii -ii :;-. who was a common drunkard, because his nut 
I i "one observes) infa nlulum detirum faciei, if she 

child she nurseth will take after her, or otherwise be miaafreqfcd; which 
Barbarus /. 2. c. nil. dc re vxorid proves at full, and Ant. Guivarra, lib. 2. 
ihc child will surely participate. For bodily sickness there 
• mbl to lx- niaile. Thus. Vespasian 1 * son, was therefore sickly, because the 
Lunpridius. And if we may believe physicians, many tunes children 
ir pox from a bud nurse, Botaldus cap. ftl.d<? lue vener. Besides evil attend 
ross inconveniences, which are incident to nurses, much 
ne to the child. *For these causes Aristotle Polit. lib. 7. c. 17. 

■ I Marcus Aurelius would not have a child put to nurse at all, but every 
to taring up her own. of whnt condition soever she be; for a sound and able 

ool her child to nurse, is natura intempcries, so "Guatso calls it, ^is 

fore she should be nurse herself; the mother will be more careful, loving 

. than any servile woman, or such hired creatures; this all the world 

•ivenientistimum tsl (as Rod. :i Castro tl>- nit, niulitrum. lift. 4. C 

words confesseth) matron ijmm lactate infantem, u It is most tit that 

r should suckle her own infant" — who denies that it should be so? — and 

women mimm c :irii>nsly observe; amongst the rest,'" that MM pf 

bnbj that was so precise and zealous in this behalf, that when 

a strange nurse had suckled her child, she was never quiet till she 

c the infant vomit it up again. But she was too jealous. If it be so, as 

>• n it is, th»ty must be put forth, the mother be not fit or well able to be a 

I would then advise such mothers, us "Plutarch doth in his book dc libcrii 

/<*, and "S. llierom, /<. 2. rpi.il. 27. Lata: de instil ut. jil. M peti 2. 

At. cap. 7. and the said Rodericus, that they make choice of a sound woman, 

ion, honest, free from bodily i il it be possible, all pas- 

... rluffcMMM "t the mind, us sorrow, fear. L'rief, ""folly, iiii-l.iuchol v. For 

upt the milk, and alter the temperature of the child, which now 

'(/dim rt mollc lutum, "a moist and soft clay," is easily seasoned and per- 

neb a nurse may be fo I out, that will be diligent Mad cartful 

avorinus and M. Aurelius plead how they can against it, 1 had rather 

of her in some cases than the mother herself, and which Boriacialus the phy- 

i> the politician, lib. 4. de rcpub. cap. 8. approves, * u Some nurses 

be preferred to some mothers." For why may not the mother be 

a peevish drunken flirt, a waspish choleric slut, a crazed piece, a fool (a* 

mothers are), unsound a> toon as the nurse? There is more choice of nurses 

and therefore except the mother be most virtuous, staid, a woman of 

good ports, and of a sound complexion, I would have all children in such 

eet strangers. A..d 'tis the only way; as by marriage they 

• 1 to oilier famdies to alter the breed, or if anything be amiss in the 

atus contends, Tom 2. lib. de ttiorb. furred, to prevent 



<.|tn tnnulriita reitrix, «V*. 
•• HMVllMM *#X Blind >• Ul>|nlii. 

mnrqur 

■ ril.u*. 

. n«n lucii, 

rorjaa, ci *uin>ua con~uujpaiiir. 



"" I ili I i1p<-n oiiivem. « 1 S<-|iliariii«. "TV 4 

quMvm, ml ninm n 
I ui>n m laaciva aul U'liiuli'iioi. line "» t'n 
' IV r*. > NulttfM 

KiKrclu 




'iOi Cannes of Melancholy. [Part. 1 

diseases and future maladies, to correct and qualify the child's ill-tlisposcAira 
ture, which he had from his parents. This is an excellent remedy, if good chuic 
be made of such a nurse. 

Subject. II. — Education a Cause of Melancholy. 

Efil catio.v, of these accidental causes of Melancholy, may justly challc; 
next place, for if a man escape a bad nurse, he may be undone by evU bringing up. 
'JtMM Pratensis puts this of education for a principal cause; bad parent?, str r 
Uiits, tutors, masters, teachers, too rigorous, too severe, too remiss or indu 
the other side, are often fountains and furtherers of this disease. Parents 
as have the tuition and oversight of children, offend many times in that 
stern, always threatening, chiding, brawling) whipping, or striking; by 
which their poor children are so disheartened and cowed, that they n< 
any courage, a merry hour in their lives, or take pleasure in anything. Th 
great moderation to be had in such things, as matters of so great moment 
making or marring of a child. Some fright their children with beggars, 
and hobgoblins, if they cry, or be otherwise unruly : but they are much I 
it, many times, saiih I^avaler, dc. sptctris, pari 1, cap. 5. ex metu in rimr 
incidunt et noctu dormientes clamant, for fear they fall into many d\- 
oul in their sleep, and are much the worse for it all their lives ; these thing 
not at all, or to be sparingly done, and upon just occasion. Tyrannical, impejfcn 
hair-brain schoolmasters, aridi mogistri, so 4 Fabius terms them, Jijaces fl(n 
are in this kind as had as hangmen and executioners, they make many 
endure a martyrdom all the while they are at school, with bad diet, if they 
their houses, too much severity and ill-usage, they quite pervert their teni| 
body and mind : still chiding, railing, frowning, lashing, tasking, keeping, thai 
are fructi animis, moped many times, weary of their lives, 'niwta Kvfailate 
el desperant, and think no slavery in the world (as once I did myself) like 
of a grammar scholar. Pra'ceptorum ineptiis discruciantur ingenia pwrorum,* sa&\ 
Erasmus, they tremble at his voice, looks, coming in, St. Austin, in the first boo 
of his confess, el 4 en. calls this schooling melicuiosam necessitated, and el 
a martyrdom, and confcsselh of himself, how cruelly he was tortured in mind fi 
learning Greek, nulla vrrha noveram, tt saris terroribus et panis, vt ttf>sscw s tnsti 
batur milii vehementer, 1 know nothing, and with cruel terrors and puniidumnt I Wl 
daily compelled. ' Bcza complains in like case of a rigorous schoolmaster in Pari 
that made him by his continual thunder and threats once in a mind to drown h 
self, had he not met by the way with an uncle of his that vindicated bun from »h 
misery for the time, by taking him to his house. Trincavellius, lib. I, cotuiL I 
had a patient nineteen years of age, extremely melancholy, ob nimium siudium. Tar 
vitii et projccptorix viinas, by reason of overmuch study, ami his "tutor's tl 11 
Many masters are hard-hearted, and bitter to their servants, and by that means do . 
deject, with terrible speeches and hard usage so crucify them, that they become de 
perate, and can never be recalled. 

Others again, in that opposite extreme, do as great harnv by their too much remi 
ness, they give them no bringing up, no calling to busy themselves abom. <t to ft 
in, teach them no trade, or set them in any good course ; by means of which thi 
servants, children, scholars, arr carried away with that stream of drunkci..u< 
ness, gaming, and many such irregular courses, that in the end they rue it. cui 
their parents, and mischief themselves. Too much indulgence caused) the like, 
'incjilti ptitris hnitas et facilitas prava, when as Milio-like, with loo mi 
and loo great allowance, they feed their children's humours, let them rei 
riot, swagger, and do what they will themselves, and then punish them with a noise 
of musicians ; 



» (.ih, <te «n«rW# capitii, cap. de mania ; timet pnmre- 1 perverted by the indi*-rr«ion of Hi* Waaler. '" T Pi 
BM cams uippuialiir edMcatin. inter list invntix abulia* ad Ti.-aiain. * 1'ln* menu* ptcdnitucic.) nupercilio 

aatmnin cauaan. tnjualm noverca. • Ltti -J rnji i. | aiutii. quam unquaiu pratceplia «uu »opiriiliJ- iatu 

♦ Idem. Ki quod nianmv nic<-t, ditm in Tenrri* iia vit. »Tw. Ailcl. 3. 4. 
tuueui mini cmiaiitiir. '"The pupil'i faculuei are | 




httucatioTL, — Terrors and Jlffrighls, Causes. 

■*"Qb*ontl, pot»t. ol«it untii-iiU ri> rprn; 

Aiiibi ? dol'iuir a rm- argciiluin utu cnl eummoJuai. 
F\»re» effri'gll 1 njatilllentiK : dascwlll 

Veslem 1 reaarcietur. Fanat qumj lulvrl, 

Su mat. coiimiiuai. pcrdat, decrelutn c«l pati." 

toll] him, tu ilium corrumpi sinis, your Unity will be his undoing 

lidtor jtivi diem ilium, <ptum hie egens profugut aliquo militatum, 1 fore 

So parents often err, many fond mothers especially, doat so much upon 

pPtlike "jEsop'.s ape, till in the end they crush them to death, Corporum 

■ rum norerca, pampering up their bodies to the undoing of their souls: 

ty wtjtt ti-' \< l tli' ; controlled, but still soothed up in everything 

btt^Hxt in conclusion " they bring sorrow, shame, heaviness to their parents 

[EccblSbsjp. xxx. 8,9), become wanton, stubborn, wilful, and disobedient; nide, 

idetroQgt incorrigible, and graceless ;" ■ they love tlicm so foolishly," 

nilh ^BanL cv rather seem to hate them, bringing them not up to virtue 

learning but to riot, not to sober life and conversation, but to all 

Itioui behaviour." Who is he of so little experience that knows 

ibius to be true? ""Education is auother nature, altering the mind 

■d nB, and I would to God (saith he) we ourselves did not spoil our children's 

overmuch cockering and nice education, and weaken the strength 

■todies and minds, that causelh custom, custom nature," &c For these 

Plutarch in his book de lib. educ. and Hierom. epist. lib. I. epist. 17. to Lata 

_ives a most especial charge to all parents, and many good cautions 

'MTDn ddrcu, that they be not committed to indiscreet, passionate, 

a. giddy-headed, or covetous persons, and spare for no cost, that 

■y be well nurtured and taught, it being a matter of so great consequence. 

:* as do otherwise, Plutarch esteems of them " M that are more careful 

than of their feet," that rate their wealth above their children. 

• that h aves his son to a covetous schoolmaster to he informed, 
hbey to fast and learn wisdom together, doth no other, than dial he 
tkkly wise man." 

«ect. HI. — Terrors and Affrights, Causes of Melancholy. 

•., in the fourth of hi* Tusculans, distinguishes these terrors which arise 
r'henaion of some terrible object heard or seen, from other fears, and so 
aath PatrtUus lib. 5. Til. 4. de regis mxtitut. Of all fears they are most pernicious 
■fcl violent, and so suddenly alter the whole temperature of the body, move the soul 
■al spirit*, strike such a deep impression, that the parties can never be recovered, 
•■aiagmore grievous and fiercer melancholy, as Felix Plater, e. 3. </'• Mentis «/•■ 
•pais i ice, than any inward cause whatsoever: "and imprints 

ibly in the spirits, brain, humours, that if nil the mass of blood « 
ootoft' it could hardly be extracted. This horrible kind of melancholy 

(ferioli' I been often brought before him, and troubles and affrights 

cn&otoaly m •■men, young ami oW of all sorts." "Hercules de Sa 

Uiont spirilvtim by a peculiar name, it conn's 
faasihr ajntation. notion, contraction, dilatation of spirits, not from any diatoiiipi-r- 
■ ol humours, and produceth strong effects. This terror is most usually c . 

I I franinc , hi ex hi* <on»ueluiio, '"de nntura. " P.-timle 
»i<\ »c siqnii iir calceo Ml fiilit iliif , pvtlcui in'. 
J n veil. Nil |i«ln intnu- i-si quaw Oliu*. '« ; 
■aiBVjrahail capieiil: qui jHiii pajdaKngta pieru* alendo* 
|k», »i» ii'l. clauanain co)ii>iini> j-jnn in rimul <•( Fmpore.iiilnl ninid 
ii. as'i nt. nt*i Hi i>im *w bob Bine vtalutiaeruiliti. i 
mlrgra viln Mpienle*. "Trrrorel aeiu 

fx improvlm acnwleiile* ita aniniuiu cnamot 
■airiliM uunquain recuperet, iiun'ircm-; 
liam terror r«cil. quam qua* ab interna canta i 
preMio tarn d<rti* in *pirilibua hnmorihuMiur ■ 
ut ealracta lola tanruiiH-a mansa. cure vipriinalur, el 





fcr " P...V |||| .'I II 

■* "4 h»i». •..• man 

■■"••iii. 
»< uruu. 



u Lib. d« eon 

■ B U M vulen ' 

m, nan ad eru<liii>>nem Bed 

i''*nl«-». 

na. aiu-ral amino* el 

i ii iiK.lr'iniin 

qumu iiiliiiliain ilatiin SB- 

i lam iiiilulfeii 

urr*Q» outset, el hmuiu el corpon* 



lure nnrrnida tpaajM BM 
in i In, OawiM WarotOB, vir 
de inelan. cap. 7- elf. non 
dilaiaiiooc, coauacuuue, 



iti-r ■•I'lit a 



200 



ilscs of .Melancholy. 



as "Plutarch will have, "from some imminent danger, when a terrible object is 
hand," heard, seen, or conceived, Mu truly appearing, or in a *' dream :" and ma 
times the more sudden the accident, it is the more violent. 



rror aotaiu, < j i mr ■(loniiuoitalit, 
Fovi(l«ni<iuc irtpKltft palpitat renin |ccur." 



'■ Their amil'a aBri^'lil, (heir heart amaaed quake*. 
The trembling liver jiauu P 111' rein*, and acin-.'" 



Arthemedorus the grammarian I «t his wits by the unexpected sight of awocodi 
Laureniius 7. dc melon. "The massacre at Lyons, 1572, hi the reign of Charles 13 
was si* terrible and fearful, that many ran mad, some died, great-bellied wanton WW 
brought to bed before tbeir tune, generally all affrighted aghast, Many lose lh« 
wits •' •' by the sudden sight of some spectrum or devil, a thing very comta^kin « 
ages," sailh Lavater part 1. cap. 9. as Orestes did at the sight of the Fun- 
appeared to him in black as "Pausanias records). The Greeks call tin in ,, 
^^ !iii-!i so terrify their souls, or if they be but affrighted by some counien 
in jest, 

■— "ut pucri trepidant, alqueomnif. CcrU 

In tenebnt mciuuni" 

as children in the dark conceive hobgoblins, and are eo afraid, they are the w^ 
it all their lives. Some by sudden fires, earthquakes, inundations, or anv m 
objects : Themison the physician fell into a hydrophobia, by seeing one si 
disease : ( Dimtccrides I, 0. c, 33.) or by the sight of a monster, a carcase 
disquieted many months following, and cannot endure the room where a corp 
been, for a world would not be alone with a dead man, or lie in that bed a 
after in which a man hath died. At r Basil many little children in t 
went to gather flowers in a meadow at the town's end, where a malefactor liui 
gibbets; all gazing at it, one by chance flung a stone, and made it siir, I 
accident, the children affrighted ran away; one slower than the rest, looki 
and seeing the stirred carcase wag towards her, cried out it came after, and was 
terribly affrighted, that for many days she could not rest, eat, or sleep, she i 
be pacified, but melancholy, died. M In the same town another child. In 
Khine, saw a grave opened, and upon the sight of a carcase, was so troubled in 
that she could not be comforted, but a little after departed, and was buried bj it- 
Platcnis ohst rent. I. 1, a gentlewoman o{ the same city saw a fat hog cut up, 
the entrails were opened, and a noisome sai'our offended her nose, she much 
liked, and would not longer abide: a physician in presence, luld her, as that hog, i 
was she, full of filthy excrements, and aggravated the matter by som> 
some instances, insomuch, this nice gentlewoman apprehended it so deeply, that sh 
fell forthwith a-vomitiiig, was so mightily distempered in mind and I tvilh 

all his art and persuasions, for some months after, he could not restore her U 
self again, she could not forget it, or remove the object out of her sight. Idem. 
Many cannot endure to see a wound opened, but they are offended : a man exdCQt 
or labour of any fearful disease, as possession, apoplexies, one bewitched; *ori 

read by chance of some terrible thine, the symptoms alone of such a disease, 
or that which they dislike, they arc instantly troubled in mind, aghast, ready to apply 
it to themselves, they are as much disquieted as if I hey had seen it, oi were 
aflected themselves, Hccatas sibi videnlur somniare, ihey dream and e 
think of it. As lamentable effects are caused by such terrible objects hearth pi 

ttditus maximos mnlus in corpare JacU y as * Plutarch holds, no sense make 
greater alteration of body and mind : sudden speech sometimes, unexpected news 
be they good or bad, pnzvisa minus oratii), will move as much, animum ob 

'< M * ii<j'ccrc, as a 31 philosopher observes, will lake away our sleep n 
tite, disturb and quite overturn us. Let them bear witness that have heard tin 
tragical alarms, outciii -s, hideous noises, which are many time's suddenly heard 



•M.ih. ilf fort, of virtut. Alfi. praraertim ineiinie 

i, ii l.i r.« pfnpt aiNiint tirnliili*. *> r'll * 

•'. vol per inminin, 

'i A pnmler's wife in Haail, IC00. S.ini- 

mnvit lill'i'ii Ik 11m murtuiiin, null' >!• lam 'twill i fionan. 

l.iri ■•• il iii afii'iirc. Here. Oct. "Qunrln pars 

comment, ile Statu rvtigtnnla in Gallia tub I aml«i ' ! 

157;. "gj ncrurMi ramonum alinui (tiron 

uniur et nutrienti* niitnui eat. "Lib. H. In Ai.h.i 

*»Lucri.i « ruvlta extra urbcm iu prmo concur 



rrnli-i.fcr. mirata el melancholies aVraran redittnrri 
lUqllM vi-intn, <lmii awftta cm. riain. 
Iruu* Khenana injf|ps»a aepiilclirum rrcrn 

Mia vet, el liiniiiiiii aubito n i 
vm-iire, |> i»t paucna i1n« olmt, proi 
locata. Altera palibulum - 
«•■ urbe eicluaa illir |«rniicl»rcl. I 
facia, per timldi* Biin<<* Inhm I 

iu« fHTurmu iiiopmaia lectii). *• I, il,. ut 

" TImmmI. 1'rutlromua lib. 7. Amorum. 



I I T rrort and .?_.' ifx, djr., ( 



2(i7 



tif'n 



idtt. and 

•r. fight- 

,1 i-.irth- 

oiid mi 



if night by irruption of •Denial end accidental (ires, &c, those "panic 

eir wits, berea\ lading 

their whole lives, thry m ■■■> it Tin 

breaking but even - •>\n- | 

fear was discomfited at thr walls of 

fta Livm bearing ■ lew Mffical M-rses recited out of Virgil, Tu .M.tr- 

Ivlinus king of Denmark, by ■ luddefl 
***was turned into fury with all his men, 1 ' Cranziu 

andro I. 8. c. 5. Amatus Lusiianus had a patient, 
. ten. '1. cunt !)0 /. 1. 18, 

a his wit* by uii > an echo. If one sense 

MBOlious of the Blind, what may WB think W 

re nil doubled at once ; us by some etfihqajaj 

\i Bologna Sa Italy. Anno 1504, there was at 
^iik. a! ; Ins in his book id ttf\ 

hat all die city trembled, the people thou- 

■ •ii em!, ■i.-.'un tit murlaUinu, such a fearful nois.-, it made such ti detestable smell, 

to iaiaabttants were i i ran mad. Jiudi rem atrocm, ti 

mmlUmt inraaarfwrfrrm [niiur author adds), hear a strange story, and worth) to he 

.1 o servant at the same time railed Fulco Argelanus, a bold and 

PfU —ay so gric\»»us|y terrified with it, that he "was first melancholy, alter doled, 

himself, At *Fuscinum in Japona ** Uiere was such an 

«riaquakr. cud darkness on a sudden, that many men wen ofiended with headache, 

max ovtrv helmed with sorrow and melancholy. At Meacum whole streets and 

f*Vly nolao- v» • ■•<• overturned at the same time, and then was aucb a hideous noise 

new, like thunder, and filthy smell, that their hair stared for fear, and their hearts 

neii and beasts were incredibly terrified. In Saeai, another city, the same 

tanhtuokr was so terrible unto them, that many were bereft of their senses ; and 

le bo much amazed, that they knew not what they 
•st* i christian, the reporter of the news, was so affighted for lus 

Mthoagh u v lontbs after, he was scarce his own man, neither "cmil,: 

On* the remembrance of it out of his mind. Many times, some years following, 
toy nill tremble afresh at the "remembrance or conceit of such a terrible object, 
ma -tig, if mention be made of it. Cornelius Agrippa relates out 

i story of one, that after a distasteful puree which a phy- 
eran had pre*-. • him, was bo much moved, ,0 "thnt at the very sight of 

Brrnt he >• istempered," though he never so much as smelted to it. the box 

would give him a purge; nay, the very remembrance of it 
travellers and seamen," saitb Plutarch. "that whoa they have b 
a rock, for ever alter feet not lliat mischance only, but all such 
Safari whatsoever." 

. Si Seo/flr, Calumnies, bitter Jests, how they cause M lane holy. 

\ blow with a word strikes > blow with a^t 

ius and bitter 
JNtttlibri, a pi like-, us with any 

W> irtt are otherwise happy, and have 

••■ ji i ')uu. impunitati i grieT- 

oadv and satires . 

lield, which made most 
nfcrte) •* allow I d jteueion, that he should not tax them in Ins satires."** 




• • .. 






Mill til , i lirillllirj tit 



■(naW, uotj \ lU»Vce »uy ' 






ti08 



Causes of Melancholy. 



[Part. 1. Sec. 5 



: 

* 



The God9 had their Momus, Homer his Zoilus, Achilles his Thersites, Philip h 
Demndes : the. Ca>sars themselves in Rome were commonly taunted. There 

wanting a Pelronius, a Lucian in those times, nor will be & Rati 
Euphormio, a Boccaliuus in ours. Adrian the sixth pope "was so highly offeude 
and grievously vexed with Pasquillers at Rome, he gave command mat his stat 
should be demolished and burned, the ashes flung into the river Tiber, and had do 
jl forthwith, had not Ludovicus Suessanus, a facete companion, dissuaded him to 
.-ontrary, by telling him, that Pasquil's ashes would turn to frogs in the |ttttoa 
the river, and croak worse and louder than before, — genus irritabile <Bm, 
therefore "Socrates in Pinto adviselli all his friends, " that respect their CftyJ 
stand in awe of poets, for they are terrible fellows, can praise and dispraise as they 
see cause." Hinc quam sit calamus savior rnse pate/. The prophet J ' 
plains, Psalm exxiii. -i. u that his soul was full of the morking of the wealthy, and 
of the dcspiiefulness of the proud," and Psalm lv. 4. u for the voice of tin 
&c, and their hute: his heart trembled within him, and the terrors of death came 
upon him ; fear and horrible fear," &.C., and Psal. Ixix. 20. u Rebuke hath broken 
my heart, and I am full of heaviness." Who bulb not like cause to complain, and 
is not so troubled, that shall fall into the mouths of surh men ? for many an* ( so 
• petulant a spleen ; and have that figure Sarcasmus so often in their mourns, so 
bitter, so fbobah, as JK Baitaaw Castillo notes of them, ihal u they cannot speak. In 
they must bite ;" they had rather lose a friend than a jest ; and what company soever 
they come in, they will be scotfing, insulting over their inferiors, especially over such 
as any way depend upon tbem, humouring, misusing, or putting galleries on MM 
or other till they have made by their humouring or gulling * 9 ex stulto insunum, I 
mope or a noddy, and all to make themselves merry : 

" " diiiiiinniln riniim 

Excutial *ibf ; mm luc ruiijuam parcil amim;" 

•'riends, neuters, enemies, all are as one, to make a fool a madman, is their sport, 
and they have no greater felicity than to scoff and deride others; they must sacrifice 
to the god of laughter, with them in 5I Apuleius, once a day, or else they shall ha 
melancholy themselves ; they care not how they grind and misuse others, so they 
may exhilarate their own persons. Their wits indeed serve them to that sole pur- 
in malt* sport, to break a scurrile jest, which is kvissimux ingenii fruchlt, the 
froth of wit, as "Tully holds, ami for this they are often applauded, in all other dis- 
course, dry, barren, siniminioiis, dull and heavy, here lies their genius, in this they 
alone excel, please themselves and others. Leo Drcimus, that scoffing poive. at 
Jovius hath registered in the Fourth book of his life, took an extraordinary delight in 
humouring of silly fellows, and to put guileries upon them, M by cooimendi 
persuading others to this or that : he made ex stolidis stultissimos, et marimc ridirulot, 
ex stullis iiisanos ; soft fellows, stark noddies; and such as were foolish, quite mad 
before he left them. One memorable example he recites there, of Tarascomus 
Parma, a musician that was so humoured by Leo Decimus, and Bibiena laic 
in this business, that he thought himself to be a man of most excellent skill, (w" 
was indeed a ninny) they ^"made him set foolish songs, and invent new ridiculo 
precepts, which they did highly commend," as to tie his arm that played on the lut«. 
to make him strike a sweeter stroke, w " and to pull down the Arras hanging • 
the voice would be clearer, by reason of the reverberation of the wall." In the li! 
manner they persuaded one Barabalhus of Caieta, that he was as good a poet at 
Petrarch; would have him to be made a laureate poet, and invite all his friends to 
nis instalment; and had so possessed the poea- man with a conceit of his excellent 
poetry, thai when some of his more discreet friends told him of his fully, be was 
very angry with them, and said Mu they envii tour, and prosperity " it 

strange (saith Jovius) to see an old man of 80 years, a venerable and grave old m< 



nbuii. ni> morn rpvtnim Salyrit tuii notarel. Gup. 
■ rtliiii" prrflit. parntxlld. 
>J..ilU* in Vila 'ju«, (raviaime liilil fommia lilirlln 
HOOIM •mini nil I'n-qinlli •inluam fume larernluro, 

drcrt-viU|u' Mr.i si iI.ji Irmotifl, *<■-. "PtMn. lib. 

■ 1 ,i<Mtiialiniii>in CUTinl, pnelaf 

nam vim habanl ail laudarufum el 
Vlluptrandinu. <• iviutauliKplFiipcacliinno. ""Curial. 
hb.il Em giinriiiiilam r»t iuarilia, ul quoliei IcMjui. 



lniii«« niofilrm litvre aibl ptll'iit. ••T»r. Run 

■Mlor. aer. lib. S. Bat. J. " Provided If can ui 
laucfiti r. be •parwi mil Ilia be»l fnrinl n Ijh. 

••Drnrnl. *• Lamlnm!". rt itiirn n« rn r.i.n.li-n.i 

M El vain inflnlm inniunn i* «<• 

qinixlniii Mnaio** prawvpu iiMinn,nlar.i< 
viK-fs hlkIi* [inri'-i ilfi* ilh- 
rnnl. MluiinurlalJlau cl gloria: *u«r pro 

do n tea. 



Sabs. 4.J 



Scofs, Calumnies, bitter Jests, $(C. 



209 



■ 



: what cannot such scoffers do, especially if they find a soft creature, 
lliry may work? nay, to say truth, who is bo wise, or so discreet, that 
red in this kind, especially if some excellent wits shall set upon 
re, if be were so humoured) would be as mad himself, as 
rued ; he might cry with him in the comedy, Vroh Juj>iter } 
tid msaniam. For all is in these tilings as they are taken ; if he 
do not perceive it, 'tis well, he may haply make others sport, and 
himsi If; Ian if he be apprehensive of his folly, and take it to 
ononis him worse than any lean : a Utter jest, a slander, a calumny, 
any loss, danger, bodily pain, or injury whatsoever; letitCf cnim 
ilv as Bernard of uu arrow, sal graviler vulncral, (but wounds 
if it shall proceed from a virulent tongue, '* it cuts (saJth David) 
Jged sword. They shoot bitter words as arrows," PsaL lxiv. 5. "Arid 
b their tongues," Jer. xviii. 18, and that so hard, that they leave an 
.ml behind them. Many men are undone by this means, moped, and 
todnectrd, that they are never to be recovered; and of all other men living, those 
vaicb are actually melancholy, or inclined to it, are most sensible, (as being suspi- 

Br, apl to mistake and impttietU of an injury in thut kind : they aggra- 
eo meditate continually of it, that it is a perpetual corrosive, not to be 
ime wear it out. Although they peradventure that so scoff, do it alone 
and merriment, and hold it optimum aliena frvi insania, an excellent thing 
another man's madness; vet they must know, that it is a mortal sin (ass 
Thomas holds) and an the prophet M David denounced), "they that use it, shall 
Trrmiw 11 in (j-hI's tabernacle."' 

Soch M-urrilnus jests, flout*, and sarcasms, therefore, ought not at all to be used ; 
•penally to our betters, to those that are in misery, or any way distressed : for to 
«k, ttrwnmarum mcrrmmta sunt, they multiply grief, and as M he perceived. In mul- 
tu pmior, in multts iracundin, <$r.. many are ashamed, many vexed, angered, and there 
■ oo . ins* or furtherer of melancholy. Kaitia Cramerue, in the Sixth book 

rfais hi- story to this purpose, of Uladislaus, the second king of 

Dunnius, earl of Shrine; they had been hunting late, and were 
•<lge in a poor cottage. When they went to bed, Uladislaus told the 
bat his wife lay softer with the abbot of Shrine; he not able to contain, 
a cum DabrsiOy and yours with Dabessus, a gallant young gentleman 
, whom Chri-' [ueeu loved. Tctigit id dictum Prinrijns animum y 

of his "o galled the prince, that he was long after tristis et cogitabuwlus, 
d OMlanrholv for many months ; hut they were the earl's utter undoing: 
i heard of it. she persecuted him to death. Sophia the empress, 
wife, broke a bitter jest upon Narsetes the eunuch, a famous captain then 
ow which he lately had: that he was fitter for a distaff and 
men to wield a sword, or to be general of an army: but 

h^r d«-.ir. for be »0 far distasted it. that he went forthwith to the adverse part, 
led in his thoughts, caused the Lombards to rebel, and thence procured 
to the commonwealth, Tiberius the emperor withheld a legacy from 
. which his predecessor Augustus had lately given, and perceiv- 
! a dead corse in the ear, would needs know wherefore he did so; 
replied, that he wished the departed soul to signify to Augustus, the corn- 
were yet unpaid : for this bitter jest the emperor caused him forth- 
and carry the news himself. For this reason, all diose that other- 
no coses, and facete companions, (as who doth not?) let 
and b' nrtpantur rt ilia Codra, *tis laudable and fit, those yet 

means admit diem in their companies, thut are any way inclined to this 
i jocandum cum Us qui mitrri sunt, tl arumnosi, no jesting with a diseon- 
- caveat, *° Jo. Pontanus, and " Galaieus, and every good 



* 



- H»r with me. but hurt me not: "' 
V J«*i wlia me, but »li«ui« on ■«." 



7S. Irrum iti<<rul« pmcium. I auliro. 
-IUir.it., t da | CtUfeui. 

fj 



" Dc #«moo.e lib l.tip.V a?»A.TA 



CmKt of ,Mclun.'.hult/. 



'art. 1. See. 2. 



ttow Wcw«ra rusticity and scurrility, two extremes, as affability ii 
it must Dot exceed ; but be still accompanied with 
jH0 mewtini nocrt, omnrm injuria: oblationem abluirrcnK 
>*Wn ail *4fw of injury. Though a man he liable to such a jest or 
m i im w tB , or committed a foul fact, yet it is no good manners or 
tnoL to bit him in the teeth with his offence, or to scoff at such a 
&!».•«. tmrpti in reum omni* r.rprobrtttio.* 3 I .speak not of such u 
T* Bkvriir. lit-ntil is, Erasmus, Agrippa, Fishcnrtus, &c, the V 
>«f «mt Me, satirists, epigrammists, comedians, apologists, See., hut 
weoS, calumniate, perstringe by name, 01 in presence offend; 

M" Luilit qui vlnlidn ■iiwtrlHla 

Non e*l Sestius Hie mil cab&llui:" 

those jests (as he B saith) "are no better than injuries," 
t ti aculcati, they are poisoned jests, leave a sling behind tlieni, 



I not thy r7»*l iii mnke the Idtrnl in roll ; 
\-ir willblTy offend Ihy weaker hr»Utrr : 
Nuf nriiniil Hie ilcnit with Ihy luneiie's bitter gall. 
Neither rcjoir* trum in tti* fall of oilier." 



) 



be kept, we should have much more ease and quietness than wi 
■ ; whereas on the contrary, we study to misuse each other, ho* 
like two lighting boors, bending all our force and wit, frien. 
c**ct»y "one another's souls; by means of which, there is Utile content and 
.lency, hatred, malice, and disquietness among us. 

. X.—Loes of Liberty, Servitude, Imprisonment, bote they cause MchmchoU. 

X\» tfcw catalogue of causes, I may well annex loss of liberty, servitude, or iropri- 

rami"'. * b»ch to some persons is as great a torture as any of the rest. Though they 

dm all thmgs convenient, sumptuous houses to their use, fair walks ami garden*, 

Sowers, galleries, good fare and diet, and all things corresponds, i, yl thry 

lircause they are confined, may no t t come and go at their pleasure, 

3jk1 do what they will, but live M alirn't qundrti, at another man's ttl 

V* it is M in meals so it is in all other things, places, societies, sporte; 
be never so pleasant, commodious, wholesome, so good; yet omnium rrrm 
j*. there is a loathing satiety of all things. The children of Israel were 
• manM, it is irksome to them so to live, as to a bird in his cage, or a dog 
W kennel, they are weary of it. They are happy, it is true, and have all dungs, 
hit man's judgment, that heart can wish, or ihrtt they themselves can desire, 
wmnonnl: yet they loathe it, and are tired with the present: f]sl naluri 
, Bwifilfii nriiia; men's nature is still desirous pf news, variety, rJeUgbHj 
iter wandering affections are so irregular in this kind, that they must change, 
it must be to the worst. Bachelors must be married, and married men would 
tchclors; they do not love their own wives, though otherwise lair, \. 

and well qualified) because they are theirs ; our present estate is still the 

innol endure one course of life long, el quod modo rovt r,,:, tn 

loiiR, esse in honor e jnv at, mox ditylicet ; one place long, " Ronur Tihur onto, 

Tubure Romam, that which we earnestly aooght, we now contemn. Hot 

agit ad mortem, (sailh " Seneca) quod proposiia s<r-pe. mulando m fade* 

r, it non relinquuni tiovitttli locum : Fastidio capil esse rita, tt ipsut mtf 

k .i tubit illud rapidissimarum d> lieiarum,Quousque endemf ihis alone kills mU»T 

bmii. that they are tied to the same still, as a horse in a mill, a doj: 

• mid, without alteration or m life groweth odious, the wodd 

^gomc. and that which crossed] their furious delights, what ? still the same? 
pus Aurelius and Solomon, that had experience of all worldly delights and pl«* 
I as much of themselves; what they most desired, was tedious it 
and that their lust could never be satisfied, all was vanity and affliction ofarini 



»jr Tu«c. cviMt. ■" E»ety r»pmarh utttrH 

i r»«,l, condrinnMi i> mrin ipiriird." 

Iih. I > pi.- 1$. •T»t*»Joei »1> n)>irii» non 

OalaMM fo 44. "fji'i*: in btt 



Qu».lr»ml 37. " E*o rnjjtw «ni»»-r» r»lmi«i» •< *► 

menu* cnnSiclnr. Tull. • » Mivna 

r«t alt*na virrr* quailra. Jui » i rim'* •«• en««. 

Vua uw iwfafc priori. * Hot. " Uc u«n«u<i .-,,<a*. 




illy 



Poverty and Want, Chum* 

If, another hell, to be glutted with one kind of sport, J] 
me plare ; though they have all iliin^s otherwise as ihrv can 
B in heaven to another man's opinion, uh.it m i .shall 

that live in slavery, or in prison itself? Qund tristiu.i noris", in tt.rvittft* 
as Hennolaus told Alexander in "Curliu- i.m death is b< 

s< forUt) til mortem sereituti anttponanls All brave men el 

- • arc so affected. " Equidcm ego is sum, qui tervUatem exiremum om 
malonim esse arbitmr : lam lie (saith Bourn*) that account servitude (he 
And what calamity do they endure, that live with those hard 
B gold mines (like those 30,000 "Indian slaves at Potosi, in Peru), tin 
me-quarries, coal-pits, like bo many roouldwarps under Rroum 
mined to the galh;. -. Lo p rpetual drudgery, hunger, thirst, and stripes, \ 
»pe of deliver] : How are those women in Turkey ■Acted) thai most pari of 
ear come not abroad; those Italian and Spanish dames, that are mewi 
*,and locked up by their jealous husbands ? how tedious is it to them thai 
rrtm and cares lialf a year together ? ax in Ireland, Muscovy, or under the * ppl 
v have six months' perpetual oight Nay, what misery and discon 
endure, that are in prison ? They want all those six non-natural thing 
J air, good diet, exercise, company, sleep, rest, case, &.c., that are botffli 
long, sulfur hunger, and (as "LacJM describes it) «* niusi abide lha 
Mink, and rattling of chains, howlings, pitiful outcries, thai prieoni 

«se things are not only troublesome, but intolerable."" 1 They lie nai 
{ loads and frogs in a dark dungeon, in iheir own dung, in pain of body, in 
of soul, as Joseph did, Paal. cv. 18, "They hurt his (eat m the stocks, the iron 
solitary, alone, sequestered from all company but hears* 
melancholy ; and for want of meat, must eat that bread of affliction, 
themselves. Well might "Arculauus put long imprisonment for a eau 
lo m e lived jovially, in all sensuality and Inst, upon a sadden are 

jed and debarred from all manner of pleasures: as were Iluniades, Edv 
kh-i the Emperor, Bajazet the Turk. If it be irksome to mi.-- 

rdumry companions and repast for once a day, or an hour, what shall it ' 

If it be so great a delight to live at liberty, and to enjoy that 
' is the world affords; what misery and discontent must it in 
bw that .-hall now be cast headlong into that Spanish inqtli Ml from 

u to hell, to I"- cubbed up upon a sudden, how shall he be perplexed, wrhnl 
. ul hint? "Robert Duke of Normandy being imprisoned by h 
; iv I., nli i Ho dn inconsolabili dolor* in carter* conlalx 
tw Pari*, from that day forward pined away with grief. "Jugurtha I 
Captain. " brought tn Home in triumph, and after imprisoned, through anguish 
lancholy, died." *' Kogcr, Bishop of Salisbury, the second man 

lit bath that famous cattle of "Dorinai in Wiltahire,) was 

- ith hunger, and all those calamities acenmpaoying such men, 

- nolwnl, mr>ri ntscirrity he would not live, and could not die, bttwe 

sf death, and torments of life. Francis King of Franc risouer by 

le« V., nd mortem fere melanchoiicus, saith Guicciardini, melancholy almost to 

i mstant. But this is as clear as the sun, and needs m> fartbaf 



Poverty <ind Want, Causes oj Melancluily. 

T and want are so violent oppugners, so unwelcome guests, so much ah* 
I of all men. that 1 may not omit to speak of them apart Poverty, although 

aright, to a wise, understanding, truly regenerate; nnd contented i 
ionta* /Art, a blessed estate, the way to heaven, as *Chr ill it, God's 

' rto- 



■ ruiiiu. t-|. ■ i r. 




'• \\ in i mi i .i i . i uTor'a clitrtt mm 

■nnrtla om i iw •'». fct. 

I •3ch««. "Coin, nd lletirctx. 



z\% 



I ncholy. 



l.Sec. 



gift, the mother of n .'id much to be preferred before lichee (as shall 

• down in his "place), vet as n u esteemed in the worlds censure, it is a mc- 
calling, vile end <?re torture, summum sctlns, a most intolerable burden ; 

■ slum it all, cone pejua n angm ( wnp?e than ■ nake), we abhor the 

Paupcrtas fucritur,totoque arcessiiur orbe^BB being the fountain of all • 
cares, woes, labours, and grievances whatsoever. To avoid which, Wt * ill take 
any pains, — cxtremos curritmercator ad Indus, ere will leave no haven, no eoei 
creek of the world unsearched, though it be to the hazard of our lives, we will ilii 
to the bottom of the sea, to the bowels of the earth, "five, six, seven, i 
hundred fathom deep, through all five zones, and both extremes of 
we will turn parasite's and slaves, prostitute ourselves, swear ami 
bodies and souls, forsake God, abjure religion, steal, rob, murder, rather than en 
this insufferable yoke of poverty, which doth so tyrannise, crucify, and general!) 
depress us. 

For look into the world, and you shall see men most part esteemed a 
their means, and happy as they arc rich: st Ubiquc tan quantum h 

If he be likely to thrive, and in the way of preferment, who hut he ? In 
opinion, if a man be wealthy, no matter how he gets it, of what pn 
qualified, how virtuously endowed, or villanously inclined; let him be a 

an usurer, a villain, a pagan, a barbarian, a wretch, <;i t- *| 

whom you may look with less security than on die sun;" so thai be 
liberal withal) he shall be honoured, admired, adored, reverenced, ami highly 
nified. "The rich is had in reputation because of his goods," Eccl. x. '.i I lb <■ 
be befriended : " for riches gather many friends, 1 ' Prov. xix. 4, — multfs m 
amiens, all w happiness ebbs and flows with his money. He shall be HC4 
gracious lord, a Mecasnas, a benefactor, a wise, discreet, a proper, a valiant. ■ fo 
nate man, of a gcneious spirit, PuUus Jovis,et gallinee Jilius aJha: a h 
man, a virtuous, honest man. Quand > tgo it Juiumium putrufH, rt matrix 
vcrc aurcum, as "Tully said of Octavianus, while he was adopi< 
heir "apparent of eo great a monarchy, he was a golden child. All " b< 
applause, grand tides, ami lui diets are put upon him. <mn> 

diccrc ; all men's eyes are upon hiin, God bless 
"every man speaks well of him, every man presents !. 
his love, favour, and protection, to serve bun, belong unto him, 

Thcinistocles in the Olympics, if he speak, as of Herod. ' 
komhus, the voice of (Jod, not of man. All the grace 
•ttend lam, "golden fortune accompanies and jodgeth with him, and BJ 
Roman emperors, is placed in his chamber. 



unvirrt aillji, 



Poriui Itrio " 

he may sail as he will himself, and temper his estate at his pleasure. 
splendour and magnificence, sweet music, dainty fare, the good things, am' 
laud, line elothee, rich attires, soft beds, don • are at his command, all tl« 

woild for bun, thousands of artificers are Ins slaves to drudge lor ! 

ride, ami post for bun : "Divines (for Pytkia Pkilippt 
losopheis, scholars are his, wholly devote to his service. F.\ 
"•acquaintance, bis kindred, to match with him, though he be an 
monster, a goosecap, urorrm ducat Dana< n, ' when, and whom he will, hu. 
gavrum R li : ■ an i lutch for m 

Stc. Quicqtdd calcaverii hie, Rusajict, let him go wl will, 



• fun 

0*'ftlUN. 

1. 1. 



Mb 3. "Miirm ut itifTicili-iu 

f.Tiirtilnimi*. I'hil. 
>ilvcr mtnea at FobuiY 



• .I i in' rtjrl 
nuiiuni 



•Ml 



III nil I 
*c. a Ah* i.i w of,// 



w > 



bfcllltl 



4. Sal*. «.] 



Poverty and fVant, Causes. 



2 11 



bells ring, Sic. all happiness attends him, every man is willing to entertain 
in 'Apollo wheresoever he comes; what preparation is made for his 
? fish and fowl, spices and perfumes, all that sea and land affords, 
r, masking, mirth to exhilarate his person ? 



Da Tm-Ijio, pone ad Trei.ium, vii fratcr *b illia 





will your good worship eat of? 

' iluiria l'-n*. 

i it. i fun dm Imnorc*, 
aw Uarvn, fuau* vencrabiliur l.att divea." 



"Swrel applca, and whate'er thy flrlda afford, 
Before (hy Guda bv kti'i). lei metre Iby L-irJ." 



rtcrntultr 



Libi o 



•.v.ll your honour have . : hawking, hunting, fishing, fowling, hulls, bears 
rocks player*, tumblers, fiddlers, jesters, Ike, they are at your good wor- 
■ i'l Fan houses, gardens, orchards, terraces, galleries, cabinets, plea- 
htsome places, they are at hand: 1 in aureis ldc,vinum in argenteis, 
ad nutum speciosat* wine, wenches, &c. a Turkish paradise, a h> 
Though he be a silly soft fellow, and scarce have common mow, yet 
be borne to fortunes (as 1 have said) *jure hartdilario sapere jubetur, he must 
honour and office in his course: 'Nemo nisi dives honore dignus (Ambroa. 
21.) none so worthy as himself: he shall have it, aique esto quicquid Scrvius 
Get money enough and command l0 kingdoms, provinces, armies, hearts, 
and ntlections; thou shah have popes, patriarchs to be thy chaplains and 
shalt have (Tamerlane-like) kings to draw thy coach, queens to hi 
i, emperors thy footstools, build more towns and cities than great 
', Babel lowers, pyramids and mausolean tombs, ike. command heaven ami 
tell the world it is thy vassal, auro cmitur diadema, argenta calurn pan- 
iui phihtophum cunducit, nummus jus rogit, oholus litcraJum pasnt, 
/urn sanilalcm conciliate trs amicos conglutitial. [ 's-fAnd therefore not witho 
se, John it rich Florentine, when he lay upon his death-bed, 

is sons, Cosmo and Laurence, before him, amongst other sober say inj 
'junto digrtdiot) quod vos tanas el diviles post me rtlinqu- 
rot- good 10 think yet, ibougn I be dying, that I shall leave yon, my chil- 
and rich:'' 1 for wealth sways all. It H not with us, as among-i those 
senators of Lycurgus in Plutarch, " He preferred that deserved best, 
us and worthy of the place, "not. swiftness, or strength, or wealth, 
carried it in those days: 11 but infer opiimos optimtis, inter temjterantcs tcm- 
bfl most temperate and best We have no aristocracies but in con- 
all oligarchies, wherein a few rich men domineer, do what they list, and 
by their greatness. "They may freely trespass, and do as they please, 
one them, no not so much as mutter against them, there is no no 
f it, ihey may securely do it, live after their own laws, and for their money 

indulgences, redeem their souls from purgutory and hell itself, 

.' area Jorcm. Let them be epicures, or atheists, libertines, marhta- 
- they oiien ten) ""El quomvis prrjuris erit, sine ge.jde, critentus^ they 
heaven through the eye of a needle, if they will themselves, they may 
for saints, they shall be "honourably interred in mausolean tombs, eoa* 
red in histories, have temples and statues erected to I 

manibus HUjs — nascrntur violet. If he be bountiful in his life, and 

death, he ■hall bare one to swear, as he did by Claudius the Emperor 

he sow his soul go to heaven, and be miserably lamented at his funeral. 

/, Sfc. Tntnalciows topaniti in Petronitl* redd in curiam ahiity 

to heaven: a base quean, '•"thou wouldst have scorned once in thy 

have a penny from her,'" and why? modi a nummos mctiU, she measured 

y by the bushel. These prerogatives do not usually belong to rich men, 



i Laeultn, a rteb chamber »» fallal. * P.,in« 
• H->r ffli . 
-t fcVmWnharh. • K.iph run.. 

I &♦**.! »l»ti mm 111(11111 lofty ■(unit, 

rnnbia 

ar»f In CanaT«ii , phil.»>pliy may i» hired fit 
■llll aaotmla kaaSjca; one ubului aaliaue* 



a man of Icier, ; prmnui motal procure* I 

»f«iUi ii a Nun fail apud m 

Kinni, non mlar actora* ■ 

inn, lion lllliT roblMUM I "IiuMIMIUIO, ace. u Q'i 

libel Itarl " II ir. Sat. S. lib. S. '* Cum mnrilai 

.hve« cuiicMrruut uadlqua • o<« P»«perit mi fanuJ vii 
,-.i (| „.. i El Bifldfl .i^ci rull lenoaaae 

alibi finui i«"J». uoiiii»a« He mtnti *ju» uuumiu» «a> 



214 



Causes of Melancholy 



l.Seci 



part seeming rich, let him have but a good "outside, lie car 
, and thai! be adored fat a god, as m Cyrus was amongst the Persians, ob rj 
ua opparatuw, for his gay attirt Sj J now most men are esteemed accordn 
clothes. In our gullish limes, whom you peradventure in modesty woulil give place 
- being deceived by his habit, and presuming him some great worshipful man, 
believe it, if you shall examine his estate, he will likely he proved a serving man of 
no great note, my lady's tailor, his lordship's barber, or some such gull, a Fastiiliui 
Brisk, Sir Pelronel Flash, a mere outside. Only this respect is given him, that 
wheresoever he comes, he may call for what he will, and take place by reason of hu 
ouluard habit. 

But on the contrary, if he be poor, Prov. xv. 15, "all his days are mi 
is under hatches, dejected) rejected and forsaken, poor in purse, poor in spirit; '"prwt 
ns nobis JUrit, ita ft antmus se hubel ' ; a money gives life and soul. Though he be 
honest, wise, learned, well-deserving, noble by birth, and of excellent good purl*; 
yet in tltat he is poor, unlikely to rise, come to honour, office, or good m> 
contemned, neglected, fnutra eopft, inter Uterus csurit, amicus molcstus. -''"Il lie 
Speak, what babbler is this? Ecclus, his nobility without wealth, is t: pmjecia I 

alga, and he not esteemed : new Biles pulli noli infelic.ibus ovis, if once | :. <ieare 

metamorphosed in an instant, base slaves, villains, and vile drudges ; a for to be poor, 
is to be a knave, a fool, a wretch, a wicked, an odious fellow, a common eycHWW, 
say poor and say all ; they are born to labour, lo misery, to carry burdens like 
foments, pithm stereus eotrtedett with Ulysses' companions, and as Chra 
objected in Aristophanes, "salcm lingrre, lick salt, to empty jakes, fay chaw 
"carry out dirt anil dunghills, sweep chimneys, rub horse-heels, Stc. 1 say n 
of Turks, galley-slaves, which are bought *and sold like jnments, or those Alriraii 
"es, or poor "Indian drudges, qui indies June inde defefendu mvribus occmr 
bun!, nam quod apud nos bnves 6t usini viiiunt, Ira/iunt, cjc.' Id ornne mi.tcllis Indis, 
they are ugly to behold, and though erst spiuce, now rusty and squalid, l>< 
pom, n \mnatnda$forttauu aqwan eat tquahrtm asjirii it is ordinarily so. ""Oilier* 
eat to live, but they live lo drudge," "sereilis tt inisfra gCtU nihil re.cusan unda.n 
servile generation, that dare refuse no task. — —**//• u.\ fa Dromo, cap< AsBj 

n ntu/irin hinc facito 'him ItttHumusf sirrah blow wind upon us while we wash, mid 
bid your fellow get him up betimes in the morning, be it fair or foul, lie shall run 
fitly miles a-fool to-morrow, to earry me a letter to my mistress, Socia ad pislrinm. 
Norm shall tarry at home and grind malt all day long, Tristan thresh. Thus are the)' 
commanded, being indeed some of them as so many footstools for rich men lo 
on, blocks for them to get on horseback, or as ""walls for them lo piss on." Tiny 
are commonly such people, rude, silly, superstilious idiots, nasty, unclean, I 
poor, dejected, slavishly humble : and as M Leo Afer observes of the Commons] 
Africa, naturtl viliores Sttni, nee apud suos duces mttjore in prceio qudm si cants rsstM: 
"base by nature, and no more esteemed than dogs, miseram, laboriosnuu calamitcr 
tarn viium agunt, et inopcm, iiifitlia m, rudiorcs asinis,ut i brutis plane natos dicta: 
no learning, no knowledge, no civility, scarce common sense, nought but barb 
amongst them, bellaino more vivunt, neqve calccns gestanty nequc vestes, like rO 
and vagabonds, they go barefooted and barelegged, the soles of their feet beii 
hard as horse-hoots as I'.ad/.ivilus observed at Damietta in Egypt, hading a labo- 
rious, miserable, wretched, unhappy life, '*** like beasts and jnments, if not worse:" 
(for a "Spaniard in [Beaten, sold three Indian boys for a cheese, and a hundred 
slaves lor a horse i their discourse is srurnlilv, their fntminuin btmuin, a pot of lie. 
There is not any slavery which these villains will not undergo, inter illng pltriftt 
lutrinas evacuant, alii cuUnariam curant, a/ti alG&ttlarios agunt, urinatorcs, rl id 



(lint wear* »ilk. fitin, vrlvi i. ami cold lire, 
mufi nriid* \w a ifolleutan. '" Eat nungum Mbjm 

ipiritw inrniii.i lliorlftllbua. '» Rm i|inlf-n. * X'nii' 

.1. 1 8. *' In teitui ruia <-at i". idia 

I'aiiini Juv, *" 1 1 . ■ r ' ■ iiiiin u'orttil> »* than rrjivlril 

•'Keen 'I ludlgtrc utIisIiiiii 

tar. Sal M.ulp » Plant, ajal 4 - V.iIIiiiii 

Mir.i.n nun viln nmiiuteH, i|Mi*l "inn hili.-nli»- 

. mIi-mhui. '*• Ijiuhicj* urai hi 

tll*paiiiAm. *>La«l draenn. Aim-new. '■*•' VVlio 

July (mill fa-nmlli iIip bllfawM Ihi-y an- samp 

et/ry fium i>l$ce to plate ; fur l»f) tarry aud draw 



itc hawla which oxan and awn f.iriM«»ly u«r4 S« ." 
J»Plniilii». »U'n. ARt. c„. nil I. I 

in banii vivam. ami ul f.irnlrr laU i 
" MimrtM i .' Ub.l 

»»Tl-r. K'limili. ti|'aii(wr |nir, 

cijIiu cniiinitiiaunl. »' Lil' I.Ca, nil >li-« 

■ iinn>» illia iii|.ii><<» dirric— : lain unim 
ni.niii niliriuntiir, tanquain 
apbindoi r»iw>ni« Mnonvut 
" v.iui in iiinll<»vm »ii»m 

♦ tlvi». jniiii-uU in leril*. L<-.' * Uarttuk*. 

uicua a Cut. 



9 ovtrty awl IVanl, Causes. 



215 



jimi/ui fx'rcmty be. like those people that dwell in the "Alps, chimney- 

, jaki-«-fartuco, dirt-daubers, vagrant rogues they labour hard some, and yet 

to put on, or bread to eat. For what ran filthy poverty giro else. 

T f ful-<»tn«- na-imos, squalor, contempt, drudgery, labour, ugliness, htm- 

nt as *'he well followed it in Aria- 
and lice, pro pallia vrstcm laccram, ft pro pufoinari hipidem beni 
ad rajmt, rags for Ins raiment, and a atone for his pillow, pro cut/nilrtr, 
aput uni-r. In* sits in a broken pitcher, or on a block for a chair, ct m</(W 
> pant bits comrdiU he drinks water, and lives on wort leaves, pulse, like a 
r scrap* like :( dog, ut nunc nobis vita ajicitur, quis non vutabit insaniam esse, 
Hmtemqurf as Cannulas roncludes his speech, as we poor men live now-e- 
take our life to be "infelicity, misery, and madness? 
be of bull uhtion than those base villains, hunger-starved beggars 

rogues, those ordinary slaves, and day-labouring drudges; yet they are 
ad upon by ° polling officers for breaking the laws, by their tyran- 
tadtoraa, no Hayed and fleeced by perpetual "exactions, that though they do 
fare hard, and starve their genius, ihcy cannot live in "some countries -, hut 
■ly taken from them, the very care they take to live, to be 
•> maintain their poor families, their trouble and anxiety "take- away their 
■ rac. xxxi. Lit makes (hem weary of their lives: when they have taken 
■ tlxir utmost and honest endeavours, if they be cast behind by sick- 
it ith years, no man pities them, hard-hearted ami merciless, uucha- 
lile as they are, they leave them so distressed, to beg, steal, murmur, and * rebel, 
starve. The feeling and fear of this misery compelled those aid Homans, 
us Agrippa parifled, to resist their governors : outlaws, and rebels in 
s, to take up seditious arms, and in all ages hath caused uproars, murmur 
litmus, rebellions, thefts, murders, mutinies, jars and contentions in 
lwealth : grudging, repining, complaining, <li-ronti it in eaeb private fatmly, 
they want meana t" live according to their calling*, bring op tbati children, 
hearts, they cannot do as they would. No greater orieery than for a 
UUghfM living, a gentleman a yeoman's, not to be able to Uveas In- birth 
requin Po ta rtQ and want are generally corrosives to all kinds of men, 
ly to such as have been in good and nourishing estate, are suddenly distressed, 
ally brought up, and by some disaster and casualty miserably 
M they have base fortunes, so have they base minds corre- 
rcore orli, i Stercure ricltix* in slrrcorc ih lie mm, as tie 
• ly born and bred, so they delight in obscenity; they are not thoroughly 
with it Jlngiuitas aniinas angusto in peclore versanti Yet, that which is 
iuse of their torments, if once they come to be in distress, they are for- 
krn of their fellows, most part neglected, and left unto themselves; as poor 
Ibobc* m Rome was by Scipio, Lxlius, and Furius, his great and noble friends. 

\.l P.a.h.«i Sripm prnfiut, ml 1,1 T.rliim. ml Kiiriu*. 

Tri- npu> qui at iiatani noMica racillimc, 

H irimi llle opeii m- MM laid — I nuliuil c<in,Ju<Miliam-"» 

• frnerally so, Tempont sifut nut nubih, solus rri», he is left cold and comfortless, 
• misaas ibil amicus opes, all flee from him as from a rotten wall, now ready to 
loo dieir hrads. Prov. xix. 4. " Poverty separates them from their Jl neighbours." 

• -p-im f<>nni»a rawt Milium Mrralia nmicl, tuvniir'if. frirniU, ymj uml'il on M, \*\ 

■a tvtlilM or» fugi." Ilul iiti-ri >lw lli-il a fnriid I run hi nut ■»«•." 

is worse yet, if he be poor "every man contemns him, insults over him, 
slh htm, scons at, aggravates his misery. 



<ii Oawia vall>< 

niM fal'H 

V>.»iii •nrilktum t'iii.» liuiinnum. <ju«0 

• • mm naral. "t » 

I* w|«t»>i'i ur af- ft at. nr mnuw p»nr 

i "iu by eipr<"««- 

nnn poMunl, et 

• r«l IMil I. Ill qiinll-r 

p. in hi* Kaaai 
I*ai W»«i a»ard bow lory likcU Ui< cuun 



try, wondered how a frw nrh m»n cmiM kr.ef an many 
■ il IboJ ilnl mil ml Unit 

IliroRt*." ;iim» annual HlHi H 

""•im. *•' A narrow brra»l CMMMb ■ narrow 

■•••■ I." •» Onliatna vil. i'Jo». *•■• PuMni- 

Lirlnia nr.,1 y 
n«Meini»n •! ihai ilay in Runwi, wcrv oT>- 

> l*r<-» \. • 
uiKtaiii, vn ih»« will nui." *• I'ririiniu*. ** Non 

unn., ul Pfirm Chiittuui. )u 
iHMiunen uo* ■vTiaae. 



210 



Causes of Melancholy. 



[Part 1 SeeLS 



M" Quart >*|rit quassnta domut subsidere, parte* 
Id proclinalaa omne recumbit onus." 



" When one* the tottering house begin* to shrink, 
Tliitber cornea all the weight by an Instinct." 



Nay they are odious to their own brethren, and dearest friends, Pro. xix. 7. u Hh 
brethren hate him if he be poor," u omnes vicini oderunt, M his neighbours hate him," 
Pro. xiv. 20, "otnnes me noli ac ignoti deserunt, as he complained in the comedy, 
friends and strangers, all forsake me. Which is most grievous, poverty makes men 
ridiculous, Nil habel infelix paupertas durius in «e, quam quod ridiculos hominei 
facit, they must endure "jests, taunts, flouts, blows of their betters, and tike all in 
good part to get a meal's meat: "magnum pauperies opprobrium, jubel quidvis ei 
facert etpaii. He must turn parasite, jester, fool, cum desipientibus desipcre; said) 
"Euripides, slave, villain, drudge to get a poor living, apply himself to each man'i 
humours, to win and please, &c, and be buffeted when he hath all done, as Ulysses 
was by Melanthius *° in Homer, be reviled, baffled, insulted over, for " potentiorum 
stultitia perferenda est, and may not so much as mutter against it. He must tarn 
rogue and villain ; for as the saying is, Necessitas cog'U ad turpia, poverty alone 
makes men thieves, rebels, murderers, traitors, assassins, " because of poverty we 
have sinned," Ecclus xxvii. 1, swear and forswear, bear false witness, lie, dissemble, 
anything, as I say, to advantage themselves, and to relieve their necessities : ° Culpa 
sceleriaque magistra est, when a man is driven to his shifts, what will he not do? 

• " ii miserum fortuna Sinonem 

Finzit, vauuui etiam mendacemque inproba finget." 

he will betray his father, prince, and country, turn Turk, forsake religion, abjure 
God and all, nulla tarn horrenda proditio, quam Mi lucri causa (saith "Leo Afer) 
perpetrare nolint. "Plato, therefore, calls poverty, tt thievish, sacrilegious, filthy, 
wicked, and mischievous :" and well he might For it makes many an upright man 
otherwise, had he not been in want, to take bribes, to be corrupt, to do against hit 
conscience, to sell his tongue, heart, hand, &c, to be churlish, hard, unmerciful, 
uncivil, to use indirect means to help his present estate. It makes princes to exact 
upon their subjects, great men tyrannise, landlords oppress, justice mercenary, lawyer! 
vultures, physicians harpies, friends importunate, tradesmen liars, honest men thieves, 
devout assassins, great men to prostitute their wives, daughters, and themselves, 
middle sort to repine, commons to mutiny, all to grudge, murmur, and complain. A 
great temptation to all mischief, it compels some miserable wretches to counterfeit 
several diseases, to dismember, make themselves blind, lame, to have a more plausible 
cause to beg, and lose their limbs to recover their present wants. Jodocus Damho- 
derius, a lawyer of Bruges, praxi rerum criminal, e. 1 12. hath some notable example! 
of such counterfeit cranks, and every village almost will yield abundant testimonial 
amongst us ; we have dummercrs, Abraham men, &c. And that which is the extent 
of misery, it enforceth them through anguish and wearisomeness of their lives, to 
make away themselves ; they had rather be hanged, drowned, &.c, than to live with- 
out means. 



1 In mare cKtiferum, ne te premat supers egestas, 
Deiili, et a celsis corrue Cerne jugi»." 



' Much better 'lis to break thy neck. 

Or drown thyself i' the sea. 
Than sutler irksome poverty; 
Go make thyself away." 



A Sybarite of old, as I find it registered in w Athenseus, supping in Phiditiis in Sparta, 
and observing their hard fare, said it was no marvel if the Lacedaemonians wert 
valiant men ; " for his part, he would rather run upon a sword point (and so wonty 
any man in his wits,) than live with such base diet, or lead so wretched a life." "In 
Japonia, 'tis a common thing to stifle their children if they be poor, or to make an 
abortion, which Aristotle commends. In that civil commonwealth of China, "the 
mother strangles her child, if she be not able to bring it up, and had rather lose, than 
sell it, or have it endure such misery as poor men do. Arnobius, lib. 7, adveraa 
gentes, w Lactantius, lib. 5. cap. 9. objects as much to those ancient Greeks and 

m Ovid. In Trim. •» Hnrat. •* Ter. Eunuchus, I * Theogni*. *» Di pnosopuist lib. IS. MiMierpnlrls 

at*. 8. "Quid quod msierism prefect causauique raoriturum (si qui* sibi mente convtarei) quam" 

jocandi : Bi toca sordida sit, Juv. Bat. 8- ».«_. i.- 



*Hor 
asinPhenis. •Odya*. 17. « Idem. "Mantuan. 
■ "Since cruel fortune has made Binon poor, she lias 
math him vain and mendacious." «*De Africa 

JMi 1. rap. ult. •<. da iegibus. fiiracisaima pauperis*, 
mmttaga, turn*, dag itloaa, omnium maiorun optfex. 



vilis cl cruiunimi v ictus coinmunionein habere. atGaS' 
per Vilrla Jeauita epist. Japon. lib. at Mai. RieeJaf 
ezuedit. in Sinas lib. I.e. 3. *»Vo* Rocnani nrr 

creatoa Alios fens et rani but ezponitis, nanc i 
latia vel in aaxum eliditia, 4c 




Poverty and Want, Causes. 



217 



expose their children to wild beasts, strangle, or knock out their 

■gainst a stone, in such cases. 1 ' If we may give credit to Tl Munster, amongst 

Lithuania, they voluntarily mancipute and sell themselves, ihcii 

!ren to rich men, to avoid hunger and beggary; TJ ninnv make awa) 

elves in f :iy. Apiciua the Koman. when he cast up his accounts, 

«nd but 100,000 crowns left, murdered himself for fear he should he famished 

th. P. Forestus, in his medicinal observations, hath a memorable example of 

n>ilirr« of Loarain that, being destitute of means, baea&M both mrlum-holv. 

a discontented humour massacred themselves. Another of a merchant, learned, 

itbmrise and discreet, but out of a deep apprehension he had of a loss at seas, 

not be persuaded but as " Ventidius in the poet, he should die a beggar. In a 

thus much I may conclude of poor Ben, that though they have good u parts 

annul show or make use of them: 7i ab xnopid ad viriutem obsepta est i'«a, 'tis 

or a poor man to w rise, hand facile cmcrgunl, quorum virtutibus obstat res 

4a domi. r% " The wisdom of the pour a deeetted, and his words arc not heard." 

s. »i. 19. His works are rejected, contemned, for the baseness and obscurity of 

. though laudable and good in themselves, they will not likely take. 

" Nulli plarrrc diu. m-que vivcrc rarnuna poaaunt, 
Qua- acritiunlur alquz pntoribn*. ' 

verses ran please men or live long that arc written by water-drinkers." Poor 
ranool please, their actions, conns. Is aonsoltatioae, projects, are vilified in the 
'• esteem, ami! hint consilium in re, which Gualho Jong lines observed. 
tifiu crryidiu xibi nunquam nee salras feeil, a wise man never cobhled shoes j 
.«;in! of old. but how doth he prove it? I am sure wc find it otherwise in our 

*f/ruiru>xis korret faamdia panm*. Homer himself must beg if he want 
i. and as by report sometimes he did """go from door to door, and sing ballads, 
a company of boys about him." Tins common misery of theirs must needs 

U make them discontent ami melancholy) as ordinarily they are, wayward, 
like S weary traveller, for "' Fames d mora bihm in nans mnc'nmt, still 

and repining : Ob iiwpiam morosi sunLquibus est male, as Plutarch quotes 
lesj] and that comical poet well seconds, 

'Omiw* quiimt ft aunl mini)* wrimdtr, rn-wm qimmodo 
Surpitioai, ad rniuiiiiirliani omnia arcipiunl mafia, 
,'ler tuaiu itiipotcntlaiu tc ciedunt ncgliji." 

be in adversity, they are more suspicious and apt to mistake : they think 
tee sco reason of their misery :" and therefore many generous spirits 

eases withdraw themselves from all company, as that comedian "Terence is 
o have done; when he perceived himself to be forsaken and poor, he volun- 
ed himself to Stymphalus, a base town in Arcadia, and there miserably 



-"ad tiimiintn innpiam redact!?*. 



liaquc t eoiupeclu omnium abut (irana- in terrain ultimam." 

without cause, for we see men commonly respected according to their 

("on dirts sit omnes qucerunt, nemo an bonus) and vilified if they be in bad 

• Philophremen the orator was set to cut wood, becau- so homely 

- was placed at the lower end of Cecilias' tabfe, becanse af his 

outside. "Dante, that famous Italian poet, by reason his clothes were but 

not be admitted to sit down at a feast. Guatho scorned his old familiar 

of his apparel, m Homincm video pannis, annisqur obsitum, hie ego 

prat me. King Persius overcome sent a letter to *° Paulas iKmilius, 

i p-neral; Persi - I C >nsuli. S. but he scorned him any answer, taciti 

r fortunam suam (saith mine author) upbraiding him with a present fortune. 

Pttgnax, diat great duke of Burgundy, made II. Holland, late duke of 



beeaass 



<e.4.lil>. tap ti vandunl lib*ro«*ictii rarcntr* 

rrdum rt •ripwM ; ut apuil .liviln 

ip'Tiiimne val 

I t« failgali. attira* vinlrnlaa 

" t*\f 

ptf *ttn. ITl me pl'in * 

II" 

i ■ Tt-i - 'lil wh ■ 

aftf !••■«» > Wl'aarhaliua. 

•*U«fu>Ji»Ui tilt rjm. ttcaligcr in 

m 






pwl. Poimtinruin adra oalratim adirna. aliqnid arri. 
pii-bat. ranm. rarmini aut, cnncumtc/inl* rum (oifitt 
t iiii ■ linr>>. •> Plaului Arnpl. "TWr. Vt 4 8cr>n 
:i. A.l.lph H>c>" "»l)iinnt. rila rju«. «•■ K-ducr* 
to tlw frralr*t n«rwitr, he withdrew from llm nam oC 
Hi., p .hue i.r the moat rrmnte villa*" la Inw* 
■* Plutarch vita ejiia 
VI *» »ole. "TV, 
9. S»a, 4 « Uv. dec. I*. 1 3. *> Uvnutur.ua. 




Causes of Mi loncliohj. [Part. 1 . Sec 3 

, exiled, run after his horse like n lackey, nnd would take no notice of him 
•"^us the common fashion of the world. So (hat such men as are poor may justly 
be discontent, melancholy, and complain of their present misery, and all may pray 
wiih * L Solomon, "Give me, O Lord, neither riches uor poverty; feed me with food 
convenient for me." 



SuBMi I. VII. — Ji heap of other Accidents causing Melancholy, Death of FncntU. 

Losses, fyc. 

In Dug liihyrinth of accidental causes, the farther I wander, the more intricate I 
find thr j ulta ambages, and new causes as so many by-paths otii-r them 

stives to be discussed : to search oui all, were an Herculean work, and (in- 
Thorns: I will follow mine intended thread; and point only at some lew of the 
duel 

Death of Friends.] Amongst which, loss and death of friends may challenge i 
first place, mttlti tristantur, as 9; Y'ivrs well observes, y>os/ dclicias,convivia,diCift4tM, 
many are melancholy after a feast, holiday, merry meeting, or some | -port, 

if they be solitary by chance, I < * 1 1 alone, to themselves, without empl'iyrneut. sport, 
or want their ordinary companions, some at the departure of friends only whom they 
shall shortly see again, weep and howl, and look alter them as a cow lows after hrr 
calf, or a child takes on that goes to school after holidays. Ut vf (eedndtel 
adventus, sic discessus ajflixit, (which **Tul!y writ to Alticus) thy coming was not 
so welcome to me, as thy departure was harsh. Montanus, consil. 132. makes men- 
tion of a country woman that parting with her friends and native place, hpcame 
grievously melancholy for many years; and Trallianus of another, so caused for 
the absence of her husband : which is an ordinary passion amongst our good wive* 
if their husband tarry out a day longer than his appointed hour 

they take on presently with lUml and tears, he is either robbed, or dead, 
chance or other is surely befallen him, they cannot eat, drink, sleep, or be quiet \a 
mind, nil they see him again. If parting of friends, absence alone can work >nrh 
violent effect*, what shall death do, when they must eternally be separate 
this world to meet again ? This is so grievous a torment for the time, that it tnLrs 
away their appetite, desire of life, extiiiguisheth all delights, it cause th deep sigh* 
and groans, tears, exclamations, 

("Odnli-f Ef'iin-n main*. 6 mucin mi-iia. 

'ii I. |M-Hli«*, A.C. 1 tm I- "• r.") m 

howling, roaring, many bitter pangs, "lamtlttis •jrmitutjue etfcmiltCO uhilatn Treta 
fremunt) and by frequent meditation extends so fnr sometimes, ""they think tliejr 
see their dead friends continually in their eyes," observantcs imagines, as Conciliator 
confesselh he saw his mother's ghost presenting herself still before him. tyc*** 
niwls miseri MZwtf, hoc facile credunt, still, still, still, that good father, thnt . 
son, that good wife, that dear friend runs in their minds: Totvs animus hac nod 
cogilutiimr drfurus est, all the year long, as ''I'lmy complains to Romanus, "uie- 
tlunks 1 see Virginius, I hear Virginius, I talk with Virginius, &.c." 

*■•■ TV «im\ vir <iii«irii tm hi, lilta nii;ra vinVntnr, 
Pallcni' Hma PBSP. ni-c ilulu- rufi.n* hyocimhui, 
Niilli". in i hi'iIm.. ate luu hi* tpfrat ixinrea." 

They that are most staid and patient, are so furiously carried headlong by the pi*" 
sion of sorrow in this case, that brave discreet men otherwise, oftentimes forget 
themselves, and weep like children many months together, '"as if that dies u> 
water would," and will not be comforted. They are gone, they are gone; wl» l 
shall I do? 

" At'stiilit nlr« diet el rimerc men it acrrbn, 
Qili* tin I'll in III' liryina»OiHk-ni mini TquiKalU* alto* 

A "I i |*«ilua, el aerr ho verba ilnlor i T 

KOi.kioi | i 1 1 itiimin frtngit 

l""i '...ru, n< r I'll- iii.s oi ill" mini iilere >1'H »lll», 
Magna a'lfd jaclura pecunt," ic. 



" Fountain of l«-ar» who aivra. «b" lrm]» mc jroan. 
Dt-eptiahi fufflcit-nl locipNM no aaa 
Mine eyea are <lry, my breast m mo .mm. 
My l.iss so great, I cannot enough 



w||" thai lialh SI pet annum cominc in more (hail l •• Epin lib. S VtrainitjIB vtian audio uvriinrtnmcflftM 
m him that Itoih lew. ami m a l*-tt>T man. allnqunr *>Cal|.l>urm<i. 

■' I)" .nmii.v ra|i. de mrrore. ■» I.ih. I ah! wretched me, lite linn- loai 
12. i|ii«t. ***Ob IWMt oflbaring; oil m/ verv IiIimmI ; roera hecmne pnl lid, the ■ . Waal 

oh I'ii.Iit flower, air," "Vir. 4. /F.n.' *» l'ntn» urn li.r Hi-- ni) tilt nur Ihe laurel ftlai.i. 

jaoriuiifcoruiiiaslanteaet filioa.Ax. MatcclhuDunatui. ' ' Chaurcr. 




Scha.7. 



Other Jlccidcnls and Grievance*. 



210 



4 tW, 

nana i 




u*. that elegant Italian poet, in his Epicedium, bewails his father's death, 
xtnderalr his passions in other mutters, ^as be confe&seth) but not in this, 

v lo sorrow, 

( me fatnw do ifrgu m»li», nif it* ill* fati 
>>iilit>nu»ii>lini rifof el cotittanlia MM 

How doth *Quiniili.in complain foi the loss of his eon, to despair almost: Cardan 
bmrnt his only fluid in his book dc libris propriis, and eiaan Inn in pan/ of his 
tract*. * St. Ambrose his brother's death ? an 

laekry-tir cogtiart J O «m«n' dit s, t>flebilt» noctes, Sfc. " Can I ' ver ci use to think 
•af time, and to think with sorrow ? O bitter days, O nights of sorrow.*' n.c. Gre- 
•..iii/i-ii, thai noble Puh-heria ! O deem- 
drr.ii man of most invincible courage, after Hephestioi] urims 

tnduum jacuit rtd iin>rinidum obttinahu, lay three days together upon the 
..iii', |o die wiili him, tad would neither eat. drink. B The 

that communed with 1 i. 2. cap. 10.) when her son (ell down dead, 

'flrd into the field, and would not return into the city, bul there resolved lo remain, 
Drone* to eat nor drink, but mourn and fast until the died." u Racharl irepl for her 
■ >nld not be comforted because they were not." Matt. ii. 1H. So did 
drain the emperor bewail In- \utinous; Hercules, Hylas; Orpheus, Eurydice; 
:n ; (O my dear son Absalom) Austin his mother Monica, Niobfl In r 
insomuch that the 'poets feigned her to be turned into a atone* as being 
tli rough the extremity of grief. * jEg( as, signo lugubri fiiii contternobu, 
itatcm r/. J/7, impatient of sorrow for his son's death, drowned 
n inns are full of such examples. Moritauus consU. 2 12. 'had 
I patient troubled with this infirmity, by reason of her husband's death, manv \ 
tojtL'. m svellius, /. I. c. 14. hath such another, almost in despair, after his 

'nvthrr's departure, ut se ftrme pracipilaltm darcl ; and ready through distraction 
to make away himself: and in his Fifteenth counsel* tells a story of one fifty years 

ipon lit-i mother's death;' 1 and cured by Fallopias, fell 
to I relapse* by the sudden death of a daughter which he had, 
I. The fury of this passion is so violent tone* 
it daunts whole kingdoms and cities. Vespasian's death was puifuUy 
all over the Roman empire, totus orbis lugrbal* snith Amelias Victor. 
umanded die hnlilements of houses to be pulled down. Daubs and 
to have their rnarus shorn nlf, and many common Boldiers to be slain, to 
npsny his dear Hep death; which is now practised amongst the Tar- 

tir», winfi 'a great Cham dieth* ten or twelve thousand must be slam, nun and 
sort' l ; and among those the ' Pagan Indians, their wives and servants 

■wuiiuinlv die wiili them. Leo Decimus was so much bewailed in Rome after his 
sspu - nut, K communit $alu$y publico lu/tiritas t the common 

•fov "fall (To. dip, peace, niirlh, and plenty died wilh him, lurnjimm eodett 

•p" I ■• ecnaita btgebantur: for it was a golden age whilst he lived, 

*Mt atW hi* dtft j att an iron season succeeded, barbara vis ctfttda rtTfffflTj >•/ dim 
nriimiM omnium inconurwda. wars, plagues, vastity, discontent. When AugV 
Caaar i1i«h1, »aith Paterrulus, orbis ruinam tunwramus, we were all afniid, as if hea- 
(abid Ullrii upon our heads. "Buds: us icconN, how that, at Lewis the Twelfth 
k» drath. tarn sulntn mutuho, til i/tu priw* digiU MtfctM ati dsAanfwJ** nunc 

kvw i serptre, si j that were erst in heaven* upon a 




'Cinruwif rariil«r* inltnii, hu froniiibu* ingciii 
B>lta di.l»l l»|-.i*' 



flay U>.Li r| like cropped trees. M At Nancy in Lorraine, when Claudia Valeeja, 
• cond French king's sister, and the duke's wife deceased, the temples for 



■a**** 



■ Lih. df rjiiiin Salyri fril'n. cjitt. »' Lib. *. Mia- rjn. . 
. rila rjiia. • Vnliili. iiialroim *il liumini c qmin ncx 

itn* uliitu pmicifiij rif- *-u, v. r»! SjfIMm MlCfi 



^ 



Um m fc-«nr»*»in»«uium*tilinn|u'*.4tc. w Vila . abcliaere jubel 



<fctaj 



220 



Causes of Melancholy. 



[Part. 1 . N*. 4 



fortv days were all shut up, no prayers nor masses, but in that room where shewu. 
The senators all seen in black, " and for a twelvemonth's space throughout the city, 
they were forbid to sing or dance." 



1 Men til ll pn«lna illis egre dk-bup 

bnpliue) bovca ad fltiminu, nulla ncc 

■a mb 

J.jbav ii tpiadntnea. n« gramiaia attigit her bam." 



'• The pwainp forgot their «heep. nor near lb* briot 
Of running water* brought Hint ln-M* l<> IrinX, 
The thirsty cattle, or thent»elve«, nhacained 
From water, and their f raaqr fare diadainVL" 



I" 



How were we atfected here in England for our Titus, delicto humani generis, Princ« 
Henry's immature death, as if all our dearest friends' lives had exhaled with hit? 
w Scauderbeg's death was not so much lamented in Epirus. In a word, as B he s&ith 
of Edward the First at the news of Edward of Caernarvon his son's birth, immor- 
Udttcr gaointS, he was immortally glad, may we say on the contrary of friends' 
deaths, immortal iter gementes, wc are diverse of us as so many turtles, eternally 
dejected with it. 

There is another sorrow, which arises from the loss of temporal goods and for- 
tunes, which equally affiicts, and may go hand in hand with the preceding; loss of 
time, Iocs of honour, office, of good name, of labour, frustrate hopes, will much 
torment; but in my judgment, there is no torture like unto it, or that sooner pro- 
eureth this malady and mischief: 

■'» Plnrsiui Inchrymip amista pectinia verip:" | " Lopt money ■■ bewailed with grief tlncere. 

it wrings true tears from our eyes, many sighs, much sorrow from our hearts, and 
often causes habitual melancholy itself, (juianerius tract, 15. 5, repeals tin.- lor an 
especial cause: '**' Loss of friends, and loss of goods, make many men ntelnncholy, 
as I have often seen by continual meditation of such things." The same causa 
Arnoldus Villanovanus inculcates, Brci'iar. I. I.e. 18. ex rerttm amisxionc, damno, 
amicorum morte, S,c. Want alone will make a man mad, to be Sana argent will 
cause a deep and grievous melancholy. Many persotiB are affected like * Irishmen 
in this behalf, who if they have a good scimitar, had rather have a blow on tlieir 
arm, than their weapon hurt : they will sooner lose their life, than their goods : aud 
the grief that comelh hence, conlinuelh long (faith "Plater) u and out of many dis- 
positions, procurelh an habit." K Montanus and Friseineltca cured a young man of 
22 years of age, that so became melancholy, ab amissam pecuniam, i«>r a sum of 
money which he had unhappily lost. Sckenkius hath such another story of one 
melancholy, because he overshot himself, and spent his stock in unnecessary build- 
ing. *■ Roger that rich bishop of Salisbury, exutus opibits et caslris u Regv Stephana, 
spoiled of his goods by king Stephen, m doloris absorptus, atque in amentium versa*, 
inrftt-t nttaftcit) through grief ran mad, spoke and did he knew not what. Nothing 
eo familiar, as for men in such eases, through anguish of mind to make awa 
Helves. A poor fellow went to hang himself, (which Ausonhis hath elegantly 
expressed in a neat "Epigram) but finding by chance a pot of money, thing away 
the rope, and went merrily home, but he that hid the gold, when he missed it, hanged 
himself with that rope which the other man had left, in a discontented humour. 

•' At M'li coniliilerat, piwtqumii non maw ll aurunt, 
Aplavit collu, quem repent Iniiueiiiii." 

Such fend accidents can want and penury produce. Be it by suretyship, shipwreck, 
fire, spoil and pillage of soldiers, or what loss soever, it boots not, it will « 
like eili ri. the same desolation in provinces and ritics*, as well as private persons. 
The Romans were miserably dejected alter the buttle of Canna?, the men amazed for 
fear, the stupid women tore their hair and cried. The Hungarians, when their king 
Ladislaus and bravest soldiers were slain by the Turks, Lucius publicum, t!yc. The 
Venetians when their forces were overcome by the French kinjr Lewis, the i 
apd Spanish kings, pope, emperor, all conspired against them, at Cnuibruy, i ie 1 reach 
herald denounced open war in the s'.nale: Latin,: I netonm dtu, tSr., mid ihcy 
had lost Padua, Biixia, Verona, Forum Jul ii, their territories in the continent, and 
had now nothing left, but the city of Venice itself, et ur/ii t/uouue ipsi t-aith ^ Befli- 
bus) timendum putarent, and the toss of that was likewise to be feared, tentmt 



i 

I 






>»Virr. *§•• Harleliuade vita el ob Stat. 
lib. 13. in. i. fatal Pwla BJntcMlto "Mulll I 
qui rip iiih.iiiim |ii-riinl< ■mm, ul fllina, one*, iwij pnemu. 

llwnperarv, propter auirluarn lalnim ttMMbjrauMieai 



Hi I "Cap, \ Mi him hulls .< nip. r \.-i 

ruin pecuniar, victoria, ripiil.aui, ileju 

i|fuhti» imi(ii pn*| tviiiporc ii 

I"'- ii- -it ii.ibitus. ■Cattail 



keiaiKlMlici Hunt, ut iu»e vi.Ii. »f •aiiiliunlup Mib. | »' Epjg. 4f. "Lib. ». Venet. hul 




7-1 



Other Accidents and Grievances. 



m 



tmuil. ut mtnquaniy nlias, «Sr., they were pitifully plunged, never before 
stress. Anno 1527, when Home was sacked by Burbonius, the 
.t« made such spoil, (but fair * churches were turned to stable*. oM 
lU and bc» horse-litter, or burned like straw ; relics, costly pi 

alur* deavnlhitadj rich hangings, carpets, Slc, trampled in the dn I 

••lieat daughters constuprated by every base cullion, as Sejanus 1 daughter 
hangman in public, before their fathers and husbands' faces. Nonlemi iTs 
rid of Uie wealthiest citizens, reserved for princes' beds, were prostitute to 
tad kept fot concabi .tors and cardinals Ihenu 

>s, and put to exquisite torments, to confess when 
it, murdered on heaps, lay stinking in the streets ; infants' 
their mothers' eyes. A lamentable sight it was to see so 
ho suddenly defaced, rich citizens sent a begging to Veni' 

ived in all manner of delights. ""Those proud palaces that 
ieir tops up to heaven, wen dejected as low as hell in an instant." 
tact] misery make discontent ? Terence the poet drowned himself 
say) for the loss of his comedies, which su tiered shipwreck. When a poor 
hath made many hungry meals, got together a small sum, which he losetli in 
matan if .-pent many an hour's study to no purpose, his labour- lost, 

lerwise be? 1 may conclude with Gregory, UmporaHum 
officii, cum karet possessio, tantum quiim siihtru/titur, uril dolor; 
not so much exhilarate us with their possession, as they torment us with 

to sorrow still 1 may annex such accidents as procure fear; for besides those 

! have •before touched, and many other fears (which are infinite) there 

i he three great causes of fear in Aristotle, commonly 

prodigies and dismal accidents, which much trouble many of us. (A' 

mini prcrsagit mali.) As if a hare cross the way at our going forth, or 

gnaw our il they bleed three drops at nose, the salt falls towards 

• black Fpot appear in their nails, i*c., with many such, winch Del 

sun Niphua in his book de Augur iis. Polygon 8. de 

Sarisbu- literal. /.I.e. I 9. discuss at large. They are so much 

strength of imagination, fear,and the devil's craft, ""they 

upon their own heads, and that which they fear, 

.is Solomon fortelleth, Pro?. .\. ~i. and baiaJi denoanceth, 

I neglect and contemn, would BOl CO to pass, hlorum 

morhi gravitas agrotantium cogilalionr, they are 

and remitted, as our opinion is fixed, more or less. N. IS. dn! panas, saith 

of such a one, uitnam non atlrufurct : he is punished, and is the MUM of it 

*D*m fata fagimus fata slulli incurrimu*, tiie thing that I feared, saith Job, is 
i ue. 

4 them that are troubled with their fortunes; or ill desli- 
>.« nngit prascientia malorum: The foreknowledge of what shall 
i, crucifies many men: foretold by astrologers, or 'rutum ob 

it ill accident, or death i: dls Ottl by QouH ponniM 

v saith (.'lirysostoni i Deux ideo permit! >l i. Sevcrus, 

■'ifyaa much, of whose fear and suspicion, Sueton, liero- 
thft rest of those writers, tell strange stories in ilns behalf. ^JVIonuinus 
hath one example of a young man, exceeding melancholy upon (hit I 

fears have still tormented mortal men m ill ftgMj by reason of thoso 
e*. and juggling priests. * There was a fountain in Greece, near C 

be event of such diseases was to be known; U A glass let 

lata, •flmitt. in ttibiila i diMiii. dcflinifi farvlnld, ■ Aocwroiint mIm ni'iliiin. 

..nvr , nihil valenl Polidni ' UimQ. 

«. I 4 » ll.nii »n|. 1 "li".' Ilirh*. 

I '•' Junius xilKlllli i!>' I 
■»lu U«lu tnlc liriia * Pa 

■ ■ - • »• 'i I eveiitut fUfOOBUm 

.iu* umjuo /i«7.»» '. / cu/u deiniltunl : el id C)»u«a» |KUU n.ii V-itm tu>^«» 

i Hutm J (eti (turn muiuuu* tcti- I Ac, 

T'i 



222 



wholy. 




Pari. l.SecJ. 



down by a thread, &.c." Amongst those Cyanean rocks at the springs of Lycia, wm 
the oracle of Thrixeus Apollo, u where all fortunes were foretold, sickness, health, 
or wli3t they would besides :" so common people have been always deluded with 
future events. At this day, JWe/us fttturorum maxime torquet Sinas, this foolish few, 
mightily crucifies tea in China: as "Matthew Hiccius the Jesuit informeth us, iu 
his commentaries of those countries, of all nations they are most superstitious, and 
much tormented in this kind, attributing so much to their divinators, ut i 
fid rm. fmirii, that fear it-self and conceit, cause it to te fall out: if he f ckossj 

such a day, that verv tinie they will be sick, vi mtths ajflicti in a-gritudiwm cadun!; 
and nianv times. ( ] u . a.s it is foretold. A true saying, Timor mortis, mortc pt'jor,\la 
fear of death is worse than death itself, and the memory of that aid hour, to some 
flntHWtu and rich men, u is as bitterns gall, 1 ' EccL xli. 1. Inquietam nobis viim 
facii mortis metus, a worse plague cannot happen to a man, than to be so troubled 
in his mind; 'tis triste dicortium, a heavy separation, to leave their good*) with »o 
much labour got, pleasures of the world, which they have so delieiously enjoyed, 
friends ami companions whom they BO dearly loved, all at once. Axicchus the phi- 
losopher was bold and courageous all his life, and gave good precepts tie contrmnmd* 
morte, and against the vanity of the world, to others ; but being mow ready 
hiinsi'll', he was mightily dejected, hdc luce privabor? his arbabor bonis?* he 
lamented like a child, &.e. And though Socrates himself was there to comfort him, 
ubi pristinn virhttum jactatio O .i.rutclief "where is all your boasted virtue now, 
my friend ?" yet he was very timorous and impatient of death, much troubled ui lus 
mind, Imbellis pavor cl imputirntia, 6fC. w O Clolho," Megapctus the t 
liUi'ian exclaims, now ready to depart, * lei me live awhile longer. W I will give 
thee a thousand talents of gold, and two bolts la sides, which I took from Cl 
worth t hundred talents apiece." "Woe's me," "saith another, u what goodly manors 
shall 1 leave! what fertile fields! what a fine house! what pretty children ! Imw 
many servants! who shall gather my grapes, my corn? Must I now die so f|| 
settled ? Leave nil, so richly and well provided ? Woe's me, what shall 1 do?" 
u jlnim]il(i BOguttbf blanditfa, qua nunc abibis in locaf 

To these tortures of fear and sorrow, may well be annexed curiosity, that irksome, 
that tyrannising care, nimia toUcitudO) **** sopeffluooa industry about unprofitable 
things, and ihnr qualities," as Thomas defines it; an ilching humour or a kind oi 
louring to see that which is not io be seen, to do that which ought not to he 
to know that "secret which should not be known, to eat of the forbidden fruit. 
We commonly molest and tire ourselves about things unfit and unnecessary, tt 
Martha troubled herself to little purpose, lie il in religion, humanity, magic, 
sophy, policy, any action or study, 'tis a needless trouble, a mere torment. For whit 
else is school divinity, how many doth it puzzle ? what fruitless questions about the 
Trinity, n surreclion, election, predestination, reprobation, hell-fire, &.c, how many 
shall be saved, damned ? Whul else is all superstition, but an endless observation 
of idle ceremonies, traditions ? What is most of our philosophy hut a labyrn; 
opinions, idle questions, p r op o eit ioas, metaphysical terms? Socrates, therefore, beid 
all philosophers, cavillers, end mad men, circa subtt/iu CavMaton '.■>' /.r<> inswu* 
liabuit, pawn cos grgucus, sniih "Ensrbius, because they commonly sought afttf 
such things qua nee perctpi a noses neque comprc fundi posset, or put case they Jul 
uiideixmid, yet itiey were altogether unprofitable. For what matter is it f»r us to 
know how high the Pleiades are, how fur distant Perseus and Gueiopee from lit, 
how deep the sea, &c, we are neither wiser, as he follows it, nor mot 
belter, nor richer, nor stronger for die knowledge of it. Quod su]>ra mot nihil ai 
noa, I may say the same of those geuethliacal studies, what is astrology but vain 
elections, predictions? till magic, but a troublesome error, a pernicious fopj 
physic, hut intricate rules and prescriptions ? philology, bill vain critui-i 

needless sophisms? metaphysics ih erosoW es, but intricate subtUties, and Entitle 

abstractions.' alchemy, but a bundle of errors? to what end are such grea! 

• K.\|»-iin. In Bin**, Htli I. c. & "Tiincnrtn pio-or- I t«l<nia.n» j lnulir iibidaturuiri i • ihni^ 

■pal, l , l i il viim ultra provaeaique quoit fugil. gau- Hei iwihi <iuw rclinquprida praxliar 17 

Sltou «ri m rt iiilwnn nnwr fun. I!»hi-i>ik Ao«lrior, | *t.r. «i Adrian. «• Inrlmlria »u|h n: 3 nrr» rr« 1* 

"•"MM I !«• <li|irnrd i.f linn |ifr,— of lhi~- [»■»»«•«• hint. « Flat* «w.rt>ln Mnn-rn- ill 
ft* *Tom 1. dial SCilaplo. Auri pun mill? | V*. Met. 8. "Contra I'luloa. ca(.. Cl. 






Other Accidents and Grievances. 



223 




do we spend so many years in their studies ? Much better to know nothing at 
'*« harbor ma are wholly ignorant, than as some of us, in be so 

led about Unprofitable toys: slidlus labor rat in> pttnrum*, to build a house 
<uake a rope of sand, to what end ? cui bono* He studies on, but as 
-tin. when I have laved the sea dry, thou shah understand the 
uity. lie makes observations, keep-, lime* and seasons; and as 
■■ ror would not touch his new bride, till an astrologer had told 
. Iiour, bul with what success? He travels into Europe, Africa, Asia, 
every creek, sea, city, mountain, gulf, to what end ? See one promontory 
itee «>f i. p.miain, one sea, one river, and sec all. An alchemist 

- to tiiii] out the philosopher's stone forsooth, cure all diseases, 
u long-lived, victorious, fortunate, invisible, and beggars himself, misled by 
bich he shall never attain ) to make gold; an antiquary 
asure and time to scrape up a company of old corns, statues, rules, 
he must know what was done of old in Athens, Home, 
ring, diet, houses ihey had, and have all the present news at first, thcNsgJi 
ite, before all others, what projects, counsels, consultations, fitc, quid 
Jaw m aurem insuxurrrt JmL, what's now decreed in France, what in Italy : who 
*w he. w he, which way, whither goes he, &c. Arisioile must timi 

wst i of Euripus; Pliny must needs see Vesuvius, but how sped t 

Owloaeth goods, another his life; Pyrrhus will conquer Africa first, and then Asia: 
ill be a sole monarch, a second immortal, a third rich; a fourth commands. 
'Twbime magna spes tohc.it a in urbtbux errant; we run, ride, take indefatigable 

Pnp early, down late, Striving to get that Which we hail belter be wiih. nit. 
M we are) it were much fitter for us to be quit i, sn Mill, and 
case. His solo study is for words, that they be LtfMm IftMU com- 
\ctterula omnes, not a syllable misplaced, to set out a strann feci : 

■ mi apparel, to follow the fashion, to be tense and polite, 'tis thy sole 
fowinnw. both with like profit. His only delight is building, he spends himself to 
gn curious pictures, intricate models and plots, another is wholly ceremonious abuul 
inscriptions: a third is over-solicitous about his diet, ha must have 
exquisite sauces, meat so dressed, so far-fetched, fengrim tuvil 9ohh 
■iiit -thing to provoke thirst, something anon to quench his 
• deems his appetite with extraordinary charge to his purse, is sel- 
wiih any meal, whilst a trivial stomach useth all with delight and is 
d. Another WUA hftVt roses in winter, nlnni temporis jiorrs, snow- 
thev can be or are usually ripe, artificial gardens and 
,.• tops of hootet, all things opposite to die vulgar sort, intricate and 
»e tiiey an north. So busy, nice, curious wits, make that msup- 

1. 1-- . ai lions, employments, which to duller apprehensions 
live, earw .mg that which others so scornfully neglect. Thus 

: curiosity do we macerate ourselves, tire our souls, and run head- 
our In discr etion, perverse wUl, and want of government, into many 
Madles* cares, and troubles, vain expenses, tedious journeys, painful hours; and 
ml t- done, (juursum kwcf cui bonof to what end ? 

«" \evirp Telle qua- Mnei»lT ma limtn 
Oocere noo rail, erudun inaciu . 

' mate mnrrirtgr.} Amongst these pai ■! irksome accidents, unfortn- 

niarriage may be ranked : a condition of life appointed by God himself in Para- 
ge and happy estate, and as great a felicity as can befidl a man in 
rid, ° if the parlies can n^ree as they OUght, and live a- I with 

nequally matched, or at discord, a great- • annot 

• have a scold, a slut, a harlot, a fool, a fury or a fiend, there can be 
Eecles. xxvi. 14, u lie that hath her is as if he held a scorpion, 
I wife makes a sorry countenance, ■ irt, and he hail 

h such a wife."' Her " properties 'ovianus 







"Ri-nera. • Jo*. fV»M t rr id I »>"A virimnM woman I* lh«? crown of Iter httaba 

• t«,r> ■ know- 1 froT. >n ■ "U*. i; -v>»v. vii, 

• W;vud"«f iuUj. u pulauiic ffJMIMM," J " TiUuualur, ui. -tUbruiul, k*. 



»24 



Causes of Melancholy, 



[Part. 1. See.L 



Pontanus hath described at lame, .in', dial. Tom. 2, under the name of Eupb< 
Or if they be not equal in years, the like mischief happens. Cecilius in AgtUm 
lib. 'I. cap. 23, complains much of an old wife, rfitm tjus morli inhio* fgomrt mortuiu 
vivo mil r vivux, whilst I gape after her death, I live a dead man amongst the living, 
or if they dislike upon any occasion, 




J.i. Is- whii thar are unfortunately wed 
W.i ,i lis lo runic into a loathed bed." 



" llar.l hearted parents bntrt lament my Hue, 
If self I kill Of tianf, to ease my stole." 






The same inconvenience befals women. 

■ "At vns 6 duri iniv.-rain Jugate parenles, 

Si f. rro aul la^ueo leva tint me eisulvero aorta 
Bualineo :" 

w A young gentlewoman in Basil was married, saith Felix Plater, obscrvat. /.I, to an 
ancient man against her will, whom she could not affect; she was continually melan- 
choly, and pined away for grief; and though her husband did all he could po 
to give her content) in a discontented humour at length she hanged herself. Many 
other stories he relates in this kind. Thus men are plagued with women; they again 
with men, when they eve of divers humours ami conditions ; he a spendthrift, she 
sparing; one honest, the other dishonest, 8tc. Parents many times disquiet their 
children, and they their parents. ""A foolish son is an heaviness to his mo 
Injusla novcrca : a stepmother often vexeth a whole family, is matter of repentance, 
exercise of patience, fuel of dissension, which made Calo's boh expostulate widi hit 
lather, why he should offer to marry his client Solinius' daughter, a young wench, 
Cujus causa novcrcarn inductrcl ; what oflence had he done, that he should many 
again? 

Unkind, unnatural friends, evil neighbours, bad servants, debts and debates, fcfc, 
'twas Chiton's sentence, conns urii aUeni et litis est mistruL, misery and usury d? 
commonly together; suretyship is the bane of many families, Sponde, prasto noia 
est: "he shall be sore vexed that is surety for a stranger," Prov. xi. 15, "and h 
hateth suretyship is sure." Contention, brawling, lawsuits, fulling out of neighbour! 

and friends. ■ — *disc<>rdin demons ( Virg. j£n. H,) are equal to the 6j 

a man, and vex his soul. Nihil sane miaerabilius eorum mentibus, (as w Botcr holds) 
" nothing so miserable as inch men, full of cares, griefs, anxieties, as if they were 
stabbed with a sharp sword, fear, suspicion, desperation, sorrow, are their ordinary 
Companions.^ Out Welshmen are noted by some of their "own writer 
suttie one: another in ibis kind; hut whosoever lliry are that use it, thi M 
common symptoms, especially if they be convict or overcome, **ca«t in a smt 
Arius put out of a bishopric by Eustathius, turned heretic, and lived after discon- 
tented all his life. M Every repulse is of like nalure ; hru quanta dr sjir decidi f D»» 
grace, infamy, detraction, will almost effect as much, and that a long time after, 
liipponax, ■ satirical poet, so viliiied and lashed two painters m his iambics, vt ambo 
taqueo sc sujfocan nl, u ' Pliny saiih, both hanged themselves. All oppositions, dan- 
gers, perplexities, discontents, 61 to live in any suspense, are of the same rank: poltl 
hoc sub coxa ilucin: BOHtUtf Who can be secure in such cases ? 111-bcstowed bene- 
fits, ingratitude, unthankful friends, much disquiet and molest some. Unkind speech* 
trouble as many; uncivil carriage or dogged answers, weak women sbovi 
if they proceed from their surly husbands, areas bitter as gall, and not to be dig 
A glassmati's wife in Basil became melancholy because her husband said he would 
marry again if she died. "No cut to unkindncss," as the saying is, a frown and 
hard speech, ill respect, a brow-beating, or bad look, especially to courtiers. Of such 
as attend upon great persons, is present death: Ingcnium vulhi slalauc cadituw mo, 
they ebb and flow with their masters' favours. Some persons are at their w it>" 
if by chance they overshoot themselves, in their ordiuury speeches, or actions, which 
may after turn to their disadvantage or disgrace, or have any secret disclosed. II 
tpist. miser I. 2, reports of a gentlewoman 25 years old, that falling foul with one of 






a> Daniel in Rosamund. aThalinnnt* l«h. 1*. rfe 

Angl. M Kli-gari* sirgn in vita ouldam I mm- 

irmilmr- hupsit, fcr.. »Pnu. M Op i ncri'to. 

nrli lib. :i. c. 3. Mitnuam dirti murrnne SmJbaaS, his 
iiulln n-i|nif« nulla il< HfTalio, soliciluijiur, p.'inil.i. 
furore, daaparntluaa, union-. luiniiMiii nd p>-r|>ctuarii 
■ ruiiinam inlvln iiir tapli ■ lliitnfredu* Muyil 

ad Abtaiiauiuui UrleUum. M. Vauglian in htm 




fl..ljt-n Fleece, t.itihus et eontroverails u 

mum kMtornra cprifiiin|iliinitiii ovnlendiint. 

tntiie injuria (atom. . a *Quiti|ur repul&a frar 

•" I.iIj :i. c 5. "'Nihil «<|up aiiiaiijm, .ins 

panders: «)ui.lnm aMjuior^ ammo frtunl 

■nan <|-inni train. S<-'ieri tap. 3. lib. 2. de I 

etmarobacrval. lib. J 




Sube.7. 



Olhtr Accidents and Grievances. 



225 



upbraided with a secret infirmity (no matter what) in public, and 

grieved witb it, that nlie did thanopan tttRhtdlwtSi qu<rrtrc, omnes ab *e 

*, me tanxUtn in grmistimam t» <tnctudiam, eontabcsccre, forsake all 

'i' moped, and in a melancholy humour pine away. Others are as much 

to see themselves rejected, contemned, scorned, disabled, defamed, detracted, 

or ""left behind their fellows." Lucian brings in ^Etamacles, a philiv 

bis LapUh. conpivioy much discontented that he was not invited amongst 

expostulating the matter, in a long epistle, with Aristcnetus their host. 

• robed gentleman in Plutarch, would not sit down at a feast, because 

it not sit highest, but went his ways all in a chafe. We see die common 

•it are ordinary with us, for taking of the wall, precedency, and the 

though toys in themselves, and things of no moment, yet they cause 

ipers, much heart-burning amongst us. Nothing piercelh deeper than a 

••grace, "especially if they be generous spirits, scarce anything atli-cts 

re than to be despised or vilified. Crato, consil. 10, /. 2, exemplifies it, and 

experience confirms it. Of the same nature is oppression, Ecclus. 77. 

ipprcssiou makes a man mad," loss of liberty, which made Brutus venture 

kill himself, and **TuIly complain, Omneni hilarUaltm in pcrpetuum 

■ heart's broken, 1 shall never look up, or be merry again, ■ htec jactura 

ru6i/u, to some parlies His a most intolerable loss. Banishment a great mi.- 

describes it in an epigram of his, 



It* pal ha amiMa. larlbiiMiue »aeari 
um »l draidi rnce rneire cibnt: 

m.ironqnr »rcr»»rr»t . i il 
r r'«i *r«aar aanetaa af«a«qu« Jactt." Ac. 



■ A miwrnbk Ihine. 1I« »o 10 wander. 

Anil like a beeear for 10 whim- at door, 
CmitemnM of all the world, an rnl«' i«. 
HaM. rrjKtrd, needy Hill and poor." 

in his conference with Jocasta in "Euripides, reckons up five miseries of 

man, the least of which alone were enough to deject some pusillanimous 

Oftentimes a too great feeling of our own infirmities or imperfections of 

mind, will shrivel uxup; as if we be long sick : 

' I«iu lamla*. le nnrwrnie, anirnum 
Vrr rlonl groin., iib.<|»i- le MSM bcalua:" 

health ! "'thou art ahovc all gold and treasure," Ecclus. xxx. 15, the poor 
the rich man's bliss, without thee there can be no happiness: or • 

■ me disease, offensive to others, or troublesome to ourselves ; as a 

'i. deformity d our limits, crookedness, loss of an eye, leg, hand, pale- 

rt-dness, baldness, loss or want of hair. fc.c, luc ubi flu diros 

rt, saith "Sj nesius, he himself troubled not a little ob coma drfeclum, 

. . .strikes a cruel stroke to the heart. Acco, an old w 

. fiance her lace in a true glass (for she used false flattering glasses belike at 

«, as most gentlewomen do.) animi dolorc in insaniam d> lapsa est, i Cadi us 

17, ran mad. B Brotheus, ihe Bon of Vulcan, because he was 

his imperfections, flung himself into the fire. Lais of Corinth, now 

gave up her glass to Venus, for she could not abide to look upon it. 

m */>/'», qualis tram neqwo. Generally to fair nice pieces, old age and 

fees are two most odious things, a torment of torments, they may not abide 



, mitinm Inter errrin 



I m«Ui. Irarrrijiie •urrui 
prxd*. epwif qucrro 



' Hear me. w»m» craeioat heavenly power. 
Let lion* dire ilm naked cor»« devour. 
My chcki ere hollow wrinkle* aeixo, 

i heir m«y til.wim deeayi : 
Wliil.- youth yel r«ll» iU viul flood. 
Let lifers friendly not in my blood " 



tgly v and deformed, much better be buried alive. Some are fair but 
i end that galls them. M Hannah wept sore, did not eat, and was troul 

all for her barrenness," 1 Sam. I, and Gen. 30. Rachel said " in the 

hrr soul, give me a child, or I shall die :" another hath too many . one 

Utd that's his hell, another is, and that's his plague. Some are 

that they are obscure ; others by being traduced, slandered, abused, dis- 

►»,.«.- H ' "S-ii eniro eerie- | epi»i lih. 13. •Epnt. td Rrutuin. ■ In Pruenia* 

if moreri, aut eraviu* nftVi " In landeni calm. •> Ovid. •» £ Cr> ' 
■■ a* aaa inm nii* . Allictiin | Car. Lib- 3- Ode. tl 



Ba of Melancholy. 



[Part 1. 



graced, vilified, or any way injured : minimi miror tos (aa he said) qui insanif 
jiiirnt ex injuria, I marvel not at all if offences make men mad. Seventeen particular 
causes of anger and offence Aristotle reckons them up, which for brevity's sake 1 
must omit. No tidings troubles one ; ill reports, rumours, had tidings or news, hard 
hap, ill success, cast in a suit, vain hopes, or hope deferred, another : expectation, 
adro omnibus in rebus molesla semper est erpectatio, aa " Polybiua observes ; one i* 
too eminent, another loo base born, and that alone '.orlures him as much as the rest: 
one is out of action, company, employment ; another overcome and tormented with 
Worldly cares, and onerous business. But what "tongue can suffice to speak of ailr 
Many men catch this malady by eating certain meats, herbs, roots, at unawares; 
as henbane, nightshade, cicuia, mandrakes, Stc. 7J A company of young men at 
Agrigentfun in .Sicily, came into a tavern; where after they had freely taken their 
liquor, whether it were the wine itself, or something mixed with it 'tis not yet known, 
74 but upon a sudden they began to be so troubled in their brains, and their phantasy 
go orated, that they thought they were in a ship at sea, and now ready to be cast 
away by reason of a tempest. Wherefore to avoid shipwreck and present drowning, 
they flung all the goods in the house out at tbe windows into the street, or into the 
pea, as they supposed; thus they continued mad a pretty season, and being bro 
before the magistrate to give an account of this their fact, they told him (not yet 
recovered of their madness) that what was done they did for fear of death, and to 
avoid imminent danger: the spectators were all amazed at this their stupidity, and 
grazed on them slill, whilst one of the ancientest of the company, in a grave tew-, 
excused himself to the magistrate upon his knees, O viri Tritones y ego in imojactu. 
I beseech your deities, &.c. for I was in the bottom of die ship atl the while : another 
besought them as so many sea gods to be good unto them, and if ever he and his 
fellows came to land again, 75 he would build an altar to their service. The magis- 
trate could not suilicienily laugh at this their madness, bid them sleep it out, and so 
went his ways. Many such accidents frequently happen, upon these unknown oeei- 
sions. Some are so caused by philters, wandering